Basic Concepts in Performance Management and Appraisal
Comparing Performance Appraisal and Performance Management

Performance Appraisal:
Setting work standards, assessing performance, and providing feedback to employees to motivate, correct, and continue their performance.

Performance Management:
An integrated approach to ensuring that an employee’s performance supports and contributes to the organization’s strategic aims.

Buiding blocks of PM system
Direction sharing Role clarification Goal setting and planning

Goal alignment

Developmental goal setting

Ongoing performance monitoring

Ongoing feedback

Coaching and support

Performance assessment (appraisal)

Rewards, recognition, and compensation Workflow, process control, and return on investment management

Primary focus Assessing performance and potential for performance Designing appraisal programme Build employee database Directional, evaluative

Improve employee performance & development Set of HR activities designed and executed to assess and improve performance Facilitative, coaching

Activities involved



Yearly, six monthly

Often, can be ongoing

Degree of formality



Need for Performance Appraisal
Why Appraise Performance?

Is basis for pay and promotion decisions. Plays an integral role in performance management.

2 3

Helps in correcting deficiencies and reinforcing good performance.
Is useful in career planning.


Administrative, Development, Organisational objectives, Documentation purposes

Appraising Performance
Steps in Appraising Performance
1 2 3

Objectives of Performance Appraisal Establish job expectations/standards
Design appraisal programme (formal Vs.Informal, who are the raters, what to evaluate, methods to use) Appraise performance Performance Interview Archive Appraisal data Using appraisal data for appropriate purpose


6 7

Defining the Employee’s Goals and Work Standards
Guidelines for Effective Goal Setting

Assign Specific Goals

Assign Measurable Goals

Assign Challenging but Doable Goals

Encourage Participation


What to Measure?
– Work output (quality and quantity)

– Personal competencies
– Goal (objective) achievement – Timeliness

– Cost effectiveness
– Need for supervision – Interpersonal impact

– Community service

Who Should Do the Appraising?
Immediate Supervisor Self-Rating


Potential Appraisers


Rating Committee

360-Degree Feedback

Performance Appraisal Methods
Appraisal Methodologies
1 Graphic Rating Scale Method Alternation Ranking Method Paired Comparison Method Forced Distribution Method Critical Incident Method 6

Assessment Centre Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scales (BARS) Management by Objectives (MBO)
360 degree feedback Checklist Appraisal Annual Confidential Report (ACR)

3 4 5 6

9 910 11

Essay Method or Narrative Forms


Graphic Rating Scale

Easy to understand but subjectivity high

Paired Comparison Method

Used to identify the best candidate for a promotion or special assignment but demotivates others

Note: + means “better than.” – means “worse than.” For each chart, add up the number of +’s in each column to get the highest-ranked employee.

Critical Incident Method
Supervisor keeps a written record of incidents (including dates, people involved, actions taken) that show positive and negative ways an employee has acted. At the time of the appraisal, supervisor reviews the record to evaluate an employee’s behavior. During the appraisal interview, a supervisor gives employee a chance to offer his views of each incident recorded. Advantages & Disadvantages: Time consuming & important incidents could be overlooked Supervisors tend to record negative events more than positive ones

Contd….Critical Incident Method
Continuing Duties Targets Critical Incidents

Schedule production for plant

90% utilization of personnel and machinery in plant; orders delivered on time
Minimize inventory costs while keeping adequate supplies on hand No shutdowns due to faulty machinery

Instituted new production scheduling system; decreased late orders by 10% last month; increased machine utilization in plant by 20% last month

Supervise procurement of raw materials and inventory control Supervise machinery maintenance

Let inventory storage costs rise 15% last month; overordered parts “A” and “B” by 20%; underordered part “C” by 30% Instituted new preventative maintenance system for plant; prevented a machine breakdown by discovering faulty part

Assessment Centre
 Central location where employee come together to participate in job-related exercises evaluated by trained observers.  Assessed :  Assertiveness

 Persuasive ability
 Communicating ability  Planning and organisational ability  Self-confidence  Resistance to stress  Decision making

Assessment Centre
 Activities include :

 In-basket training
 Computer simulations  Role playing

 Work groups without leaders
 Companies using :  Modi Zeroz

 Crompton Greaves
 Ranbaxy  Tata

Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scale (BARS)
Developing a BARS
1. Generate critical incidents
2. Develop performance dimensions 3. Reallocate incidents 4. Scale the incidents 5. Develop a final instrument

Advantages of BARS
– Less subjective and overcome rater errors – Clearer standards – Feedback

• Expensive • Time consuming


Management by Objectives (MBO)
• Goal directed approach in which workers and supervisors set goals together for the upcoming evaluation period and also measure the extent to which goals have been met. • Steps involved: 1. Setting of organization’s goals. 2. Setting of departmental goals. 3. Discussion of departmental goals. 4. Defining expected results (setting individual goals). 5. Conducting periodic performance reviews. 6. Providing performance feedback. Advantages: Employee knows what is expected and a supervisor focuses on results rather than more subjective criteria

Problems with MBO
Setting unclear objectives Time-consuming appraisal process

Problems with MBO

Conflict with subordinates over objectives

Checklist Appraisal
Contains series of questions about an employee’s performance. A supervisor answers yes or no to the questions. There is a key for scoring the items on the checklist; the score results in a rating of an employee’s performance. Advantages & Disadvantages: Easy to complete but difficult to prepare. Each job requires a different set of questions.

360 Degree Feedback
Multiple raters or stakeholders are involved in evaluating performance about ’how an employee does the job’– immediate supervisors, team members, customers, peers, self

Advantages & Disadvantages: Employee can compare himself with other’s perception about him Skills like interpersonal skills, team skills can be identified. Drawback : Difficult to select rater, designing questionnaire and analysing data Rater may have a fear to assess employee

Contd….Checklist Appraisal

Appraising Performance: Problems
Appraisal Problems

Unclear Standards

Halo Effect

Restriction of range error

Personal Bias on the basis of race, age, gender

Severity error

Central Tendency

Leniency error

Appraising Performance: Solutions
How to Avoid Appraisal Problems

Know Problems

Use the Right Tool

Train Supervisors

Control Outside Influences

Keep a Diary


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