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By Chandrasekhar K Under the Guidance of I.Hemalatha , Associate prof

• • • • • Today's wireless systems Cognitive radio (CR) system Characteristics of cognitive radio system Spectrum hole concept Spectrum management

• Energy detector spectrum sensing algorithm

Today’s Wireless System • Rapid growth of wireless applications and services has made it essential to address spectrum scarcity problem • Most of the spectrums (licensed bands) are already allocated for license users for exclusive use. . we find that some frequency bands in the spectrum are unoccupied for some of the time. and many frequency bands are only partially occupied. • If we were to scan the radio spectrum.

provided they can guarantee interference perceived by the primary license holders will be minimal (a concept of cognitive radio).…continue • Solution is to let unlicensed users use the licensed frequencies. .

Cognitive Radio(CR) System • Allows the unlicensed users to dynamically and opportunistically access the “underutilized" licensed bands • As an intelligent wireless communication system. a cognitive radio is able to fill in the spectrum holes and serve its users without causing harmful interference to the licensed user.. . • By sensing and adapting to the environment.

identify the spectrum opportunities (idle frequency bands) in spatial and frequency domain. . . Cognitive Radio has to .or use the licensed spectrum with transmit power constraint so that the interference created by secondary users is below the tolerable limit.…continue • In order to access “under-utilized” licensed bands dynamically and opportunistically.

rather the development of cognitive radio is still at a conceptual stage. • The cognitive radio can rightly be described as a “disruptive.Brief history of CR • The Cognitive radios do not have the history of a century . but unobtrusive technology”. • we see that cognitive radio has the capability to make a significant difference to the way the radio spectrum can be accessed . . with much improved utilization.

“Radio that includes a transmitter in which operating parameters such as frequency range." . modulation type or maximum output power can be altered by software.…continue • Cognitive Radio .Termed by Joseph Mitola in 1991 .

Why Cognitive Radio ? • Cognitive radio is a excellent tool for solving two major problems • Accessing the spectrum (finding an open frequency and using it) • Interoperability (talking to legacy radios using a variety of incompatible waveforms) .

• Reconfigurability – Dynamically programmable capability according to radio environment to transmit and receive on a variety of frequencies. .Characteristics of Cognitive Radio System • Cognitive capability – Ability to capture or sense the information from its radio environment and allows to identify and select the portion of the spectrum that are unused at a specific time or location.

Spectrum hole concept • Spectrum hole – Temporarily unused licensed spectrum .

Spectrum management • Functions incorporated in CR for adapting to the dynamic spectrum environment: – Spectrum sensing – Spectrum decision – Spectrum sharing – Spectrum mobility .

– Provides the spectrum availability information required for other functions. – It is achieved thorough: • PU detection • Cooperation • Sensing control .…continue • Spectrum sensing – A function in CR networks to monitor the unused spectrum bands.

…continue • Spectrum Decision • A function to select the most appropriate band (after spectrum sensing) according to the quality of service (QoS) requirement. • It is achieved through: • Spectrum characterization • Spectrum Selection .

. CR users selects the proper channel and adjust their transmission power.• Spectrum Sharing …continue – Enables CR users to perform channel selection and power allocation according to their QoS – It is achieved through: • Resource allocation Based on QoS. • Spectrum access Enables multiple CR users to share the channel determining who will access the channel or when a user may access a channel.

.…continue spectrum sharing • Medium access protocols for spectrum access – Random access • Channel may be opportunistically captured by any CR user for control and data exchanges – Time slotted • Control and data are assigned fixed durations and prevent simultaneous transmission by multiple users – Hybrid • Fixed time duration for control packets followed by random access for capturing the channel before data transfer.

.• Spectrum mobility – CR users are mobile and so called visitors to the spectrum – Spectrum mobility is required when: • PU is detected • CR user loses its connection due to mobility of other users • Current spectrum band cannot provide the QoS requirements.

g.…continue spectrum mobility • Spectrum mobility is achieved through – Spectrum handoff • CR user switches the spectrum band physically and reconfigures the communication parameters (e. modulation type) – Connection management • CR user sustains the QoS or minimizes quality degradation during spectrum switching by interacting with each layer. operating frequency. .

Cognitive cycle • Spectrum management functions necessary for adapting to dynamic spectrum environment from a cognitive cycle as shown below: .

Drawbacks of CR: • Security • Software reliability • Keeping up with higher data rates • Loss of control • Regulatory concerns • Fear of undesirable adaptations • Significant research remains to be done to realize commercially practical cognitive radio .Advantages of CR: • Cognitive radios are expected to be powerful tools for mitigating and solving general and selective spectrum access issues • Improves current spectrum utilization (Fill in unused spectrum and move away from occupied spectrum) • Improves wireless data network performance through increased user throughput and system reliability • More adaptability and less coordination required between wireless network.

• A number of various methods are proposed for identifying the presence signal in transmissions. • The well known spectrum sensing techniques used are matched filter detection. . cyclostationary detection. energy detection.Energy detector spectrum sensing algorithm in Cognitive Radio • Spectrum sensing refers to detecting the unused spectrum (spectrum holes) and sharing it without harmful interference with other secondary users. wavelet detection and covariance detection.

probability of misdetection . probability of false alarm Pm=prob{Decision=H0/H1}.Spectrum sensing problem • Spectrum sensing must be performed before allowing unlicensed users to access a vacant licensed band. The spectrum sensing is a binary hypothesis-testing problem: H0: Primary user is absent H1: Primary user is present Pd =prob{Decision=H1/H1}. probability of correct detection Two types of error in spectrum sensor Pf =prob{Decision=H1/H0}.

. • The cognitive user’s receivers do not need any knowledge of the primary user’s signal. • Energy detector is also known as radiometry and it is most common method of spectrum sensing because of its low computational and implementation complexities.Energy detection • Spectrum sensing must be performed before allowing unlicensed users to access a vacant licensed band.

. W (N) is the noise and X (N) is the received signal. • The signal detection can be formulated as a binary hypothesis testing problem H0:X (N) =W (N) (absent) Primary user is absent H1: X (N) =S (N) +W (N) Primary user is present Where N is the number of samples. S (N) is the primary user’s signal.…continue • The signal is detected by comparing the output of energy detector with threshold which depends on noise floor . N=2TW.W is bandwidth. T is duration interval .

The probability of detection and false alarm can be generally computed .…continue • The signal to noise ratio is defined as the ratio of signal power to noise power γ =Ps/N0 where Ps and N0 are the average power of signal and noise respectively. The decision parameter is as follows D(Y)= 1/N0∑02TW⃓X(N)⃓^2 The final result is compared with threshold λ and the decision is made.

5 Availability 1 1.2 1.8 2 Frequency in MHz 2.2 1.4 1.5 1 0.4 2.5 0 -0.5 Availability 1 1.2 2.6 2.5 1 0.4 2.8 2 Frequency in MHz 2.2 1.6 1.8 x 10 7 1.4 2.5 0 -0.8 2 Frequency in MHz 2.6 1.5 0 -0.5 1 0.2 1.8 x 10 7 .5 0 -0.6 1.6 1.5 Availability 1 1.2 2.6 2.6 1.Simulation Results 1.4 1.2 2.5 1 0.6 2.2 2.4 1.4 2.6 2.8 2 Frequency in MHz 2.4 2.8 x 10 7 1.8 x 10 7 1.8 x 10 7 1.2 2.5 0 -0.6 2.2 1.4 1.4 1.5 Availability 1 1.8 2 Frequency in MHz 2.5 1 0.5 Availability 1 1.

Decision variable r(k) variable r(k) variable r(k) variable r(k) variable r(k) Decision Decision Decision Decision 4 2 0 12 4 2 0 12 4 2 0 12 4 2 0 12 4 2 0 12 14 16 18 20 22 Frequency in MHz 24 26 28 14 16 18 20 22 Frequency in MHz 24 26 28 14 16 18 20 22 Frequency in MHz 24 26 28 14 16 18 20 22 Frequency in MHz 24 26 28 14 16 18 20 22 Frequency in MHz 24 26 28 .

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