• Sound are produced by vibration. • Sound needs a medium to travel. – Sound can travel through solids, liquids and gases. – Sound cannot travel through a vacuum.

To study the production of sound.

Method: Activities A to C as shown in the table below were carried out.

The vibration of the ruler produces sound. The ruler vibrates and a sound can be heard. The free end of the tuning fork vibrates and a sound can be heard. . The vibration of the tuning fork produces sound.Activity Observations Inference My fingers can feel The vibration of the vibration of the vocal cords the vocal cords produces sound.

A guitar. vibration. a drum and a bell. .The kinetic energy of the vibration is changed into sound energy.

To investigate the need of medium for sound to travel. .

• The sound of the bell cannot travel through vacuum 2 • The sound of the bell can be heard. the sound of the bell cannot be heard at all 3 4 • As the air is let in the • The sound of the bell bell jar. When all the air is drawn out. . • As the air is drawn out. • The tapping sound can travel through the pipe (solid) • The sound of the bell can travel through the air (gas). the sound of the bell becomes weaker. the sound of the needs a medium to bell becomes stronger travel.1 • The tapping sound can be heard at the other end.

there were lesser air molecules to pass on the sound vibration. 3. There are no particles in vacuum to transfer vibration. medium vacuum . This caused the sound of the bell to become weaker. When all air was drawn out. the vibrations cannot be passed on at all. Can sound travel through liquids? Explain Yes. Why does the sound of the bell become fainter in step 2 ? As the air was drawn out. This is because liquids has particles to transfer vibrations. Explain why sound cannot travel through vacuum. 2. Therefore no sound was heard.1.

8 Sound and Hearing Reflection and Absorption of Sound .1.

– Pepejal – Cecair – Gas • Bunyi tidak boleh dipindahkan dalam vakum .• Bunyi di hasilkan oleh getaran • Bunyi memerlukan medium untuk di pindahkan • Bunyi boleh dipindahkan melalui.




To investigate the reflection and absorption of sound .

The towel is a good sound absorber because the ticking sound is softer when the towel is used.Hard and smooth Soft and rough Loud Soft The plank of wood is a good sound reflector because the ticking sound is louder when the plank of wood is used. .

Thick curtains and walls lined with soft board. reflected hard absorbed. smooth soft good .

Defects of Hearing and ways to correct them .

Hearing Loss First Type Second Type Outer and middle ear · · · · Wax blockage. Ear infections. · Treated medically or corrected surgically · Cannot be treated medically. · Tumour in inner ear. · Permanently damage to receptors in cochlea · Often temporary. A punctures eardrum. · Bacterial infections. Inner ear · Process of aging. · Corrected with the used of hearing aids . Birth defects. · Extended exposure to loud sounds. · A severe blow to the side of the head.

• Damage to the auditory nerves. Caused by: • Tearing of eardrum. • Damage to the hearing centre of the brain . • Damage to the ossicles. • Damage to the cochlea due to toxic chemical or exposure to loud sound.Hearing Defects • The most common hearing defect is deafness.

Device to Overcome Hearing Limitations • A microphones sends a weak sounds to the loud speaker to increase the volume/ to be amplified. .

Device to Overcome Hearing Limitations • The stethoscope increases the volume of the heartbeat or pulse .

.Device to Overcome Hearing Limitations • Hearing aids are used by people with hearing defects.

thus determining the sources of the sound. . • Enables us to determine the direction of the sound accurately – The ear closer to the sources of sound detects the sound slightly earlier and louder than the other ear. – The brain interprets the difference.Stereophonic Hearing • The ability to hear with both ears.

Exercise sound waves faster cannot medium reflection hard stereophonic amplifies .

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