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POSTERIOR PITUITARY

GLAND

By
Dr. M. Anthony David, MD
Professor of Physiology
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POSTERIOR PITUITARY
HORMONES
 ANTI DIURETIC HORMONE (ADH):
 Also called Vasopressin
 Produced predominantly by the Supra
Optic Nucleus (SON) of the
Hypothalamus.
 OXYTOCIN:
 Produced predominantly by the Para
Ventricular Nucleus (PVN) of the
Hypothalamus.
(Note: Both hormones are produced by
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POSTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND

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ANTIDIURETIC HORMONE
(ADH)
 ALSO CALLED VASOPRESSIN
 AN OCTA PEPTIDE SECRETED MAINLY
FROM THE SUPRA-OPTIC NUCLEUS.

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ADH: FUNCTIONS

 Increased Re-absorption of water


from the DCT/CT of the Renal
Nephrons.
 MOA: Aquaporins
 Increases the permeability of
nephrons for Urea.
 Vasoconstriction: Only in extremely
high, Pharmacological dosages.
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OXYTOCIN :
FUNCTIONS:
 ON THE BREAST
:
 Causes Milk
ejection and
secretion
through a Neuro-
endocrine reflex.

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OXYTOCIN: FUNCTIONS
contd.
 ON THE NON PREGNANT UTERUS:
 Movement of the Female Genital Tract
 Transport of the Sperm
 Fertilization.

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OXYTOCIN:FUNCTIONS contd

 ON THE PREGNANT UTERUS:


 Initiates Parturition or Labour.
 Enhances Uterine contractions during
labor.
 Stretches the birth canal by a
Positive feedback mechanism
 Causes involution of the Uterus
after delivery.
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MILK EJECTION REFLEX
SUCKLING
GENERAL SOMATIC
 MILK LET DOWN AFFERENCE THROUGH
SPINOTHALAMIC TRACTS

 MILK PRODUCTION
PVN/ HYPOTHALAMUS

RELEASE OF
OXYTOCIN PRODUCTION
OF PROLACTIN

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MILK EJECTION REFLEX
 There are two distinctive features of
this reflex.
 It is a NEURO-ENDOCRINE Reflex:
 Neural Afference
 Hormonal Efference.

 It is a POSITIVE FEEDBACK
MECHANISM.
 Can be also called as a vicious circle.
 Is terminated only by stopping of suckling.

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APPLIED ASPECTS
 DIABETES INSIPIDUS: ADH
 Causes:

 Post Pituitary Lesion

 Reistance to ADH: Nephrogenic D I

 Symptoms:

 Polyuria: Upto 15 lts/day!

 Polydipsia: Excessive Thirst

 Polyphagia: Excessive hunger

 Hypothermia: Body Temperature.11


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DYSTROPIA ADIPOSA
GENITALIS
 Hypothalamus, Ant & Post Pituitary
do not secrete hormones.
PANHYPOPITUITARISM
 Very Rare
 Men have feminine fat distribution
 Also called FROHLICH’S SYNDROME
or HYPOTHALAMIC EUNUCHISM.

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FROHLICH’S SYNDROME:
CLINICAL FEATURES
 Dwarfism
 Sexual Infantilism
 Obesity
 Voracious appetite
 Somnambulism (Sleep Walking)
 Somnolence
 Subnormal Intelligence
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PAN HYPOPITUITARISM:
PITUITARY CACHECIA,
SIMMOND’S DISEASE
 All Anterior Pituitary Hormones
are
 Can occur in Post Partum women

due to Ischemia in the Pituitary


gland.
 These women fail to lactate.

 This is called as the Sheehan’s


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SIMMOND’S DISEASE:
SYMPTOMS & SIGNS
 “HE PAW”
 H : Hypothyroidism & Hypo
adrenalism
 E : Extreme Lethargy
 P : Progeria: Early aging
 A : Allopecia, Anorexia, Anemia &
Atropy of Target organs.
 W : Weakness.
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