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Job Analysis and Rewards
Screen graphics created by: Jana F. Kuzmicki, PhD Troy State University-Florida and Western Region

© 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved.


Types of Jobs



Exh. 4.1: Terminology Commonly Used in Describing Jobs

Classification of teams
Staffing implications


Extent to which a team member performs one job vs. multiple jobs Degree of task interdependence among team members

Flexible Idiosyncratic


4-3 Job Requirements Job Analysis: Overview Definition  Process of studying jobs to gather. synthesize. and report information about job requirements  Two major forms    Job requirements   Specific KSAOs for the job General KSAOs for all applicants Competency based Has different degrees of relevance to staffing activities  Support activity for staffing activities  Provides foundation for successful staffing systems  . analyze.

4.3: Job Requirements Approach to JA  Job  Job requirements matrix descriptions and job specifications job requirements information  Collecting .4-4 Job Requirements Job Analysis  Overview  Exh.

3: Job Requirements Approach to Job Analysis . 4.4-5 Exh.

4-6 Job Requirements Matrix  Exh. 4.3: Portion of Job Requirements Matrix for Job of Administrative Assistant statements dimensions of tasks / dimensions  Task  Task  Importance  KSAOs  KSAO  Job importance context .

4: Use of Sentence Analysis Technique for Task Statements . 4.4-7 Task Statements  Definition  Objectively written descriptions of behaviors or work activities engaged in by employees to perform job  Exh.

4.4-8 Exh.5: Use of Sentence Analysis Technique for Task Statements .

using a specific verb at start of statement To whom or what employee does what he/she does What is produced. or equipment used    Use specific action verbs. procedures. indicating expected output What materials. not elements (15-25) Do not include trivial activities Ensure list of tasks is content valid and reliable Analysts should include manager and an incumbent Accuracy of statements cannot be evaluated against external criterion . having only one meaning Focus on recording tasks.4-9 Characteristics of Task Statements Requirements: Task Statements  Suggestions: Effectively Writing Task Statements       What employee does. tools.

” and “performance dimensions”  Characteristics  Creation is optional  Many different grouping procedures exist  Guideline .4 to 8 dimensions  Grouping procedure should be acceptable to organizational members  Empirical validation against external criterion is not possible .” “responsibilities.” “accountability areas.“duties. attaching a name to each dimension  Other terms -.4-10 Task Dimensions  Definition  Involves grouping sets of task statements into dimensions.

4-11 Importance of Tasks/Dimensions Involves an objective assessment of importance  Two decisions   Decide on attribute to be assessed in terms of importance  Decide whether attribute will be measured in categorical or continuous terms  Exh.5: Examples of Ways to Assess Task/Dimension Importance  Relative time spent  Percentage (%) time spent  Importance to overall performance  Need for new employee training . 4.

Exh.Exh.9: Examples of Other Job Requirements  KSAO importance  Exh. 4.8: Abilities Contained in O*NET  Other Characteristics .7: Skills Contained in O*NET  Ability . 4.10: Examples of Ways to Assess KSAO Importance 4.Exh. 4.Exh. 4. 4. .4-12 KSAOs  What are KSAOs?  Knowledge .6: Knowledges Contained in O*NET  Skill .11: Job Context Contained in O*NET  Job context  Exh.

4-13 Job Descriptions and Job Specifications  Job description  Describes tasks. and job context  Includes  Job family. 4. job title. task dimensions.12: Example of Combined Job Description / Specification . job summary  Task statements and dimensions  Importance indicators  Job context indicators  Date conducted   Job specifications  Describes KSAOs Exh. importance of tasks / dimensions.

4-14 Collecting Job Requirements Information  Methods  Sources to be used  Job analysis process .

13: Criteria for Guiding Choice of JA Methods . methods for choice of methods 4.4-15 Collecting Job Requirements Information: Methods  Prior information  Observation  Interviews  Questionnaire  Combined  Criteria  Exh.

4-16 Collecting Job Requirements Information: Sources  Job  Job analyst incumbents  Supervisors  SMEs  Combined sources .

14  Organization and coordination  Communication  Work flow and time frame  Analysis. 4.15 . synthesis.4-17 Collecting Job Requirements Information: JA Process   Purpose Scope  Internal staff or consultant .See Exh. 4.See Exh. and documentation  Maintenance of system  Example of JA process .

4-18 Competency-Based Job Analysis  Nature of competencies example usage  Competency  Organization  Collecting competency information .

4-19 What is a Competency?  Definition  An underlying characteristic of an individual contributing to  Job or role performance and  Organizational success  Similarities to KSAOs  Differences between competencies and KSAOs  May contribute to success on multiple jobs  Contribute not only to job performance but also to organizational success .

16: Examples of Competencies .4-20 Exh. 4.

Establishing general competencies .4-21 Organization Usage  Organizations are experimenting with  Developing  Using competencies and competency models and them as underpinnings of several HR applications  Three strategic HR reasons for doing competency modeling  Create awareness and understanding of need for change in business  Enhance skill levels of workforce  Improve teamwork and coordination  Emphasis -.

not just labels .4-22 Collecting Competency Information   Techniques and processes are in their infancy General competencies at the organizational /strategic level are established by top management Guidelines for establishing general competency requirements  Organization  must establish its mission and goals prior to determining competency requirements  Should  Should be important at all job levels have specific. behavioral definitions.

17—Extrinsic rewards   Direct compensation: base pay and variable pay Indirect compensation: benefits   Hours of work Career advancement  Job security  Exh.18—Intrinsic rewards . 4. 4.4-23 Job Rewards  Exh.

4-24 Job Rewards: Collecting Information  Within the organization with employees with employees  Interviews  Surveys  Outside the organization survey practices  SHRM  Organizational .

See Exh. 190 are essential functions? P. 4.4-25 Legal Issues  Job relatedness and court cases  Recommendations -.Establishing job-related nature of staffing practices  Essential  What job functions of essential functions . 190  Evidence  Role of job analysis .23 .P.

particularly if content validation model is followed . and activities should be included in analysis Most important tasks should be represented in selection devise Competency levels of job performance for entry-level jobs should be specified Knowledge. and abilities should be specified.4-26 Recommendations: Establishing Job-Related Nature of Staffing Practices          Job analysis must be performed and must be for the job for which the selection instrument is to be utilized Analysis of job should be in writing Job analysis should describe in detail the procedure used Job data should be collected from a variety of current sources by knowledgeable job analysts Sample size should be large and representative of jobs for which selection instrument is used Tasks. skills. duties.

 Issue 2  Assume you are assisting in the conduct of job analysis as an HR department representative. even though they clearly are job requirements.4-27 Ethical Issues  Issue 1  It has been suggested that “ethical conduct” be formally incorporated as a general competency requirement for any job within the organization. You have encountered several managers who want to delete certain tasks and KSAOs from the formal job description having to do with employee safety. How should you handle this situation? . Discuss the pros and cons of this suggestion.