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Presented By: Tushar Gupta B.

Tech (IT) 3 rd yr U Roll No:1036513055

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Content:
1. Introduction 1.1 The term WIRELESS CHARGING? 1.2 How it is different? 2. History 3. How it Works?
3.1 Inductive Coupling 3.2 Resonance Inductive Coupling 3.3 Air Ionization 3.4 Microwave Power Transmission 3.5 LASER power Transmission

4. Devices for wireless charging 5. Future of wireless charging
5.1 Wearable Devices

6. Advantages 7.Disadvantages 8.Conclusion 9.Bibliography 10.Queries 11.Thank You
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 The term Wireless Charging?  Wireless Charging is a method of
transmitting energy through the air to an electrical device for the purpose of charging it.

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Toyota’s ‘wireless car charger’ is essentially just a special mat located on top of the dash.
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The First Mover and Innovator:  Nikola Tesla (1856-1943)
“Nikola Tesla, the eccentric - and unbelievably under-rated - genius known as the ‘wild man of electronics’, was without doubt one of the greatest minds in the history of the human race.”  Born in Austro-Hungary (now Croatia) in 1856, Tesla constructed his first induction motor in 1883 and immigrated to America in 1884 - arriving in New York with worldly goods totaling four cents, a pocket full of poems, carefully worked calculations for a flying machine, and a head full of strange dreams.
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Cont…
Tesla began working with Thomas Edison, but the two men were worlds apart in both their science and cultures and they soon went their separate ways. Fact is that, Tesla’s alternating current concept is directly proportional to the decrease in sale of Edison’s direct current concept.
Tesla invented the alternating-current generator that provides your light and electricity, the transformer through which it is sent, and even the high voltage coil of your picture tube. The Tesla Coil, in fact, is used in radios, television sets, and a wide range of other electronic equipment - invented in 1891, no-one's ever come up with anything better.

Tesla Tower
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Cont…
 The idea of wireless electricity has been around since the early days of the Tesla coil. But thanks to a group of MIT scientists, known as "WiTricity" (as these scientists call it) is now one step closer to practical reality.

 In 2007, 6 MIT members headed by Marin Soljacic were able to successfully transmit power to a bulb within a distance of 2m at a freq of 9.9MHz using concepts of non radiative energy transfer.
This method is mainly based on the transmission of magnetic energy by taking two Magnetically resonant object in strongly coupled region. the source and load are coupled to the coils which are magnetically resonant and transmit energy in the magnetic form in strongly coupled region . Because they are in magnetic resonance, there is no possibility of external disturbance.

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 Near-field techniques:
 Inductive Coupling  Resonant Inductive Coupling  Air Ionization

 Far-field techniques:
 Microwave Power Transmission (MPT)

 LASER power transmission

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 Inductive Coupling:
The most familiar example of a Inductive coupling is a transformer. In a transformer, a coil of wire with alternating current generates a timevarying magnetic flux, which couples into an adjacent coil of wire and generates a corresponding current on the secondary coil through magnetic induction. In a wireless inductive charging system , the primary coil resides in the charging device, and the secondary coil is located in the portable device. Therefore it is necessary to use either an air gap transformer, or a split-core transformer with an air gap between the two cores to improve the efficiency.
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Cont…
When the secondary coil is brought in close proximity to the primary coil, the transformer is formed and energy transfer occurs. This method of wireless energy transfer can be fairly efficient as the majority of the magnetic flux resides in the core of the transformer, and therefore losses due to leakage fields are low except at the air gap between the two cores.

Due to the need for a small air gap even in split core transformers, the efficiency is lower than more traditional transformer designs, and as the air gap increases the effectiveness of the coupling is decreased significantly. For these reasons this method is only useful for energy transfer over short distances.

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Resonance Inductive Coupling:
 Combination of inductive coupling and resonance.  Due to the Resonance, two objects interact very strongly.

“A Resonance is responsible for the vibration in an object when energy of a certain frequency applied.”
 How Resonance in RIC:  Coil provides the inductance. Capacitor is connected parallel to the coil. Energy will be shifting back between magnetic field surrounding the coil and electric field around the capacitor. Radiation loss will be negligible.

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 Toughest technique under near-field energy transfer techniques.  Air ionizes only when there is a high voltage field.  Needed field is approx 2.11MV/m.  Natural example: Lightening  Not feasible for practical implementation.

To know about How Lightening work? Please go on the link mentioned below : http://science.howstuffworks.com/nature/natural-disasters/lightning2.htm
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 Wireless Power Transmission (using microwaves) is well proven. Experiments

in the tens of kilowatts have been performed at Goldstone in California in 1975 and more recently (1997) at Grand Bassin on Reunion Island. In 2008 a long range transmission experiment successfully transmitted 20 watts 92 miles (148 km) from a mountain on Maui to the main island of Hawaii.
 The principle of the microwave transmission is consist of following steps:  Convert electrical energy to microwaves,  Capturing microwaves using rectenna,  Convert Microwaves to electrical energy.

These steps, lies in converting electricity to microwaves and vice versa.
 Microwaves can be generated by the use of a Magnetron(Self contained

Microwave Oscillator).
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Cont…

AC

Received output in DC

DC

Microwav es using Magnetro n

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Image of a Rectenna in US with diameter of about half a mile which is important as 95% of the microwave power is received by rectennas.US receives about 5000MW of power as a result.

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LASER Power Transmission:
 Power can be transmitted by converting electricity

into a laser beam that is then pointed at a solar cell receiver , This mechanism is generally known as "power beaming" because the power is beamed at a receiver that can convert it to usable electrical energy. The laser "powerbeaming" technology has been mostly explored in military weapons and aerospace applications. Wireless energy transfer system using laser for consumer space has to satisfy Laser safety requirements standardized under IEC 60825.

With a laser beam centered on its panel of photovoltaic cells, a lightweight model plane makes the first flight of an aircraft powered by a laser beam inside a building at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center.

NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center has demonstrated flight of a lightweight unmanned model plane powered by a laser beam.
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 Working:

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• Solar Energy is captured using photocells

• Send to the earth in the form of laser

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• This energy is converted into electrical energy using rectenna

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Researchers are working with an "ink“ that will change cotton and polyester into electronic textiles that double as rechargable batteries.

New lightweight military uniforms incorporate intelligent textiles into the vest, shirt, helmet and backpack, as well as into the glove and weapons platform. The tech would let soldiers charge one single battery, and then the power from that battery would be sent through the clothing to where it needs to charge a device.

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An entrepreneur in Kenya is being funded by the National Council of Science for Technology to create shoes that generate energy from pressure. An ultra-thin chip of crystals would be inserted within the soles of your shoes to create electricity.

A team of researchers at the Centre for Nanotechnology and Molecular Materials at Wake Forest University are working on Power Felt, a thermoelectric device that could convert body heat into electrical current.

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British mobile carrier Orange partnered with Got Wind in 2010 to develop Rain boots that charge your phone. Though it was just a concept for the Music Festival, the prototype flaunts the potential of mobile charging solutions.

The Sound Charge t-shirt, another Festival prototype from Orange, powers mobile phones while attendees watch bands in action. Users just put their phone in to the t-shirt, which uses noise-responsive technology for a quick top-off charge.
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In 2008, a solar-powered garments received a lot of attention for being able to generate enough electric energy to charge a mobile phone.

If you cannot wait for these concepts to develop, this small cylindrical device uses the energy you generate while walking, running or biking to charge your Smartphone, music player, GPS and other hand-held devices. It's not actually wearable, though it's small enough to carry around in your bag.
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 Creation of a shock free environment .

 Reduction in power theft.
 A solution to reduce e-waste.  Efficiency not affected by room geometry.  Can charge multiple devices.  Can deliver power through walls.

 No Need of transmission lines.
 Wireless chargers are cost effective, adaptable, portable and stylish.
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 Possibility of harmful radiation.  Doesn’t have a very large range.  Higher Initial Cost.

 Increase in distance decreases efficiency.
 increased resistive heating.  Slower charging.

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 Wireless charging has huge potential. This is why people have been working on it for well over a century. If we could move power without wires we’d be able to re-think not just consumer electronics but the infrastructure used by the entire human race.  Transmission without wires become a reality.  In future, world will be wireless.  Future improvements in wireless power technology offer world changing implications.

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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inductive_charging http://www.nokia.com/gb-en/products/wireless-charging/ http://www.wpcentral.com/exploring-future-wireless-charging-now-qimwc http://seminarprojects.com/s/research-paper-on-wireless-charging-ofmobile-phones-using-micro-waves http://www.computerworld.com/s/article/9231116/Cutting_the_cable_Wi reless_charging_becomes_a_reality?taxonomyId=15&pageNumber=3 http://www.dailytech.com/Intel+and+IDT+Your+Laptop+Will+Wirelessly+Ch arge+Your+Smartphone+by+2014/article25554.htm http://trs-new.jpl.nasa.gov/dspace/bitstream/2014/16855/1/99-0263.pdf http://gecieeeunit.x10.mx/project/EE198B%20%20Wireless%20Battery%20Charger.pdf http://www.scribd.com/doc/102287903/Seminar-on-Wireless-Chargingof-mobile-devices  "Goodbye wires…". MIT News. 2007-06-07. http://web.mit.edu/newsoffice/2007/wireless-0607.html http://www.eetasia.com/STATIC/PDF/201206/EEOL_2012JUN01_RFD_P OW_TA_01.pdf?SOURCES=DOWNLOAD

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#No animal were harmed in the making of this ppt.

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