Presentation on Chemical Machining

Gurpreet Singh 4th Sem.

chemical milling It is a non traditional machining process in which material removal is carried out by using strong chemical solution . Etchants are acid or alikine solutions maintained with controlled ranges of chemical composition and temprature.Introduction Chemical machining also known as chemical etching. . Maskants are specially designed elastomeric products that are hand strippable and chemically resistant to the harsh etchants. wet etching. This method is recentaly employed as a micromachining process in production. This is simply the “ accelerated and controlled corrosion “ process. called etchant. The two key elements used in chemical machining process are etchant and maskant.

.. Chemical machining has a long history back to BC 2500. It also used to reduce weight of the workpiece materials such as aircraft wings .... used to produce jewellery from copper by citric acid in the ancient Egypt (Harris 1976) It has been accepted one of the important NTM method since 1950s... This machining process widely used to machine thin and flat materials producing geometrically complex and dimensionally accurate components..Intro.

pickle and preclean of the worpiece surface to provide a clean surface for good adhesion of masking material Masking.Steps in chemical machining process Preparing.Post treatment and surface inspection( surface topography test. Demasking.) . thickness and surface finish test. rinse. scan electron microscopy. clean.degrease.coating or protecting area not to be etcheed Etching – chemically dissolves by strip or demask of the maskant and clean the workpiece. Post process.

2) Quantity of parts.For a large volume production the masking process should be as simple as possible to reduce the cost.Thicker masks are generally less accurate though the method of masking the mask also contributes to it.thicker maskants can resist the erosive action of the etchant for a longer period and hence larger depth of cut is possible with them. 3) Ease of removal. .Delicate parts require that the maskant should be easier to remove since the mask should be removed before the part is used 4) Required resolution.MASKS The selection of masant for given application depends on following considerations:1) Chemical resistance.

The thickness of the mask can range from 0.025 – 0. Afterwards the pattern is scribed on the mask and peeled away exposing the area to be etched.The maskant is transferred to the workpiece using a fine mesh screen such as those used for silk screen printing.This is generally a neoprene. The thickness of mash is relatively small( less than 0.125 mm which allow it to be used for large depth of cut . butyl or vinyl based thick material . 2) screen printing. It also used for step etching applications. spraying or flow coating. This is best and economical for large volume production with relatively less accuracy. .Methods for masking 1)Cut and peel.05 mm) and hence used for shallower etching depths. which is applied by dip.

.This is most versatile method compared to the other masking technologies use of these maskes makes the process to be called photochemical machining(PCM) though the rest of the process remains chemical machining.3) Photo resist masks. .

2)Removal etchants remove material faster reducing the machining time. giving poor surface finish and are generating more heat. . The choice of etchant depends upon number of factors. which detrimental to the surface finish.some etchants promote the formation of surface oxides. which then goes to the solution .Etchants The function served by the etchant is to dissolve the metal from the part by converting it to a salt. some are:1)Surface finish. but can also to attack the maskant. 3) Material type. hydrogen embrittlement or stress corrosion cracking.the etchant while removing the material should not cause inter-granular attack.

In total .selected etchant ferric chloride was prepared at 1. Etching procedure. Etching process was carried out for 20 min.40 and 50 degree centigrade.Some Chemical machining processes a)chemical machining of alumnium [ journal Material processes technology 199(2008) 337340] in study it was observed that ferric chloride is very useful chemical etchant for aluminium. The selected etching temperature were 20.30.25 mol and poured into beaker that was put into water jacket to control etching temperature.

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b) chemical machining of copper copper etching is considerably important process in electronics industry. . particularly in the field of printed circuit board. Various etchants can be used for this purpose. because of it's high etch rate and easy regeneration properties. but now days cupric chloride is more accepted etchant. The ideal etching solution for copper should have some properties as follows: a) high etch rate b) Minimum under cut c) high dissolved copper capacity d) stable and easy control of copper etching process e) not generate toxic flumes f) environmentally acceptable g) economic regeneration of waste etchant h) economic etched copper recovery from waste etchant.

The one copper atom reacts with one cupric ion and forms two atoms of cuprous ions as follows . bronze and beryllium. It has easy regeneration properties which is important factor because Environmental and health restrictions have become an important parameter since 1970s Process Copper etching with cupric chloride it is simply expressed by following reaction: the uncoated copper surface gets attacked by cupric chloride .Cupric chloride is mainly used because it can also etch copper alloys lie brass.

washing away the unexposed resist and leaving the area to be etched un protected. 5)After exposure.1)the process starts by printing the shape of the part on to optically clear and dimensionally stable photographic film. the plate is developed. 3)The coated metal is placed between the two sheets of phototool and the metal plate. It can produce highly complex parts with very fine detail.● Photo chemical machining it is a chemical milling process used to fabricate sheet metal components using a photoresist and etchants to corrosively machine away selected area. 4)The plate is then exposed in UV light that allows the area of resist that are in clear section of the film to be hardened. cleaned and then laminated on both sides with a UV-sensitive photoresist. The phototool consist of two sheets of this film showing negative images of the parts (meaning that the area that will become the part is clear and all other area to be etched are black) 2)The metal sheets are cut to size. . Process.

which minimizes the part distortion and makes machining of delicate parts possible. •Simultaneous material removal. from all surfaces. is relatively low. •The capital cost of equipment. * A continuous taper on contoured sections is achievable.CHM Advantages •Weight reduction is possible on complex contours that are difficult to machine using conventional methods. used for machining large components. * Decorative finishes and extensive thin-web areas are possible . improves productivity and reduces wrapping. •No burrs •No stress is introduced to the workpiece. * Design changes can be implemented quickly.

*Deep narrow cuts are difficult to produce. . and stripping can be time-consuming. * Porous castings yield uneven etched surfaces. repetitive. *Surface imperfections are reproduced in the machined parts. scribing. and tedious.CHM Limitations and of disadvantage *Handling and disposal of chemicals can be troublesome. * Metallurgical homogeneous surfaces are required for best results. *Material removal from one side of residually stressed material can result in a considerable distortion. * Fillet radii are fixed by the depth of cut. *Welded areas frequently etch at rates that differ from the base metal. *Hand masking.

.CHM Limitations and of disadvantage The absence of residual stresses on the chemically machined surfaces can produce unfavorable fatigue strength compared with the processes that induce compressive residual stresses. . Hydrogen pickup and intergranular attack are a problem with some materials. .

Chip carriers 7. Strain gauges 6. Masks 3. Heat sinks .Fuel cell plates 11. Shutter blades 9. Laminations 10. Manufacturing of encoders 2.CHM Applications 1. Filters (aerospace filters) 4. Lead frames flat springs 5.

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