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CHAPTER FOUR

Job Analysis and Rewards


Screen graphics created by: Jana F. Kuzmicki, PhD Troy State University-Florida and Western Region
McGraw-Hill/Irwin

2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved.

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Types of Jobs

Traditional

Team-Based

Exh. 4.1: Terminology Commonly Used in Describing Jobs

Classification of teams
Staffing implications

Evolving

Extent to which a team member performs one job vs. multiple jobs Degree of task interdependence among team members

Flexible Idiosyncratic

Telework

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Job Requirements Job Analysis: Overview


Definition Process of studying jobs to gather, analyze, synthesize, and report information about job requirements Two major forms

Job requirements

Specific KSAOs for the job General KSAOs for all applicants

Competency based

Has different degrees of relevance to staffing activities Support activity for staffing activities Provides foundation for successful staffing systems

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Job Requirements Job Analysis


Overview
Exh.

4.3: Job Requirements Approach to JA

Job
Job

requirements matrix
descriptions and job specifications job requirements information

Collecting

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Exh. 4.3: Job Requirements Approach to Job Analysis

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Job Requirements Matrix


Exh.

4.3: Portion of Job Requirements Matrix for Job of Administrative Assistant statements dimensions of tasks / dimensions

Task Task

Importance KSAOs KSAO Job

importance

context

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Task Statements
Definition

Objectively

written descriptions of behaviors or work activities engaged in by employees to perform job

Exh.

4.4: Use of Sentence Analysis Technique for Task Statements

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Exh. 4.5: Use of Sentence Analysis Technique for Task Statements

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Characteristics of Task Statements


Requirements: Task Statements

Suggestions: Effectively Writing Task Statements

What employee does, using a specific verb at start of statement


To whom or what employee does what he/she does What is produced, indicating expected output What materials, tools, procedures, or equipment used

Use specific action verbs, having only one meaning Focus on recording tasks, not elements (15-25) Do not include trivial activities Ensure list of tasks is content valid and reliable Analysts should include manager and an incumbent Accuracy of statements cannot be evaluated against external criterion

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Task Dimensions

Definition
Involves

grouping sets of task statements into dimensions, attaching a name to each dimension Other terms -- duties, accountability areas, responsibilities, and performance dimensions

Characteristics
Creation

is optional Many different grouping procedures exist


Guideline

- 4 to 8 dimensions

Grouping

procedure should be acceptable to organizational members Empirical validation against external criterion is not possible

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Importance of Tasks/Dimensions
Involves an objective assessment of importance Two decisions

Decide

on attribute to be assessed in terms of importance Decide whether attribute will be measured in categorical or continuous terms

Exh. 4.5: Examples of Ways to Assess Task/Dimension Importance


Relative

time spent Percentage (%) time spent Importance to overall performance Need for new employee training

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KSAOs

What are KSAOs?


Knowledge

- Exh. 4.6: Knowledges Contained in

O*NET Skill - Exh. 4.7: Skills Contained in O*NET Ability - Exh. 4.8: Abilities Contained in O*NET Other Characteristics - Exh. 4.9: Examples of Other Job Requirements

KSAO importance
Exh.

4.10: Examples of Ways to Assess KSAO Importance 4.11: Job Context Contained in O*NET

Job context
Exh.

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Job Descriptions and Job Specifications

Job description
Describes

tasks, task dimensions, importance of tasks / dimensions, and job context Includes
Job

family, job title, job summary Task statements and dimensions Importance indicators Job context indicators Date conducted

Job specifications
Describes

KSAOs

Exh. 4.12: Example of Combined Job Description / Specification

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Collecting Job Requirements Information

Methods

Sources

to be used

Job

analysis process

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Collecting Job Requirements Information: Methods


Prior

information

Observation
Interviews

Questionnaire
Combined Criteria
Exh.

methods

for choice of methods

4.13: Criteria for Guiding Choice of JA Methods

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Collecting Job Requirements Information: Sources


Job Job

analyst incumbents

Supervisors
SMEs Combined

sources

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Collecting Job Requirements Information: JA Process


Purpose

Scope Internal staff or consultant - See Exh. 4.14 Organization and coordination Communication Work flow and time frame Analysis, synthesis, and documentation Maintenance of system Example of JA process - See Exh. 4.15

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Competency-Based Job Analysis


Nature

of competencies
example usage

Competency

Organization

Collecting

competency information

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What is a Competency?
Definition
An

underlying characteristic of an individual contributing to


Job

or role performance and Organizational success


Similarities

to KSAOs Differences between competencies and KSAOs


May

contribute to success on multiple jobs Contribute not only to job performance but also to organizational success

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Exh. 4.16: Examples of Competencies

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Organization Usage

Organizations are experimenting with


Developing Using

competencies and competency models and

them as underpinnings of several HR applications

Three strategic HR reasons for doing competency modeling


Create

awareness and understanding of need for change in business

Enhance

skill levels of workforce Improve teamwork and coordination

Emphasis -- Establishing general competencies

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Collecting Competency Information


Techniques and processes are in their infancy

General competencies at the organizational /strategic level are established by top management
Guidelines for establishing general competency requirements
Organization

must establish its mission and goals prior to determining competency requirements

Should
Should

be important at all job levels


have specific, behavioral definitions, not just

labels

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Job Rewards

Exh. 4.17Extrinsic rewards

Direct compensation: base pay and variable pay


Indirect compensation: benefits

Hours of work
Career advancement

Job security

Exh. 4.18Intrinsic rewards

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Job Rewards: Collecting Information


Within

the organization
with employees
with employees

Interviews
Surveys

Outside

the organization
survey practices

SHRM

Organizational

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Legal Issues
Job

relatedness and court cases

Recommendations

-- Establishing job-related nature of staffing practices

Essential
What

job functions
of essential functions - P. 190

are essential functions? P. 190

Evidence Role

of job analysis - See Exh. 4.23

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Recommendations: Establishing Job-Related Nature of Staffing Practices

Job analysis must be performed and must be for the job for which the selection instrument is to be utilized Analysis of job should be in writing Job analysis should describe in detail the procedure used Job data should be collected from a variety of current sources by knowledgeable job analysts Sample size should be large and representative of jobs for which selection instrument is used Tasks, duties, and activities should be included in analysis Most important tasks should be represented in selection devise Competency levels of job performance for entry-level jobs should be specified Knowledge, skills, and abilities should be specified, particularly if content validation model is followed

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Ethical Issues

Issue 1

It has been suggested that ethical conduct be formally incorporated as a general competency requirement for any job within the organization. Discuss the pros and cons of this suggestion.

Issue 2

Assume you are assisting in the conduct of job analysis as an HR department representative. You have encountered several managers who want to delete certain tasks and KSAOs from the formal job description having to do with employee safety, even though they clearly are job requirements. How should you handle this situation?