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Plane Wave Equations

Alan Murray
Alan Murray – University of Edinburgh
Maxwell's Equations … Completed!
.
. 0
D
B
D
H J
B
E
C
t
t
µ V =
V =
c
V× = +
c
c
V× =÷
c
Gauss(D)
Gauss (B)
Ampere
Faraday
Displacement current (L)
Alan Murray – University of Edinburgh
What does this mean?
. .
t
| |
= ÷
} }}
|
\
c
.
c
dl E s
B
d
. .
C
t
c
c
| |
= +
} }}
|
\ .
s H
D
dl J d
“a changing magnetic field causes an electric field”
“a changing electric field/flux causes an magnetic field”
Question : If we put these together, can we get electric and
magnetic fields that, once created, sustain one another?
Faraday
Ampere
Alan Murray – University of Edinburgh
Cross-breed Ampere and Faraday!
C
t
t t
t
o
µ
c
c c
V× = ÷ = ÷
c c
V× = + = +
c
c
c
c
... all in terms of E and H
... all in terms of
D
E
E
H J
a
B H
E
E nd H
( )
( )
dt d t
d
t
d
t
µ
o c
c
| |
V× = +
|
c
\ .
V× V
c
| |
V× = ÷
|
c
\
×
.
... differentiate both sides
... curl of both
E
H E
H
E

sides
( )
2
2
d
d
d d
dt dt
d
t
d
t
c
µ
o V×
V× = ÷ V× V
+
×
=
H E
H
E
E
( )
2
2
d
dt
d
dt
µ o µ c ÷ V V × = ÷ ×
E
E
E
Alan Murray – University of Edinburgh
Cross-breed Ampere and Faraday!
C
t
t t
t
o
µ
c
c c
V× = ÷ = ÷
c c
V× = + = +
c
c
c
c
... all in terms of E and H
... all in terms of
D
E
E
H J
a
B H
E
E nd H
( ) ( )
( )
t
t
t
o c o c
µ
c V×
c
| |
V× V× = V× + = V× +
|
c c
c
V
.
c
\
× = ÷
... curl of b
H
E
oth sid s
E
E E e
E
H
( )
2
2
t t
µo µc
c c
V× V× = ÷ ÷
c c
H H
H
Same equation as acquired for E
( )
2
2
d
dt
d
dt
µ o µ c ÷ V V × = ÷ ×
E
E
E
Alan Murray – University of Edinburgh
Now some simplifications …
E = (0,E
Y
,0) only
x
y
z
E
Y
= E
Y0
sin(ωt-βx)
Align y-axis with electric field and the x-axis with the
direction of (wave) propagation.
Alan Murray – University of Edinburgh
Travelling Waves
E
Y
= E
Y0
sin(ωt)
E
Y
= E
Y0
sin(ωt)
E
Y
= E
Y0
sin(ωt-|)
E
Y
= E
Y0
sin(ωt-βx)
Take a time-varying electric field,
E, at a point …
Add a second one with a small
phase difference, nearby …
Now let’s have a lot of them,
with a sinusoidal variation
of phase with direction x.
Alan Murray – University of Edinburgh
Plane Wave
We will also look for a plane wave solution – where the field E
Y

is the same (at an instant in time) across the entire zy plane.
Here is an animation to see
what this means - looking at the
yz plane, down the direction of
travel
Look
down
here
E = (0,E
Y
,0) only
x
y
z
E
Y
= E
Y0
sin(ωt-βx)
Alan Murray – University of Edinburgh
Cross-breed Ampere and Faraday!
, 0 ,
0 0
y y
y
dE dE
d d d
dx dy dz dz dx
E
| |
V× = = ÷
|
\ .
i j k
E
( )
2 2 2 2
2 2
, ,
0
y y y y
y y
d E d E d E d E
d d d
dx dy dz dxdy dzdy dz dx
dE dE
dz dx
| |
V× V× = = ÷
|
|
\ .
÷
i j k
E
And, as we have simplified down to E=(0,E
y
,0), with |E
Y
| constant
in the zy plane, this reduces to …
( )
2
2
y
y
d E
dx
V× V× = ÷ (
¸ ¸
E
Alan Murray – University of Edinburgh
Cross-breed Ampere and Faraday!
 Plane wave equation for E
• describes the variation in time and space of an electric plane wave
 With a y-component only (we have aligned the y-axis with E)
 propagating in the x-direction.
 There is an exactly equivalent equation for H
• Eliminate E, not H, from the combination of Ampere and Faraday.
 rather a waste of our time : in notes, but not lectured.
 We can, however, infer that whatever behaviour we get for E
y
will
apply to H, although we do not yet know the direction of H.
• Watch this space …

2 2
2 2
y y y
d E dE d E
dt dx dt
µ o cµ ÷ = ÷ ÷
Becomes the 1D equation
( )
2
2
d d
dt dt
µ o cµ V× V× = ÷ ÷
E E
E So (in 3D)
Alan Murray – University of Edinburgh
What have we here?
2 2
2 2
y y y
d E dE d E
dt
dx dt
µ o µc = +
Variation of E
y
in space
(x=direction of propagation)
Variation of E
y
with time
Magnetic permeability
(4tx10
÷7
in vacuum, larger in a magnet)
Conductivity
(0 in an insulator, much larger in a conductor)
Dielectric constant
(8.85x10
-12
in a vacuum, larger in a dielectric)
Alan Murray – University of Edinburgh
Start with an insulator
to make life easy (o=0)
2 2
2 2
y y
d E d E
dx dt
µc =
( )
0
j t x
y y
E E e
e | ÷
= Look for a solution of the form
Where e and | depend upon µ and c … the characteristics of the insulator
2 2
2 2
y y y
d E dE d E
dt dx dt
µ o µc = + becomes
2 2
2
2 2
2 2 2
1
,
y y
y y
d E d E
E E
dx dt
e
µc | µce
µc |
= ÷ = =
2
2
1
µc
e
|
= , what does this mean??
, 2
2
2
2
Remember, = =
waveleng
f
t
requency d
h
an = f v f
t
ì
t
t
ì | e t = = ×
Alan Murray – University of Edinburgh
Still don’t know what it means …
 Travelling wave
of the form
( )
( )
0 0
cos
j t x
y y y
E E e E t x
e |
e |
÷
= ÷ ÷
2
1 2
It travels with a velocity f v
t
ì
|
e e
µc | t
| |
|
\
| |
|
× =
.
.
= = =
\
In a vacuum, µ=µ
0
=4tx10
-7
, c=c
0
=8.85x10
-12
8
0 0
1
3 10 / ... a familiar speed? v m s
µ c
= = ×
In (eg) glass, µ=µ
0
=4tx10
-7
, c=c
r
c
0
=5x8.85x10
-12
8
0 0
1
1.43 10 / ... light slows down in glass
r
v m s
µ c c
= = ×
Alan Murray – University of Edinburgh
This is why lenses work …
V=3x10
8
m/s V=1.43x10
8
m/s V=3x10
8
m/s
Alan Murray – University of Edinburgh
What is H up to?
( )
(0, , 0)
j t x
y
E e
e | ÷
= E
( )
( )
0
0, 0 , 0, 0 , ,
j t x
y
y
dE
d
j
x
E
t
e
e |
| µ
÷
| |
=
|
\ .
c
V× =÷ V× =
c
÷
H
Faraday says E E
( ) ( )
( ) 0 0
(0, 0, ) , 0, 0,
H
H
j t j x
z z z
t x
z
H H H e
t
j H e
e | e |
µ µe
÷ ÷
c
= = ÷ ÷ =
c
So and if
( ) ( )
0 0
j t x
j t x
z y
H e E e
e |
e |
µe |
÷
÷
=
H E time-pha and are in in a non-condu se ctor
0 0 0 0
1 1
Also,
z y y y
H E E E
| c
µc
µ e µ µ
| |
= = =
|
\ .
(0,0, ) (0, , 0) So and are at 90 to one another ... and
z y
H E ° H E
i
Z
µ
c
, the intrinsic impedance ( )of t real he medium, is for an insulator
Lookie here …
And here …
Alan Murray – University of Edinburgh
Summary so far : Insulator
 H and E both obey e
j(et-|x)

 H and E are in time-phase
 |E|=Z
i
|H|, Z
i
is the characteristic
impedance
• Z
i
is real in an insulator
• Z
i
= 377Ω in free space (air!)
• Z
i
≈ 150Ω in glass
 Wave travels at a velocity v=√µc
• 3x10
8
m/s in free space

Alan Murray – University of Edinburgh
Now a conductor …
 Fields lead to currents
 Currents cause “Joule heating” (I
2
R)
 Leads to loss of energy
 Fields still oscillate, but they decay
 Multiply the solution we have already
by a term e
-ox
?

e
-ox
e
-ox
sin(ωt-βx)
HEA
T!
HEAT!
HEAT!
Alan Murray – University of Edinburgh
Now a conductor … o>0
2 2
2 2
µ cµ o = +
y y y
d E dE d E
dt dx dt
( )
0
e o | ÷ ÷
× =
j t x
y
x
y
E e e E
Look for a solution of the form
( )
0
j x j t
y y
E E e e
o | e ÷ +
=
( )
2
2 2
0 0 0 0
o | ¸ µ oe cµe + = = +
y y y y
j E E j E E
. j ¸ ¸ o | = + For tidiness, write is called the propagation constant
( ) ( )
2
, j j j j ¸ eµ o ce ¸ eµ o ce = + = +
0
x j t
y y
E E e e
¸ e ÷
=
X X
X X
Alan Murray – University of Edinburgh
Example : Good Conductor
o f e c µ o | v
6x10
7
(S/m) 100MHz 6.28x10
8
8.85x10
-12
1.26x10
-6
1.54x10
5
1.54x10
5
4x10
3
m/s
( )
0
,
x j t
y y
E E e e j j
¸ e
¸ eµ o ce
÷
= = +
( ) ( )
3 3 5
790 6 10 0.006 790 6 10 1.54 10 (1 ) ¸ = + ~ × = + j x j x j x j
Comments :
v<< speed of light
 o = 1.54x10
5
>>1 … rapid attenuation via e
-ox

Let’s have a look at e
-ax

`
8
3 1
5
2 6.28 10
4 10
2 1.54 10
v f ms
e t e
ì
t | |
÷
×
= = × = = = ×
×
Alan Murray – University of Edinburgh
Example : Good Conductor
e
-αx
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0μm 10μm 20μm 30μm
0.36=1/e
Amplitude falls by 0.36=1/e in 6µm
i.e. the wave doesn’t get far in copper!
Alan Murray – University of Edinburgh
Example : Good Conductor,
E=Z
i
H …. Intrinsic Impedance
( )
( ) 0
0, 0 , 0 , , , 0
H
Faraday says E E
y j t x
y
d
e
E
E
dx t
e ¸
¸ µ
÷
c
V× =÷ V× =
c
÷
| |
=
|
\ .
( ) ( )
( ) 0 0
(0, 0, ) , 0, 0,
e ¸ e ¸
µ µe
÷ ÷
c
= = ÷ =
c
÷ So and if
j t j t x
z
x
z z z
j H e H H H e
t
H
H
( )
0 0 0 y z i z
i
j
E H Z H
j j j
Z
j
j j
µe
¸
µe µe eµ
¸ o ce
eµ o ce
| |
= =
|
\ .
= = =
+
+
Alan Murray – University of Edinburgh
Example : Good Conductor,
E=Z
i
H…. Intrinsic Impedance
4
0 0 0 0 0
j
y i z z z z
j j
E Z H H H e H
j
t
eµ eµ eµ
o ce o o
= = = ×
+
0
0
4
H E
y
z
j
E
H
e
t

o
= So relates the magnitudes of and
0 0
4
y z
E H
t
and leads by It looks like this
Alan Murray – University of Edinburgh
Poynting Vector (introduction only)
 P=ExH is called
the Poynting
Vector
• direction of travel
• power
 Actually power/area



2
No proof but check dimensions
[P] =[E][H]
[V] [I] [VI]
[P] = × =
[L] [L] [L ]
[P] =Power/area
E
I
H
I
P
E
I
H
I
P
Alan Murray – University of Edinburgh
Reflection at a Boundary
E
I
H
I
E
T
H
T
E
R
H
R
Alan Murray – University of Edinburgh
Reflection at a Boundary
E E E
H H H
I R T
I R T
+ =
÷ =
1 1 2
H H H
H H H
I R T
I R T
Z Z Z + =
÷ =
2 1 2 1
1 2 1 2
, µ
÷ ÷
= =
+ +
H H reflection coefficient
R I
Z Z Z Z
Z Z Z Z
1 1
1 2 1 2
2 2
, H H transmission coefficient
T I
Z Z
Z Z Z Z
t = =
+ +
2 1
, 0 µ = = reflection coefficient Z Z
2 1
, 1 t = = transmission coefficient Z Z
2 1
, 1 µ >> = reflection coefficient Z Z
2 1
, 0 t >> = transmission coefficient Z Z