What is Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever?

are acute febrile These diseases, found in the tropics and Africa, and caused by four closely related virus serotypes of the genus Flavivirus, family Flaviviridae. It is known as breakbone

What is Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever? geographical spread is The similar to malaria, but unlike malaria, dengue is often found in urban areas of tropical nations. Dengue is transmitted to humans by the Aedes aegypti or more rarely Aedes albopictus mosquito, which

What are the signs and symptoms? Sudden onset of severe headache Muscle and joint pains (myalgiasand arthrarlgias – sever pain gives it the name break-bone fever or bone crusher disease.

What are the signs and symptoms? Fever Rash – it is characteristically bright red petechiae and usually appears first on the lower limbs and the chest; in some patients, it spreads to cover most of the body.

What are the signs and symptoms? There may also be gastritis with some combination of associated abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea Some cases develop much milder symptoms which can be misdiagnosed as influenza or other viral infection when

What are the signs and symptoms? The classic dengue fever lasts about six to seven days, with a smaller peak of fever at the trailing end of the disease ( the so-called biphasic pattern) Clinically, the platelet count will drop until the patient’s

What are the signs and symptoms? A small portion of cases lead to dengue shock syndrome (DSS) which has a high mortality rate Clinically, the platelet count will drop until the patient’s temperature is normal

Treatment of Dengue Fever The mainstay of treatment is timely supportive therapy to tackle shock due to haemoconcentration and bleeding Close monitoring of vital signs in critical period (between

Treatment of Dengue Fever Increased oral fluid intake is recommended to prevent dehydration Supplementation with intravenous fluids may be necessary to prevent dehydration and significant concentration of blood if the

Treatment of Dengue Fever A platelet transfusion is indicated in rare cases if the platelet level drops significantly or if there is significant bleeding. The presence of melena may indicate internal gastrointestinal bleeding

Treatment of Dengue Fever A platelet transfusion is indicated in rare cases if the platelet level drops significantly or if there is significant bleeding. The presence of melena may indicate internal gastrointestinal bleeding

Treatment of Dengue Fever Aspirin and non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs should be avoided as these drugs may worsen the bleeding tendency associated with some of these infections Patients may receive

What are the emerging treatments? Emerging evidence suggests that mycophenolic acid and ribavirin inhibit dengue replication. Initial experiments showed a fivefold increase in defective viral RNA production by cells

What are the emerging treatments? Unlike HIV therapy, lack of adequate global interest and funding greatly hampers the development of treatment regime…

How can we prevent this? Primary prevention of dengue mainly resides in mosquito control There are two primary methods; larval control and adult mosquito control.

How can we prevent this? In urban areas, Aedes mosquitoes breed on water collections in artificial containers such as plastic cups, used tires, broken bottles, flower pots, etc. Periodic draining or removal of artificial containers is the most

How can we prevent this? For reducing the adult mosquito load, fogging with insecticide is somewhat effective. Prevention of mosquito bites is another way of preventing disease – this can be achieved by using insect repellant,

How can we prevent this? Larvicide treatment is another effective way to control the vector larvae but the larvicide chosen should be long-lasting and preferable have World Health Organization clearance for use in drinking water. There are some very effective insect growth regulators (IGR’s)

How can we prevent this? In 1998, scientists from the Queensland Institute of Research in Australia and Vietnam’s Ministry of Health introduced a crustacean Mesocyclops, in water tanks and discarded containers where the Aedes aegypti mosquito

How can we prevent this? This method is viewed as being more cost-effective and more environmentally friendly than pesticides, though not as effective, and requires the ongoing participation of the community. In 2004, scientists from the Federal University of Minas

How can we prevent this? The technology, named Intelligent Monitoring of Dengue (in Portugal), uses traps with kairomones that capture Aedes gravid female, and upload insect counts with a combination of cell phone, GPS and internet technology

How can we prevent this? The result is a complete map of the mosquitoes in urban areas, updated in real time and accessible remotely, that can inform control methodologies.

How can we prevent this? The technology was recognized with a Tech Museum Award in 2006. In 2009, scientists from the School of Integretive Biology at The University of Queensland revealed that by infecting Aedes mosquitoes with the bacterium

How can we prevent this? In the study, super-fine needles were used to inject 10,000 mosquito embryos with the bacterium. Once an insect was infected, the bacterium would spread via its eggs to the next generation.

How can we prevent this? A pilot release of infected mosquitoes could begin in Vietnam within 3 years. If no problems are discovered, a full-scale biological attack against the insects could be launched within 5 years.

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