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SEMINAR ON

FUTURE TRENDS IN EARTHQUAKE-

RESISTANT DESIGN OF STRUCTURES
BY: VISHVESHVAR.TORAVI

GUIDED BY: PROF. K.G.VISHWANTH

CONTENTS
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INTRODUCTION NATURE OF EQRD PROBLEM DEFINING OF ACCETABLE RISK CHARACTERIZATION OF DESIGN GROUND MOTION. NEW STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS & DEVICES NEW MATERIALS & DEVICES CONCLUSION

INTRODUCTION Earthquake-resistant design of structures has grown into a true multidisciplinary field of engineering where in many exciting developments are possible in the near future. (b) performance-based design codes. . and the method of fabrication. (d) new structural systems and devices using non-traditional civil engineering materials and techniques . near-field effects.And Briefly then. Most notable among these are: (a) a complete probabilistic analysis and design approach. determining the size and shape of various elements. EQRD involves developing the structural configuration. topography. (c) multiple annual probability hazard maps for response spectral acceleration sand peak ground accelerations with better characterization of site soils. the materials of construction.

is the following: Seismic demand ≤ Computed capacity ‘Seismic demand’ is the effect of the earthquake on the structure. . which any earthquake-resistant structure must satisfy.NATURE OF THE EQRD PROBLEM The basic design criterion. ‘Computed capacity’ is the structure’s ability to resist that effect without failure.

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On the other hand. owners who pay for the structure tend to accept a higher risk on the occurrence of earthquakes rather than make large investments into extra safety measures for a large earthquake event that rarely happens.To engineers and designers a design that causes minimum loss of life and damage to structures is acceptable. The engineering community. which is a basic shift in the earthquake-resistant design process in the recent times.Defining acceptable risk through performance objectives Risk is expressed in terms of hazard . even if the cost is high. is also beginning to consider various performance objectives to define the level of acceptable risk. which had been mainly focused on reducing threats to life safety up to now. .

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(3) near-source effects on horizontal ground motions. (2) local site effects. .Characterization of design ground motions The key issues for specifying a design earthquake or ground motion are: (1) seismic hazard maps (zoning maps).

 Seismic hazard zoning maps: .

 Local site effects: .

many new systems and devices using non conventional civil engineering materials have been developed. .NEW STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS & DEVICES In recent times. either to reduce the earthquake forces acting on a structure or to absorb a part of the seismic energy.

New structural systems & materials .

In base-isolated systems. which reduce the ground motion transmitted to the structure.isolated systems: Conventional earthquake-resistant structural systems are fixed-base systems that are ‘fixed’ to the ground.Base. They derive their earthquake resistance from their ability to absorb seismic energy in specially designed regions of the structures. the superstructure is isolated from the foundation by certain devices. .

 Base-isolation bearing: .

. A more direct solution is the use of energy dissipating devices that function like shock absorbers in a moving car. However. An example is Eccentric Bracing whereby the controlled deformation of framing members dissipates energy. this will not eliminate or reduce damage to building contents.Passive energy dissipation systems : Energy-Dissipating Devices are used to minimize shaking. The period of the building will be lengthened and the building will "ride out" the shaking within a tolerable range .

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moment-resisting (good energy absorption.NEW MATERIALS & DEVICES       Wood or timber frame (good energy absorption. connections are critical) Pre-cast concrete frame (poor performer without special energy absorbing connections) . proportion of spandrels and piers are critical to avoid cracking) Steel frame with masonry fill-in walls (good energy absorption if bay sizes are small and building plan is uniform) Steel frame. Reinforced concrete walls (good energy absorption if walls and floors well integrated. connections are critical) Steel frame. framing connections are critical). light weight. eccentrically braced (excellent energy absorption.

the field of EQRD of structures is most likely to witness the following significant developments: (1) A complete probabilistic analysis and design approach that rationally accounts for uncertainties present in the structural system will gradually replace deterministic approaches. topography. .CONCLUSION: In the coming years. near-source rupture mechanism sand spatial variation – should provide better characterization of design earthquakes and expected ground motions. (3) Multiple annual probability maps for response spectral accelerations and peak ground accelerations along with more realistic predictions of the effects of site soils. (2) The acceptable risk criterion for design purposes will be prescribed in terms of performance objectives and hazard levels. passive energy dissipation and active control systems. (4) The development of new structural systems and devices will continue for base-isolation. along with the proliferation of non-traditional civil engineering materials and techniques . especially in the characterization of the loading environment.

(3) National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP). (2) Repair of earthquake damaged concrete and masonry buildings .com. Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). .Google. FEMA 273. Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA).FEMA 306. (4) www.REFERENCES (1) NEHRP guidelines for seismic rehabilitation of buildings.