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A matrix is a rectangular collection of variables or

scalars or arrays of numbers contained within a set of square [ ] or round ( ) brackets, and consist of m rows and n columns. Example: 4 A= 1 3 -1 B= 0 C= 2 -3 2 4 0 -2 10 -2

The numbers in a matrix are called elements

Elements that appear horizontally form a row and

those that appear vertically are columns.

Square Matrix -If the number of rows and columns are

equal, that is m=n. Diagonal matrix is a square matrix with all zero values except aij value for all i=j. 2 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 1

Identity Matrix - Is a diagonal matrix with all non-

zero entries equal to 1. 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1

Scalar Matrix is a diagonal matrix with all non-zero

entries equal to some other constant. 8 0 0 0 8 0 0 0 8


Triangular Matrix A matrix that has zeros in all

positions above or below diagonal.

EQUALITY OF MATRICES

two matrices are equal if they have the same number of rows and columns and their corresponding entries are also equal. ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF MATRICES Addition (or subtraction) of two matrices can be accomplished by adding (or subtracting) the corresponding entries of two matrices which have the same shape.

Add 1 4 1

3 0 2 7 1 6 + 2 5 6 -3 0 4 9 1 1

1+3 4+0 1+2 7+2 1+5 6+6 = -3+9 0+1 4+1

4 4 3 9 6 12 6 1 5

MULTIPLICATION OF MATRICES

this can be done only if the number of columns of the left-hand matrix is equal to the number of rows of the right-hand matrix. It can be accomplished by multiplying the elements in each right-hand matrix column, adding the products , and then placing the sum at the intersection point of the involved row and column.

If

A= 2 3 3 10
Solution

and

B= 1 3 5 -2

, find AB

AB =

2(1)+3(5) 2(3)+3(-2) 3(1)+10(5) 3(3)+10(-2)

17 0 53 -11

DIVISION OF MATRICES

Division of matrices can be accomplished only by multiplying the inverse of the denominator matrix.

THE TRANPOSE OF A MATRIX

the transpose is an (nm) matrix formed from the original (mn) matrix by taking the ith row and making it ith column. The diagonal is unchanged in this operation. The transpose of a matrix is indicated as At.

Determine the transpose of

A =

1 6 9 2 3 4 7 1 5
1 2 7 6 3 1 9 4 5

At =

The determinant D, is a scalar calculated from the

square matrix. The determinant of a matrix is indicated by enclosing the matrix by vertical lines

Find the determinant of

A=

1 4 0 0 3 2 -2 -1 6

1 4 0 A= 0 3 2 -2 -1 6

=1 3 2` -1 6

-0 4 0 -1 6

+(-2) 4 0 3 2

=1(18+2) -0(24-0) +(-2)(8-0) =-16 + 2 + 18 =4