Breastfeeding is defined as the extent of the understanding conveyed about lactation and nourishment of an infant through breast feeding


Breast milk is in the acinar or alveolar cells of the mammary glands. With the delivery of the placenta, the level of the progesterone in a mother’s body falls dramatically, stimulating the production of prolactin, an anterior pituitary hormone. Prolactin acts on the acinar cells of the mammary glands to stimulate the production of milk. In addition, when an infant sucks at a breast, nerve impulses travel from the nipple to the

Colostrum, a thin, watery, yellow fluid composed of protein, sugar, fat, water, minerals, vitamins and maternal antibodies, is secreted by the acinar breast cells starting in the fourth month of pregnancy.

For the first 3-4 days after birth, colostrums production continues. Because it is high in protein and fairly low in sugar and fat, colostrums is easy to digest. It is capable of providing totally adequate nutrition for a newborn until it is replaced by transitional breast milk on the second to fourth day. True or mature breast milk is produced by the 10th day.

Fore milk – lactiferous sinuses found behind the nipple and availability depends on the baby’s sucking. Let down reflex - when the collecting sinuses of the mammary gland contracts forcing milk forward. Hind milk – is formed after the let down reflex and is higher in fat than fore milk and it is the milk that makes breast-fed infant grows most rapidly.

A mother's milk has just the right amount of fat, sugar, water and protein that is needed for a baby's growth and development. Many of the ingredients of breast milk are not found in cow's milk. Most babies find it easier to digest breast milk than they do formula. The proportion of protein in mother's milk is lower than in cow's milk, making it more digestible. The protein that is present is more nutritious and digestible that the major protein component of cow's milk. The mother's fat is also more easily broken down . Infants also have an easier time absorbing the

Breast milk has agents (called antibodies) in it to help protect infants from bacteria and viruses and to help them in fighting off infection and disease. Breastfed babies are less subject to lower respiratory infections, urinary tract infections, ear infections and septicemia. Virtually no baby is allergic to breast milk, while certain substances in cow's milk can trigger allergic responses. Human milk straight from the breast is always sterile, never improperly prepared, contaminated or spoiled.

Breastfeeding saves time and money. You do not have to purchase, measure and mix formula, and there are no bottles to warm in the middle of the night. Breastfeeding also helps a mother bond with her baby. Physical contact is important to newborns and can help them feel more secure, warm and comforted.

Nursing uses up extra calories, making it easier to lose the pounds gained from pregnancy. It also helps the uterus to get back to its original size more quickly and lessens any bleeding a woman may have after giving birth. Breastfeeding may lower the risk of breast and ovarian cancer.

Nursed babies are healthier. The rates of constipation and diarrhea are lower in breast-fed children. Also, breastfeeding is less likely to cause overweight infants or obese children later in life. Breastfeeding is convenient for the mother. It requires no planning, packing or equipment. It is always available, and at just the right temperature.

Proper attachment of an infant to and sucking from the mother’s breast for nourishment during the first 2-3 weeks. Proper alignment, latching on, arealor grasp, areolar compression and correct sucking and tongue placement. Audible swallowing a minimum of 5-10 minutes per breast with at least eight feedings per day.

At least six voiding per day with the passage of two or more lose, yellow seedy stools per day Age-appropriate weight gain Contentment after feeding.

Is the proper attachment of an infant to and sucking from the breast for nourishment during the first 2 to 3 weeks. Position of comfort during feeding with support of breasts Identification of breast fullness before feeding Technique for let-down reflex Absence of nipple tenderness

Avoiding use of artificial nipple, and not giving water Supplementation appropriate to infant’s age and health status Ability to recognize infant hunger cues Appropriate techniques for hand or pump expression and proper storage Satisfaction with breast-feeding.

Process of continuing breast feeding. Mother’s freedom from breast tenderness Mother’s ability to recognize signs of decreasing milk supply, plugged ducts, and mastitis. Safe storage of breast milk

Assisting the parents to know the arousal cues of the infant Monitoring infants ability to suck Monitoring proper positioning of both maternal and child Instructing the mother on nipple are, use of breast pump if indicated, using comfortable bras and methods for burping infant.

an infant with galactosemia (such infants cannot digest the lactose in milk) herpes lesions on a mother’s nipples Maternal diet is nutrient restricted, preventing quality milk production Maternal medications that are inappropriate for breast-feeding like lithium. Maternal exposure to radioactive compounds (ex. During thyroid

Breast-feeding may serve a protective function in preventing breast cancer. The release of oxytocin from the posterior pituitary gland aids in uterine involution.

Successful breast-feeding can have an n empowering effect, because it is a skill only a woman can master. Breast-feeding provides an excellent opportunity to enhance a true symbiotic bond between mother and child. Although this does occur readily with breast-feeding, a woman who holds her baby to bottle fed can form this bond as well.

Intakes immunoglobulin A which binds large molecules of foreign proteins, including viruses and bacteria keeping them from being absorbed. Intake of lactoferrin which is an ironbinding protein in breast milk that interferes with growth of pathogenic bacteria. Bifidus factor – growth – promoting factor for beneficial bacteria(lactobacillus bifidus)

And some more proteins that contributes to growth. Breast milk contains more linoleic acid; an essential fatty acid for skin integrity and less sodium, potassium, calcium, and phosphorus than do many formulas. Calcium regulation preventing muscle spasm

One disadvantage of breast milk is that it may carry microorganisma such as hepa B and cytomegalovirus which belongs to the herpes family.

Support the breast by pressing thumb and forefinger in the sides of the areola until secretion is flowing therefore preparing the nipple for sucking.

Breast massage basically helping the flow of milk to nipple Clean breasts properly by not using soap while pregnant because soap tends to dry the nipple of the mother and therefore may result to cracking and distress.

Lips of the infant clamp in a c – shape. The cheek muscles contract. The tongue thrusts forward to grasp nipple and areola The nipple is brought against the hard palate as the tongue pulls backward, bringing the areola into the mouth. The gums compress the areola, squeezing milk into the back of the


The large rubber nipple of a bottle strikes the soft palate and interferes with the action of the tongue. The tongue moves forwards against the gums to control the overflow of milk into the esophagus.


PRINCIPLE explanations help decrease anxiety and enhance learning they also provide information for the client to carry out the procedure assembling equipment aids in organization and efficiency

Explain the procedure to the client.

2. Assemble equipment, including a clean towel and collecting container.

hand washing prevents the 3. Wash your hands and put on clean gloves; transmission of infection; us of have client wash her hands. gloves protects self and client from possible contamination the let-down reflex may not occur 4 Provide privacy and place the woman in a readily if the woman is tense or comfortable sitting position. nervous Milk is expressed by pressure on the 5. Instruct the woman to place her right hand collecting ducts not the nipple. on her right breast. Tell the woman to press inward toward the chest wall.

Collecting bottles should be made of 6 Help the woman hold the collecting jar plastic to preserve antibodies found milk; just under her nipple. having the container closed prevents waste of any breast milk that is expressed. 7. Have the woman slide her hand forward in a milking motion, causing the milk to be expressed from the nipple to the bottle. 8. have the woman move her thumb and fingers around her breast, repeating the technique 9. Caution the woman not to use excess force. 10. After collection, refrigerate milk, it will be used within 24 hours, freeze if this time is longer. 11. Reinforce the woman’s success with this maneuver regardless of the amount of breast milk expressed. Pressure on the lactiferous sinuses pushed milk forward.

Repeating the technique ensures that all milk sinuses are emptied Excess force will damage sensitive breast tissue Breast milk spoils in the same manner as cow’s milk of not protected.

Manual breast milk expression is an easy technique to carry out once it is learned but it can be difficult to grasp at first. Positive reinforcement enhance progress and self esteem

should begin as soon after birth as possible, ideally while the woman is still in the birthing room and while the infant is in the first reactivity period. -however, if the mother is fatigued with this procedure and extremely modest, trying to learn this new skill at this time may only convince her that breastfeeding is not for her.

-breasts refill, so a woman should always place her infant first at the breast at which the infant fed last in the previous feeding, to help ensure that each breast is completely emptied at every other feeding. -because it takes less energy for an infant to suck at a bottle that at a breast-fed infants bottles until about 6 weeks of age, after they are thoroughly accustomed to breastfeeding. This may apply to pacifiers as well.

Basically the nursing procedures point out relaxation of the mother and ensure proper timing which regards to when the baby is hungry and procedure in breast feeding.

A woman can lie down by her side with a pillow under her head to relieve both the baby and the mother from fatigue.

The traditional and most used technique which is the mother is sitting down while supporting the baby in a supine position or also called the football hold wherein it is usually used in Csectioned

Brushing the infant’s cheek with the nipple initiates the baby’s rooting reflex and therefore making the baby turn its head toward the nipple of the mother. Always keep in mind the breathing of the baby to avoid any discomfort or problems.

An advantage of frequent breast-feeding is that feeding frequently makes the breast empty faster and also makes filling of the breast faster too.

Teach the mother to slip her finger on the side of the baby’s lip when the baby sucks too hard because it might cause soreness to the mothers nipple and areola. Reminder for multiple breast feeding is just adequate fluid in ratio of the no. of babies. Engorgement – nipple tenderness; which may cause the baby to have a difficult time to grasp the nipple.

Burping is important, placing the baby on the shoulder and tapping the back of the baby would help the baby burp. But the position to use is for the baby to sit on your lap with support and making him lean forward and while

Improper positioning of an infant (failure to grasp the areola as well as the nipple) Forcefully pulling an infant from the breast Allowing an infant to suck too long at a breast after the breast is emptied Permitting a nipple to remain wet from leaking milk


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