ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND

By Dr. M. Anthony David, MD Professor of Physiology
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PITUITARY GLAND
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Synonym: Hypophysis Cerebri. Pituita = Mucus (Latin) So named by the Scientist Galen Hypophysis Cerebri = Outgrowth from the Cerebrum. Has two important parts:
 

Anterior Pituitary: Adenohypophysis Posterior Pituitary: Neurohypophysis
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EMBRYOLOGY OF THE PITUITARY

Anterior Pituitary or Adenohypophysis:

Derived from an upward evagination of the Rathke’s pouch.(Ectoderm)

Posterior Pituitary or Neurohypophysis:

Derived from a downward growth of the Infundibulum from the Diencephalon, a structure of the Neurectoderm.
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PITUITARY GLAND

DIMENSIONS:
 

1 cm in diameter. 0.5 to 1 gm in weight. Sella turcica A bony cavity. Anterior Lobe Posterior Lobe Pars Intermedia
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LOCATION:
 

DIVISIONS:
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CHROMOPHOBES:
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ADENOHYPOPHYSIS: CLASSICAL CLASSIFICATION OF CELLS
50% of the cells Agranular, quiescent & Non secretory Acidophils: 35%

CHROMOPHILS:

Secrete: Growth Hormone & Prolactin

 

Basophils: 15% Secrete:
Glycoproteins : FSH, LH & TSH  Polypeptides : ACTH & MSH

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MODERN CLASSIFICATION OF ADENOHYPOPHYSIAL CELLS

SOMATOTROPHS:

GONADOTROPHS:

Secrete Growth Hormone Secrete Prolactin Secrete TSH

Are of two types:

MAMMOTROPHS:

FSH type: secrete FcH LH type: secrete LH

THYROTROPHS:

CORTICOTROPHS (ADRENOCORTICO MELANOTROPHS)

Secrete ACTH & MSH
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ADENOHYPOPHYSIAL HORMONES
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GROWTH HORMONE: SOMATOTROPIN THYROTROPIN: THYROID STIMULATING HORMONE (TSH) ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE(ACTH) GONADOTROPIC HORMONES:
 

FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE (FSH) LUTEINISING HORMONE (LH); Interstitial Cell Stimulating Hormone (ICSH)

PROLACTIN
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Adenohypophysial Hormones: A Mnemonic for you!

“Those Giant Gonads Prolong the Action”
    

T = Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) G = Growth Hormone G = Gonadotropins: FSH & LH P = Prolactin A = Adreno Cortico Tropic Hormone (ACTH)
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GROWTH HORMONE: FUNCTIONS

ON GROWTH:

In Children ( As the epiphyses are unfused)
 Increased

Chondrogenesis.  Increased Linear Growth.( Both in conjunction with Somatomedins)

In Adults, where the epiphyses have fused:
 Thickening

of bones.
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GROWTH HORMONE:FUNCTIONS ON METABOLISMS:
 PROTEINS:
 Anabolic


”Anabolism”

effect by:

Amino acid transport into cells   m & t RNA activity   Nitrogen, Calcium, Sodium & Potassium in the cells  Protein Catabolism
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GROWTH HORMONE:FUNCTIONS ON METABOLISMS:

CARBOHYDRATES: “DIABETOGENIC”

Hyperglycemia caused by:
Gluconeogenesis.  Peripheral Utilisation of Glucose: “AntiInsulin”  Glycolysis   FFA causing need for glycolysis

FAT:

Increased FFA: Used for energy
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GROWTH HORMONE:FUNCTIONS ON METABOLISMS:
 ELECTROLYTES:
 Increased

Calcium absorption  Retention of:
Sodium Potassium
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SOMATOMEDINS

Are Intermediate compounds, polypeptide growth factors. They facilitate the functions of Growth Hormone. Growth Hormone will not be able to function in the absence of these somatomedins. The most important of the somatomedins is Somatomedin C or IGF I.
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SOME SOMATOMEDINS
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Sulfation Factor Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) Epidermal Growth factor (EGF) Ovarian Growth Factor (OGF) Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF) Platelet Derived Growth Factor (PDGF) Insulin like Growth Factor I (IGF I or Somatomedin C) Insulin like Growth Factor II (IGF II)
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FACTORS INFLUENCING GROWTH HORMONE SECRETION
FASTING EXERCISE

HYPOTHALAMIC FACTORS

DEEP SLEEP V A.As  l DOPA STRESS: SURGERY ANESTHESIA HEMORRHAGE EXCITEMENT “COLD”

GLUCAGON ANDROGENS ESTROGEN PROSTAGLANDINS

GROWTH HORMONE SECRETION

HYPERGLYCEMIA PROTEIN ANABOLISM  FFA OXIDATIO  ENERGY
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THYROTROPIN (TSH)

FUNCTIONS:

LEVELS:
 

Releases stored T3,T4 Facilitates:
Iodination  Coupling  Other stages of Biosynthesis.

 Midnight Evening

 

REGULATION: TRH (Hypothalamus) Negative feedback:
 

T3, T4 Via TRH
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CORTICOTROPIN: ACTH
EXTRA ADRENAL:  Melanocytes  ADRENAL:  Adipokinetic  Hypertropy & effect Hyperplasia of  Circadian z.fasciculata & Rhythm. reticularis  REGULATION:   Vascularity  CRF & -VE Feedback  Basal & Stress  LEVELS: Circadian induced   4 – 6 AM Cortisol levels.  02/09/08 EndoPhysio AntPitPara Evening 18

ACTIONS:

PROLACTIN

In Males?
  

Potentiates effect of ICSH ( Interstitial Cell Stimulating Hormone ) In Females: Promotes Milk Production in Estrogen & Progesterone primed Mammary tissues. Baby’s suckling increases Prolactin secretion by the Milk Ejection/Secretion Reflex

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PROLACTIN

Inhibits Ovulation by:
  

Secretion & effect of LHRH on Pituitary gland Action of FSH/LH on Ovary Lactational Amenorrhea

 

On the CNS: Maternal Instinct, protective Behaviour (Limbic System)

 

Regulation: PIH/DOPAMINE: Depresses Prolactin production.
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GONADOTROPINS

FSH:
 

Early maturation & Nutrition of Ova Release of Estrogens Final Maturation of Ova Ovulation Corpus Luteum formation. In Males: ICSH:  Production of Testosterone.
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LH:
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NOW FOR A COFFEE!

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GROWTH

Physiological Growth is defined as an increase in the number and size of cells with sequential changes in maturation. Growth is normal and physiological in children and adolescents It becomes pathological in Malignancies or Cancers.
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HYPERTROPY & HYPERPLASIA
 

HYPERTROPY: Increase in the size of the cells.

 

HYPERPLASIA: Increase in the number of cells.

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FACTORS CONTROLLING GROWTH
1. GENETIC FACTORS:

Genes decide the tissue responsiveness to GH. Diet/ Nutrition: PEM : KWASHIORKOR/MARASMUS

2. EXTRINSIC FACTORS:

3. ENDOCRINE FACTORS:
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MARASMUS

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ENDOCRINE FACTORS AFFECTING GROWTH
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GROWTH HORMONE THYROXIN INSULIN SEX HORMONES:
 

ANDROGENS ESTROGEN

 

GLUCOCORTICOIDS GONADOCORTICOIDS
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GENERAL GROWTH CURVE
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X – AXIS: AGE IN YEARS Y – AXIS: GROWTH% SIZE AT 20 YEARS HAS FOUR PHASES:
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I : RAPID GROWTH: 0 – 3 Years II : SLOW PHASE: 3 – 13 Years III: ACCELERATED PHASE: 13 – 16 Years IV : SLOW INCREASE: 16 – 20 Years.
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GENERAL GROWTH CURVE 120
100 % GROWTH AT 20yrs 80 60 40 20 0 0
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2

4

6

8

10 12 14 AGE I N YEARS

16

18

20

22
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SPECIFIC GROWTH CURVES

NEURAL & HEAD CURVE:

Peaks by 3 to 6 years. Peaks to 200% at 12 – 14 Years. Similar to the General growth curve. Peaks at 13 – 16 years.
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LYMPHOID CURVE:

SPLANCHNIC CURVE:

REPRODUCTIVE CURVE:

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SPECIFIC GROWTH CURVES : NEURAL & HEAD
120 % GROWTH AT 20yrs. 100 80 60 40 20 0 2
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4

6

8

10 12 14 16 18 20 22 AGE I N YEARS
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SPECIFIC GROWTH CURVES: LYMPHOID TISSUE
250 % GROWTH AT 20 Yrs 200 150 100 50 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 AGE I N YEARS

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SPECIFIC GROWTH CURVES: SPLANCHNIC TISSUES
120 100 80 60 40 20 0 0
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% GROWTH AT 20yrs

2

4

6

8

10 12 14 AGE I N YEARS

16

18

20

22
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SPECIFIC GROWTH CURVES: RPRODUCTIVE TISSUES
120 % GROWTH AT 20yrs. 100 80 60 40 20 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 AGE I N YEARS

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ANTERIOR PITUITARY: APPLIED ASPECTS

 

PAN HYPOPITUITARISM:
Simmond’s: Sheehan’s Syndrome Frohlich’s Syndrome: Both Ant & Post Pit are deficient.(Dystropia Adiposa GenItalis)


 

HYPOSECRETION OF ANT PIT HORMONES
ADULTS: Acromicria INFANTS: Dwarfism: Laron type: Somatomedins Sexual Ateloitic: Intelligent Dwarfs
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ANTERIOR PITUITARY: APPLIED ASPECTS

HYPERSECRETION OF GH:
 

ADULTS: ACROMEGALY INFANTS: GIGANTISM

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G I G A N T I S M

N O R M A L
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ACROMEGALY : ABC
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A: ARTHROPATHY: Joint Disorders B: BIG BOGGY HANDS C: CARPAL TUNNEL SYNDROME

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ACROMEGALY : DEF
 

D: DIABETES MELLITUS E: ENLARGED:
  

TONGUE HEART: CARDIOMEGALY THROAT

F: FIELD DEFECT OF VISION: Bitemporal Hemianopia
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ACROMEGALY : GHI
  

G: GYNECOMASTIA, GALACTORRHEA & GREASY SKIN H: HYPERTENSION: 20 – 50% CASES I: INCREASING SIZE OF:
    

SHOES HATS GLOVES DENTURES RINGS
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ACROMEGALY: JK

J: JAW ENLARGED: PROGNATHISM K: KYPHOSIS: VERTEBRAL DEFORMITY

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REVIEW

 

Growth: an increase in the number and size of cells with sequential changes in maturation. General & Specific Growth Curves Applied Aspects:

Adults:
 

Acromegaly Acromicria Gigantism Dwarfism: Intelligent!

Infants:
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REVIEW: ACROMEGALY
    

A B C D E
  

: ARTHROPATHY : BIG, BOGGY HANDS : CARPAL TUNNEL SYNDROME : DIABETES MELLITUS : ENLARGED:
TONGUE HEART THROAT

F : FIELD DEFECT: Bitemporal Hemianopia
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REVIEW: ACROMEGALY
  

G : GYNECOMASTIA, GALACTORRHEA & GREASY SKIN H : HYPERTENSION I : INCREASED SIZES OF
    

HATS SHOES GLOVES RINGS DENTURES

 

J : JAW ENLARGED: PROGNATHISM K : KYPHOSIS
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THANK YOU

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