Alan Murray
Alan Murray – University of Edinburgh
Maxwell's Equations … Completed!
.
. 0
D
B
D
H J
B
E
C
t
t
µ V =
V =
c
V× = +
c
c
V× =÷
c
Gauss(D)
Gauss (B)
Ampere
Faraday
Displacement current (L)
Alan Murray – University of Edinburgh
What does this mean?
. .
t
 
= ÷
} }}

\
c
.
c
dl E s
B
d
. .
C
t
c
c
 
= +
} }}

\ .
s H
D
dl J d
“a changing magnetic field causes an electric field”
“a changing electric field/flux causes an magnetic field”
Question : If we put these together, can we get electric and
magnetic fields that, once created, sustain one another?
Faraday
Ampere
Alan Murray – University of Edinburgh
Crossbreed Ampere and Faraday!
C
t
t t
t
o
µ
c
c c
V× = ÷ = ÷
c c
V× = + = +
c
c
c
c
... all in terms of E and H
... all in terms of
D
E
E
H J
a
B H
E
E nd H
( )
( )
dt d t
d
t
d
t
µ
o c
c
 
V× = +

c
\ .
V× V
c
 
V× = ÷

c
\
×
.
... differentiate both sides
... curl of both
E
H E
H
E
sides
( )
2
2
d
d
d d
dt dt
d
t
d
t
c
µ
o V×
V× = ÷ V× V
+
×
=
H E
H
E
E
( )
2
2
d
dt
d
dt
µ o µ c ÷ V V × = ÷ ×
E
E
E
Alan Murray – University of Edinburgh
Crossbreed Ampere and Faraday!
C
t
t t
t
o
µ
c
c c
V× = ÷ = ÷
c c
V× = + = +
c
c
c
c
... all in terms of E and H
... all in terms of
D
E
E
H J
a
B H
E
E nd H
( ) ( )
( )
t
t
t
o c o c
µ
c V×
c
 
V× V× = V× + = V× +

c c
c
V
.
c
\
× = ÷
... curl of b
H
E
oth sid s
E
E E e
E
H
( )
2
2
t t
µo µc
c c
V× V× = ÷ ÷
c c
H H
H
Same equation as acquired for E
( )
2
2
d
dt
d
dt
µ o µ c ÷ V V × = ÷ ×
E
E
E
Alan Murray – University of Edinburgh
Now some simplifications …
E = (0,E
Y
,0) only
x
y
z
E
Y
= E
Y0
sin(ωtβx)
Align yaxis with electric field and the xaxis with the
direction of (wave) propagation.
Alan Murray – University of Edinburgh
Travelling Waves
E
Y
= E
Y0
sin(ωt)
E
Y
= E
Y0
sin(ωt)
E
Y
= E
Y0
sin(ωt)
E
Y
= E
Y0
sin(ωtβx)
Take a timevarying electric field,
E, at a point …
Add a second one with a small
phase difference, nearby …
Now let’s have a lot of them,
with a sinusoidal variation
of phase with direction x.
Alan Murray – University of Edinburgh
Plane Wave
We will also look for a plane wave solution – where the field E
Y
is the same (at an instant in time) across the entire zy plane.
Here is an animation to see
what this means  looking at the
yz plane, down the direction of
travel
Look
down
here
E = (0,E
Y
,0) only
x
y
z
E
Y
= E
Y0
sin(ωtβx)
Alan Murray – University of Edinburgh
Crossbreed Ampere and Faraday!
, 0 ,
0 0
y y
y
dE dE
d d d
dx dy dz dz dx
E
 
V× = = ÷

\ .
i j k
E
( )
2 2 2 2
2 2
, ,
0
y y y y
y y
d E d E d E d E
d d d
dx dy dz dxdy dzdy dz dx
dE dE
dz dx
 
V× V× = = ÷


\ .
÷
i j k
E
And, as we have simplified down to E=(0,E
y
,0), with E
Y
 constant
in the zy plane, this reduces to …
( )
2
2
y
y
d E
dx
V× V× = ÷ (
¸ ¸
E
Alan Murray – University of Edinburgh
Crossbreed Ampere and Faraday!
Plane wave equation for E
• describes the variation in time and space of an electric plane wave
With a ycomponent only (we have aligned the yaxis with E)
propagating in the xdirection.
There is an exactly equivalent equation for H
• Eliminate E, not H, from the combination of Ampere and Faraday.
rather a waste of our time : in notes, but not lectured.
We can, however, infer that whatever behaviour we get for E
y
will
apply to H, although we do not yet know the direction of H.
• Watch this space …
2 2
2 2
y y y
d E dE d E
dt dx dt
µ o cµ ÷ = ÷ ÷
Becomes the 1D equation
( )
2
2
d d
dt dt
µ o cµ V× V× = ÷ ÷
E E
E So (in 3D)
Alan Murray – University of Edinburgh
What have we here?
2 2
2 2
y y y
d E dE d E
dt
dx dt
µ o µc = +
Variation of E
y
in space
(x=direction of propagation)
Variation of E
y
with time
Magnetic permeability
(4tx10
÷7
in vacuum, larger in a magnet)
Conductivity
(0 in an insulator, much larger in a conductor)
Dielectric constant
(8.85x10
12
in a vacuum, larger in a dielectric)
Alan Murray – University of Edinburgh
Start with an insulator
to make life easy (o=0)
2 2
2 2
y y
d E d E
dx dt
µc =
( )
0
j t x
y y
E E e
e  ÷
= Look for a solution of the form
Where e and  depend upon µ and c … the characteristics of the insulator
2 2
2 2
y y y
d E dE d E
dt dx dt
µ o µc = + becomes
2 2
2
2 2
2 2 2
1
,
y y
y y
d E d E
E E
dx dt
e
µc  µce
µc 
= ÷ = =
2
2
1
µc
e

= , what does this mean??
, 2
2
2
2
Remember, = =
waveleng
f
t
requency d
h
an = f v f
t
ì
t
t
ì  e t = = ×
Alan Murray – University of Edinburgh
Still don’t know what it means …
Travelling wave
of the form
( )
( )
0 0
cos
j t x
y y y
E E e E t x
e 
e 
÷
= ÷ ÷
2
1 2
It travels with a velocity f v
t
ì

e e
µc  t
 

\
 

× =
.
.
= = =
\
In a vacuum, µ=µ
0
=4tx10
7
, c=c
0
=8.85x10
12
8
0 0
1
3 10 / ... a familiar speed? v m s
µ c
= = ×
In (eg) glass, µ=µ
0
=4tx10
7
, c=c
r
c
0
=5x8.85x10
12
8
0 0
1
1.43 10 / ... light slows down in glass
r
v m s
µ c c
= = ×
Alan Murray – University of Edinburgh
This is why lenses work …
V=3x10
8
m/s V=1.43x10
8
m/s V=3x10
8
m/s
Alan Murray – University of Edinburgh
What is H up to?
( )
(0, , 0)
j t x
y
E e
e  ÷
= E
( )
( )
0
0, 0 , 0, 0 , ,
j t x
y
y
dE
d
j
x
E
t
e
e 
 µ
÷
 
=

\ .
c
V× =÷ V× =
c
÷
H
Faraday says E E
( ) ( )
( ) 0 0
(0, 0, ) , 0, 0,
H
H
j t j x
z z z
t x
z
H H H e
t
j H e
e  e 
µ µe
÷ ÷
c
= = ÷ ÷ =
c
So and if
( ) ( )
0 0
j t x
j t x
z y
H e E e
e 
e 
µe 
÷
÷
=
H E timepha and are in in a noncondu se ctor
0 0 0 0
1 1
Also,
z y y y
H E E E
 c
µc
µ e µ µ
 
= = =

\ .
(0,0, ) (0, , 0) So and are at 90 to one another ... and
z y
H E ° H E
i
Z
µ
c
, the intrinsic impedance ( )of t real he medium, is for an insulator
Lookie here …
And here …
Alan Murray – University of Edinburgh
Summary so far : Insulator
H and E both obey e
j(etx)
H and E are in timephase
E=Z
i
H, Z
i
is the characteristic
impedance
• Z
i
is real in an insulator
• Z
i
= 377Ω in free space (air!)
• Z
i
≈ 150Ω in glass
Wave travels at a velocity v=√µc
• 3x10
8
m/s in free space
Alan Murray – University of Edinburgh
Now a conductor …
Fields lead to currents
Currents cause “Joule heating” (I
2
R)
Leads to loss of energy
Fields still oscillate, but they decay
Multiply the solution we have already
by a term e
ox
?
e
ox
e
ox
sin(ωtβx)
HEA
T!
HEAT!
HEAT!
Alan Murray – University of Edinburgh
Now a conductor … o>0
2 2
2 2
µ cµ o = +
y y y
d E dE d E
dt dx dt
( )
0
e o  ÷ ÷
× =
j t x
y
x
y
E e e E
Look for a solution of the form
( )
0
j x j t
y y
E E e e
o  e ÷ +
=
( )
2
2 2
0 0 0 0
o  ¸ µ oe cµe + = = +
y y y y
j E E j E E
. j ¸ ¸ o  = + For tidiness, write is called the propagation constant
( ) ( )
2
, j j j j ¸ eµ o ce ¸ eµ o ce = + = +
0
x j t
y y
E E e e
¸ e ÷
=
X X
X X
Alan Murray – University of Edinburgh
Example : Good Conductor
o f e c µ o  v
6x10
7
(S/m) 100MHz 6.28x10
8
8.85x10
12
1.26x10
6
1.54x10
5
1.54x10
5
4x10
3
m/s
( )
0
,
x j t
y y
E E e e j j
¸ e
¸ eµ o ce
÷
= = +
( ) ( )
3 3 5
790 6 10 0.006 790 6 10 1.54 10 (1 ) ¸ = + ~ × = + j x j x j x j
Comments :
v<< speed of light
o = 1.54x10
5
>>1 … rapid attenuation via e
ox
Let’s have a look at e
ax
…
`
8
3 1
5
2 6.28 10
4 10
2 1.54 10
v f ms
e t e
ì
t  
÷
×
= = × = = = ×
×
Alan Murray – University of Edinburgh
Example : Good Conductor
e
αx
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0μm 10μm 20μm 30μm
0.36=1/e
Amplitude falls by 0.36=1/e in 6µm
i.e. the wave doesn’t get far in copper!
Alan Murray – University of Edinburgh
Example : Good Conductor,
E=Z
i
H …. Intrinsic Impedance
( )
( ) 0
0, 0 , 0 , , , 0
H
Faraday says E E
y j t x
y
d
e
E
E
dx t
e ¸
¸ µ
÷
c
V× =÷ V× =
c
÷
 
=

\ .
( ) ( )
( ) 0 0
(0, 0, ) , 0, 0,
e ¸ e ¸
µ µe
÷ ÷
c
= = ÷ =
c
÷ So and if
j t j t x
z
x
z z z
j H e H H H e
t
H
H
( )
0 0 0 y z i z
i
j
E H Z H
j j j
Z
j
j j
µe
¸
µe µe eµ
¸ o ce
eµ o ce
 
= =

\ .
= = =
+
+
Alan Murray – University of Edinburgh
Example : Good Conductor,
E=Z
i
H…. Intrinsic Impedance
4
0 0 0 0 0
j
y i z z z z
j j
E Z H H H e H
j
t
eµ eµ eµ
o ce o o
= = = ×
+
0
0
4
H E
y
z
j
E
H
e
t
eµ
o
= So relates the magnitudes of and
0 0
4
y z
E H
t
and leads by It looks like this
Alan Murray – University of Edinburgh
Poynting Vector (introduction only)
P=ExH is called
the Poynting
Vector
• direction of travel
• power
Actually power/area
2
No proof but check dimensions
[P] =[E][H]
[V] [I] [VI]
[P] = × =
[L] [L] [L ]
[P] =Power/area
E
I
H
I
P
E
I
H
I
P
Alan Murray – University of Edinburgh
Reflection at a Boundary
E
I
H
I
E
T
H
T
E
R
H
R
Alan Murray – University of Edinburgh
Reflection at a Boundary
E E E
H H H
I R T
I R T
+ =
÷ =
1 1 2
H H H
H H H
I R T
I R T
Z Z Z + =
÷ =
2 1 2 1
1 2 1 2
, µ
÷ ÷
= =
+ +
H H reflection coefficient
R I
Z Z Z Z
Z Z Z Z
1 1
1 2 1 2
2 2
, H H transmission coefficient
T I
Z Z
Z Z Z Z
t = =
+ +
2 1
, 0 µ = = reflection coefficient Z Z
2 1
, 1 t = = transmission coefficient Z Z
2 1
, 1 µ >> = reflection coefficient Z Z
2 1
, 0 t >> = transmission coefficient Z Z