POSTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND

By Dr. M. Anthony David, MD Professor of Physiology
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POSTERIOR PITUITARY HORMONES

ANTI DIURETIC HORMONE (ADH):
 

Also called Vasopressin Produced predominantly by the Supra Optic Nucleus (SON) of the Hypothalamus.

OXYTOCIN:
Produced predominantly by the Para Ventricular Nucleus (PVN) of the Hypothalamus. (Note: Both hormones are produced by NOMAD: POSTPIT: PARA

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POSTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND

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 

ALSO CALLED VASOPRESSIN AN OCTA PEPTIDE SECRETED MAINLY FROM THE SUPRA-OPTIC NUCLEUS.

ANTIDIURETIC HORMONE (ADH)

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ADH: FUNCTIONS

Increased Re-absorption of water from the DCT/CT of the Renal Nephrons.

MOA: Aquaporins

Increases the permeability of nephrons for Urea. Vasoconstriction: Only in extremely high, Pharmacological dosages.
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OXYTOCIN : FUNCTIONS:

ON THE BREAST :

Causes Milk ejection and secretion through a Neuroendocrine reflex.

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OXYTOCIN: FUNCTIONS contd.

ON THE NON PREGNANT UTERUS:
  

Movement of the Female Genital Tract Transport of the Sperm Fertilization.

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OXYTOCIN:FUNCTIONS contd
  

ON THE PREGNANT UTERUS: Initiates Parturition or Labour. Enhances Uterine contractions during labor. Stretches the birth canal by a Positive feedback mechanism Causes involution of the Uterus after delivery.
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MILK EJECTION REFLEX
SUCKLING  MILK LET DOWN  MILK PRODUCTION PVN/ HYPOTHALAMUS RELEASE OF OXYTOCIN
GENERAL SOMATIC AFFERENCE THROUGH SPINOTHALAMIC TRACTS

PRODUCTION OF PROLACTIN

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MILK EJECTION REFLEX

There are two distinctive features of this reflex.

It is a NEURO-ENDOCRINE Reflex:
Neural Afference  Hormonal Efference.

It is a POSITIVE FEEDBACK MECHANISM.
Can be also called as a vicious circle.  Is terminated only by stopping of suckling.

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APPLIED ASPECTS

DIABETES INSIPIDUS: ADH  Causes:  Post Pituitary Lesion  Reistance to ADH: Nephrogenic D I  Symptoms:  Polyuria: Upto 15 lts/day!  Polydipsia: Excessive Thirst  Polyphagia: Excessive hunger  Hypothermia: Body Temperature.11 NOMAD: POSTPIT: PARA

DYSTROPIA ADIPOSA GENITALIS

  

Hypothalamus, Ant & Post Pituitary do not secrete hormones. PANHYPOPITUITARISM Very Rare Men have feminine fat distribution Also called FROHLICH’S SYNDROME or HYPOTHALAMIC EUNUCHISM.
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FROHLICH’S SYNDROME: CLINICAL FEATURES
      

Dwarfism Sexual Infantilism Obesity Voracious appetite Somnambulism (Sleep Walking) Somnolence Subnormal Intelligence
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PAN HYPOPITUITARISM: PITUITARY CACHECIA, SIMMOND’S DISEASE
All Anterior Pituitary Hormones are  Can occur in Post Partum women due to Ischemia in the Pituitary gland.  These women fail to lactate.  This is called as the Sheehan’s

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SIMMOND’S DISEASE: SYMPTOMS & SIGNS
 

  

“HE PAW” H : Hypothyroidism & Hypo adrenalism E : Extreme Lethargy P : Progeria: Early aging A : Allopecia, Anorexia, Anemia & Atropy of Target organs. W : Weakness.
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