The War to End War


Wilson wants to keep America neutral in the conflict raging in Europe
 Will

be hard to do

Most Americans were anti-German from the start
 The

Kaiser seemed to embody arrogant autocracy  Position strengthened by Germany’s ruthless strike against neutral Belgium

Ethnic Groups In America
Irish – Hated the British and were openly committed to the Central powers  Germans – Strongly sympathetic with the struggles of the “homeland”  Italians – Sympathies with Italy when they join the Allied Powers

American sympathetic with British

Majority sympathized with British and French
 Strong

ties with France during the Revolutionary War  Shared a history with Britain make most Americans side with the Allies

Hard to remain neutral

British cabled news on a daily basis to U.S. newspapers
 British

kept the U.S. press well informed of German soldier’s atrocities in Belgium and France

Many Americans had close personal ties with Great Britain
 American

war  A series of diplomatic crisis also lead Americans to choose a side

leaders like TR calling for support of the

Economic links

Britain having trouble purchasing war supplies
 JP

Morgan and others allowed to extend as much as $3 billion in secured credit  Maintains U.S. prosperity  Sustained Allied war effort  Trade between U.S. and Germany stops

Economic policy effects neutrality
Americans free to trade with Germany but Britain controlled the Atlantic  As trade ends with Germany, Americans drawn closer to Allies  Americans support Allies to retrieve the loans given to Allies

U.S. economy during war
 

U.S. in recession by 1914 Economy rebounds after the war after war supplies ordered from the British and French By 1915 U.S. businesses had never been so prosperous Allies borrowed money in excess of $3 billion to support the Allied war effort

Submarine Warfare

War Zone
 Germany

hopes to challenge British naval supremacy with submarines  Germany announces a blockade of its own around Britain  Ships attempting to enter the “war zone” will be sunk by German U-boats

U Boats
Underseeboot or undersea boat  New weapon challenging British naval supremacy  Hard to detect and destroy ships without being seen

May 7, 1915  British passenger ship sunk of coast of Ireland  128 Americans killed  Challenged American neutrality by sinking unarmed ship  American war fever sweeps nation

Strict accountability

Wilson wants to scold Germans without going to war Will hold them strictly accountable if attacking unarmed ships continues Wilson drawing line in sand which might lead to war Bryan resigns in protest because it might lead to war

August 1915  2 Americans lost their lives when German subs attack another passenger ship  Germans agree not to sink any more ships without warning

Sussex Pledge
   

 

March 1916 Germans sank the Sussex Wilson threatened to cut off relations with Germany Rather than risk war Germany pledges not to sink merchant or passenger ships without warning Honored in 1916 Hoping to keep the U.S. out of the war

Warring sides

 France,

Britain, Russia joined later by Italy and Japan Austria-Hungary, Turkey, Bulgaria

 Germany,

WWI and The War of 1812
Americans attempting to maintain neutrality while Europe at war  Europeans wanted U.S. on their side and at the same time to restrict trade with the enemy nations  Europe infringed on American rights as a neutral to support their own war effort

Election of 1916

TR decides not to run because it would again split the Republican party
 

Declines the Progressive nomination also Progressives end as a viable party New York Progressive governor Supreme Court Justice Wilson running on his progressive record

Charles Evans Hughes given Republican nomination
  

United Republicans hurt Wilson’s chance for reelection

“He kept us out of war”

Hughes painted as wishy-washy on issue of Germany
 Electing

Hughes would invite war

Roosevelt made speeches supporting war
 Hurt



277  9,127,695

Support from midwest and west attracted to Wilson’s progressive reforms

254  8,533,507

0  585,113

0  220,506

TR and other Republicans first to recognize that U.S. is not prepared for war  Call for “preparedness” as soon as war broke out in Europe  Wilson opposed getting prepared for war as late as 1915

 Changed

his policy and urged Congress to approve expansion of armed forces

Reaction to preparedness

Change in policy creates controversy
 Democrats

who were anti-imperialist and opposed to military build-up  Wilson convinces Congress after a speaking tour and they passed the National Defense Act in June of 1916
Increased the regular army to 175,000  Congress approves the construction of 50 warships

Opposition to build-up
William Jennings Bryan, Jane Addams, Jeanette Rankin (first woman Congressman)  Many who opposed the war before it started became very loyal to the war effort after it began

Isolationism still prevails
Wilson wants to arm merchant ships  Midwestern Senators block move

Wilson hesitant to go to war  Germany resumes unrestricted sub warfare

 Why

Germany on the ropes  Called Wilson’s bluff on Sussex Pledge  Broke relations with Germany  Felt it could defeat Allies before U.S. got ready

War By Act of Germany

Zimmerman Note
  

March 1, 1917 German letter to Mexico Promised Mexico they could recover lost land from US if they joined Germany and attacked the U.S. Aroused American anger towards Germany and Germany expects U.S. to enter war

“The difference between war and what we have now is that now we aren’t fighting back” German U boats sink 4 American ships  Russia drops out of war to hold revolution

Wilson asks for war
Solemn  April 2, 1917  Lost the gamble  Did munitions makers get US into WWI?

 NO

Already making money

Wilsonian Idealism Enthroned

American goes to War
Wilson’s leadership to be challenged  Broke American tradition of entangling alliances

Wilson idealizes the war

Wilson would have a hard time convincing Americans that we were going to war to protect shipping and trade Americans had prided themselves for their isolationism from European intrigue and Wilson was asking them to break that tradition Had to idealize the war to ask for a break in tradition

America not aroused for War
Midwest voted against war  Jeannette Rankin (first congresswoman) votes against it

“War to end war” “To make the world safe for democracy”
    

Made the War idealistic War is now a crusade High ideals compared to belligerents selfish war aims Fight to shape international order Will not fight for riches or conquest of territory Wilson’s ideals were a perfect match for the American public

Hard to make the case for an idealistic war and then be the ally of an autocratic government  When the Russian Revolution began, Wilson could more easily reconcile this difference

Wilson’s Fourteen Points

14 Points
Wilson becomes moral leader of Allies  Wants to keep Russia in the War  Inspired Allies  Demoralized enemy

“Peace without victory”
U.S. wants no territorial gains from the war  U.S. not entering the war to get rich  U.S. wants to enter the war for the right, idealistic purposes  Raise the war to a higher moral cause

The Points
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Abolish secret treaties Freedom of the seas Remove economic barriers Reduce armaments Adjust colonial claims

More points
Self determination to minority groups  14th point

 League

of Nations

System of collective security  Guarantee political independence and territorial integrity of all countries

The “League”
The 14 Points could be achieved thru a united world organization promoting peace.  Peaceful association of nations to provide a system of collective security to guarantee the political independence and territorial integrity of all countries

Not everyone like them
Allies want booty  Republicans mocked them

Creel Manipulates Minds

Committee on Public Information
Mobilize minds for war  Headed by George Creel

 Sell

America the War

Propaganda agency

 150,000

workers and writers  75,000 four minute men give patriotic speeches

Many forms of propaganda
Posters  Leaflets and pamphlets  Booklets  Hang-the-Kaiser movies  “Over There”

 Most

memorable song from WWI written by George M. Cohan, anthem of the War

Creel’s mobilization
Relied more on voluntary compliance than to require compliance.  May have oversold America’s war effort and hopes to lead the world to a much better place  May have led to post-war dissolution from Americans and the world

Enforcing Loyalty and Stifling Dissent

8 million  Most loyal Americans  Rumors spread of spying and sabotage  Some retaliation on German-Americans

American Protective League
War hysteria and patriotic enthusiasm too often provided an excuse for nativist groups to take out their prejudices on minorities.  Mounted “Hate the Hun” campaigns and used vigilante action in attacking all things German, from performing Beethoven to cooking of sauerkraut.

Hatred of Germany
Swept nation  Would not play German music  Banned books  Liberty cabbage  Liberty steak

Espionage Act of 1917 Sedition Act
 

Reflect fears of anti war Americans Imprisonment for up to 20 years for persons who either incite rebellion in the armed forces or obstruct the operation of the draft Went further by prohibiting anyone from making “disloyal” or “abusive” remarks about the U.S. government
 Debs

convicted in 1918  Industrial Workers of the World (Wobblies) attacked

Schenck vs United States

 

Involved a man imprisoned for distributing pamphlets against the draft Upheld his conviction under the Espionage Act Could revoke freedom of speech when it presented a “clear and present danger” Debs will be pardoned by Harding later

The Nation’s Factories Go To War

Obstacles to mobilization

 How

much to make

Old ideas
 States

rightist and business people feared government control

How fast could the U.S. mobilize

US not ready for war
 

US caught flat footed Modest efforts by Wilson to prepare for war
 Council

of National Defense  Shipbuilding to capture foreign trade  Beefing up of army

15th in the world

Wilson had to get U.S. in fight before Germany won the war
 Also

he had to fight those who feared big government control over business

Bernard Baruch

War Industries Board
 Feeble

powers  To impose order on economic confusion  Set production priorities and established centralized control over raw materials and prices  Never really powerful  Dismantled right after the war

Forging a War Economy

Relies on patriotism more than laws  America insulated by ocean  Modest attempt to use government to force war mobilization

Food Administration
Feed Allies and American public  Herbert Hoover  Relies on voluntary compliance

 No

ration cards  Propaganda campaign
Wheatless Wednesdays  Victory gardens  Limit of foodstuffs

Alcohol limited

Voluntary approach works
 

Farm production increases
 Food  Fuel

to Allies triples

Imitated methods
administration Department
Gasless Sundays
 Treasury

Victory Loans  $21 billion by drives

Workers in Wartime

Work or fight
“Labor will win the war”  Could be drafted in unemployed  Discouraged strikes

National War Labor Board
Headed by Taft  Stop labor disputes before they happen to keep war effort alive  Got 8 hours and high wages

Samuel Gompers and the AF of L
Supported the war effort  Doubled its membership  Wages rose 20%  New day dawning it seemed

IWW – International Workers of the World
Wobblies  Damaging strikes  “I Wont Work”  Worst conditions and severe retaliations

Steel Strike of 1919
Still wanted to be recognized to organize and bargain collectively  250,000 walk off  Blacks used as strike breakers  Violent  Collapsed and setback for unions

Black migration
War industries a magnet for black labor  Began migration that would continue into the 20s  Sparked violence

 St.

Louis  Chicago

Suffering Until Suffrage

National Women’s Party
Founded by Alice Paul  Opposed the war and war effort  Pacifists  Marched against the war and used hunger strikes

National Woman Suffrage Association
Supported war and Wilson  Wanted role in shaping peace  Helps women get the right to vote

Suffrage Movement Grows
   

New momentum Wilson supports women’s suffrage States begin to give women suffrage 1920 19th Amendment gives women the right to vote (oh no, there goes the country)

Little gains for women’s labor during war
Women’s Bureau to protect women in workplace  Congress gives federally financed help in maternal and infant health care

Very little success in other areas

Foreshadows future of women shaping political and economic way of life

Selling Bonds

 Patriotic  Liberty

Bond button  People used force or intimidation to get other Americans to buy bonds
 Sold

thru the Treasury Department

Raised over $21 billion

Raising more money
Liberty Bond drives  Raised money by increasing personal and corporate income taxes  Tax on luxury goods
 

Raised over $33 billion for the war

Government and War

Federal government reluctant to exercise its power
 Took

over railroads at one point  Seized enemy merchant vessels  Built many new ships

Women and the War
Took jobs vacated by drafted men  Thousands in workforce for first time  Convinced Wilson to support suffrage

Mexicans and the War

Many cross border
 Looking

for jobs  Political upheavals in Mexico

Southwest on farms  Also Midwest in factories

African Americans and the War
        

Took advantage of job opportunities Moved North 400,000 served in WWI Few were permitted to be officers Barred from the Marines Construction battalions during war Segregated units Many not allowed to handle weapons French recognize their contributions to the war but, not their own country

Making Plowboys Into Doughboys

Americans did not think troops would have to be sent  Use the navy  Use their money  Use their manufacturing
 

Europe scrapping the bottom of barrel

Wilson dislikes the draft  Memories of the Civil War  Congressmen opposed  Believed violence would break out

Selective Service Act of 1917
  

Ages 18-45 All males Could not purchase exemptions
 Except

some in key industries  All groups could be called into service

Worked effectively
 No

riots  Some draft dodgers
  

2.8 million were drafted 4.7 sent to war Doughboys

Conscientious objector

Those whose conscience would not allow them to fight in the War either for personal reasons or religious reasons
 Alvin


Fighting In France - Belatedly

Russian leaves WWI
Hold their revolution  Frees Germans from eastern front

Berlin’s gamble
Knock out Britain before US could join war  Take US a year to join war  Germans could continue unrestricted submarine warfare  By then US could not transport army safely across Atlantic

Americans in France

First deployed to fight in France
 No

major engagements early  Meeting French girls

Other areas of engagement
Belgium and Italy  Archangel (Russia) to save munitions  Siberia with the Japanese

 Save

Siberia  Rescue Czech troops  Get military supplies

America Helps Hammer the “Hun”

“Over There”
George M. Cohen’s song  Reflects the idealism of both the troops and the American public towards the war

German offensive in 1918
Massive  Allies unite under French Marshall Foch

The Yanks arrive
Thrown into stop the offensive  Chateau-Thierry – help stop German advance  Americans have replaced the Russians  Fresh and idealistic

German offensive stopped
2nd Battle of Marne stopped by counteroffensive  Fresh American troops help  Americans and French also push Germans from St. Mihiel

Americans get a front
 

Pershing leader of American Expeditionary Forces Given Meuse-Argonne in 1918
    

Cut German railroad lines 47 days 1.2 million Americans involved 120,000 casualties Alvin York
 

Captures over 300 by himself Most decorated American hero during WWI

War ends

The Fourteen Points Disarm Germany

Germans ready to surrender
Allies too numerous for them  Leaflets  Promises by Wilson

Germany turns to Wilson
Want peace based on 14 points  Wilson says Kaiser must be overthrown  Kaiser forced to flee

11-11-1918 at 11:00
Germany surrenders  The Great War is over

US contributions
Foodstuffs, munitions, credit, oil, manpower  Only two major battles  Reserves more demoralizing than actual fighting

Americans depend on Allies
Purchased supplies from Allies  Aircraft were European  Europe transported Americans to Europe  No arsenal of democracy

49,000 American deaths  Many die of disease

 112,432

total casualties

Wilson Steps Down from Olympus

What role will Wilson play in peace?
Moral leader of Allies  Extremely popular  Prestige of victory  Economic resources
 

Begins to make mistakes

Off year politics
Wants Democratic victory in off year elections  Republicans win Congress  Wilson a diminished leader without legislative majority at home

Wilson goes in person
First President to travel to Europe  Grandstanding?  Excluded Republican Senators

 Henry

Cabot Lodge left out (chairman)

Wilson and Lodge hated each other  Chairman of Senate Foreign Relations Committee  Scholar in politics until Wilson comes along

An Idealist Battles the Imperialists in Paris

Wilson a hero

Greeted as a hero by masses
 Promise

of a better world  Leaders afraid he could arouse a revolt

Big Four
    

Led the Paris Conference Britain – Lloyd George France – Clemenceau Italy – Orlando US – Wilson Some want revenge against Germany Some had imperialistic ideas

 

Urgency needed
Europe slipping into anarchy  Communism moving in Russia
 

Wilson wants a lasting peace and create a league of nations to keep that peace
 Would

control tyranny  Stem tide of communism  Iron out failures after the treaty is passed

Wilson gets compromises
League of Nations main focus of Wilson’s  Victors could not take possession of conquered territory outright

 Becomes

League protectorate

The League
Focus of Wilson  Assembly with all nations  Controlled by great powers  Agreed to by old world diplomats

Senators would not accept League
Weakens Wilson in Europe  They could now get compromises

Wilson back in Europe

French demands
 Rhineland

and Saar Valley  Compromise
French get security treaty (aid from US and Britain)  US not liking entangling alliances  French give up Rhineland

Italian demands
Battle over Fiume  Wilson appeals over heads of Italy’s leaders  Effort falls flat

Struggles with Japan
   

Shantung and German Islands Japanese had seized Japan gives up islands Wilson opposes Japanese control of Shantung
 Threaten

to walk out  Wilson has to compromise and give up Shantung  China angry

The Peace Treaty That Bred A War

Provisions of the Treaty
      

Germany was disarmed Germany lost her colonies Must admit guilt for the war Huge reparation payments French occupied the Rhineland New countries created
 Poland,

Czech, Yugoslavia

Create League of Nations

Wilson forced to compromise
Needed to save the League of Nations  Allies forced to compromise too  Wilson a fallen idol in Europe

 Condemned

by liberals and imperialists  Able to soften treatment of Germany  Wilson hopes League will iron differences out

Treaty of Versailles completed

Germans forced to sign
 Blamed

for WWI  Large reparations to Allies  Stripped of colonial empire  Could not have large standing army or navy
 

Felt betrayed Surrender based on 14 points
 Only

a few left  Will give rise to Hitler

Good parts of the Treaty
Liberation of millions from dynasties  Saved from being grab for imperialists  Fairer because Wilson went himself

The Domestic Parade of Prejudice


 Break

American entangling alliances policy  Congress would lose power to the League

 Not

harsh enough on Germany  Should suffer more for their abuses

 Denounce

the League because it gave British more influence in the League  Could force U.S. to help crush any Irish move for independence

Republican critics
Would not approve in its existing form  Wanted to “Americanize” it

Wilson’s mistakes
Had appealed to Democratic victory in off year elections of 1918 to strengthen his hand at Paris  Voters returned Republicans to power and weakened Wilson in Paris

 Henry

Cabot Lodge led Republican resistance to Wilson’s Treaty

Battalion of Death  Opposed to League at home  Would not vote for Treaty no matter what  Either useless or super state  Wilson comes home to push League

Faction of Republicans in Senate was larger in number than Irreconcilables  Led by HC Lodge  Accept League if certain reservations were added to covenant  Did not believe they could defeat the Treaty

Wilson’s Tour and Collapse

Wilson optimistic
Most Americans favored Treaty  Lodge hoped to Amend it  Did not feel he could defeat it

Lodge delays
Senate Foreign Relations Committee  Chairman  Delayed moving on the Treaty to gain critics  Confusion and apathy

14 Lodge Reservations
Reservations to Treaty  Slap at Wilson  Especially critical of Article X that bound America to aid members of League
 

Wilson would not accept them
 Hated


Wilson decides to go to the people
National tour to support the Treaty  Go over heads of Senators  Left September 1919  Luke warm welcome in mid-west (Germans)  Irreconcilables followed him

Rocky mountains
Welcomed Wilson  Pueblo, Colorado on Sept. 25, 1919 Wilson collapses  Went back to Washington

 Wilson

has a stroke  Left an invalid

Defeat through deadlock

Wilson – Lodge Quarrel
Did not like each other personally or politically  Wilson not willing to compromise on any Lodge reservation  Lodge was an expansionist unlike Wilson

Wilson defeats his own treaty
Senate votes twice in November of 1919  Wilson ordered Democrats to vote Treaty down with Reservations  Treaty defeated

 By

democrats and irreconcilables

Senate acts again
Country wanted a treaty  Senators want treaty but apprehensive about some reservations  But, all reservations or no treaty

 Wilson

still against it  March, 1920 treaty defeated again

Who defeated the Treaty?
Lodge-Wilson feud  Traditionalism  Isolationism  Disillusionment  Partisanship  Wilson’s all or nothing stance

The “Solemn Referendum” of 1920

Wilson calls for a solemn referendum on Treaty
Leave it to the election of 1920  Let the people decide

Platform satisfies both sides  Warren G. Harding of Ohio  Pushed thru by party bosses  Calvin Coolidge VP

James Cox of Ohio  Franklin Roosevelt as VP

Harding confusing
Would work for a league but not THE League  Hurt Democrats trying to make this the issue of the campaign

Women get the right to vote  Harding – 404 and 16,143,407  Cox – 127 and 9,130,328  Debs – 0 and 919,799  Christensen – 0 and 265, 411

Return to Normalcy
Harding’s slogan  Too much idealism  Repudiation of high and mighty Wilson  Moral overstrain  Constant self sacrifice  Death sentence for Treaty

The Betrayal of Great Expectations

America hurt the Leagues chances of success
US helped win war  Most powerful nation does not join League  Europe point fingers at Uncle Sam

Failure of Treaty partly America’s fault
Designed to rely on four major powers but US refuses to join  Plays into hands of Hitler

Events set in motion
US spurns security treaty with France  France fears Germany and builds up military  Germans rearm illegally

 Brings

on Hitler

US buries its head in the sand
Did not take on its acquired responsibilities  Could have changed destiny of world  Instead let it drift into a bloodier war

     

Four million men had been taken out of the workforce to fight in WWI Women and African Americans lost their jobs when the Doughboys returned from Europe Wartime production went flat as war orders fall off With European farms back on the market, U.S. farmers suffer from falling prices and begin to struggle Short business boom as consumers go on buying spree but it doesn’t last In 1921 business plunged into a recession and 10% of Americans were out of work

The Red Scare

Many Americans move against socialism
 Unhappy

with peace process  Fear of socialism fueled by Communist takeover of Russia  Labor unrest in the U.S.

Palmer Raids

  

Attorney General ordered J. Edgar Hoover to arrest radicals, anarchists, socialists, and labor agitators Hoover will help form a new organization to battle subversive elements in American society Series of unexplained bombs around the U.S. One at Palmer’s house which shook his nerves and prompted the arrest of many more radical elements

Groups rounded up
From November 1919 to January 1920 over 6,000 people were arrested, based on limited criminal evidence  Most were foreign born  500 deported


Known as the “soviet ark” in 1919 about 249 alleged alien radicals were deported to Russia

States and the Red Scare
States joined the anti-radical movement  Passed laws against advocating violence to secure social change  Many IWW members were arrested  5 members of NY legislature were denied their seats after being duly elected

Business and the Red Scare
Happy to break up unions  Called closed shops “soviet shops”


Regarded with distrust by many Americans
 Valued

free enterprise  Valued rugged individualism

TR had offered them a Square Deal during Progressive era and protected them from lawsuits under the Clayton Anti-Trust Act During WWI they supported the war effort, won wage increases and the number of union members rose sharply

Strikes of 1919

 60,000

unionists joined shipyard workers in a peaceful strike for higher wages  Troops called out but no violence

Boston Police Strike
 Police

went on strike to protest firing of a few police officers who had tried to unionize  Governor Coolidge sent in National Guard to break the strike

U.S. Steel Strike of 1919
 

    

One of the great strikes in U.S. history Quarter of million steelworkers walked off their jobs to get union recognition Owners refused to negotiate Brought in African American strike breakers Violence broke out Strike collapses after bitter confrontation Hurt union movement

Race riots
Many African Americans had moved to the North from the South looking for wartime factory work  Whites resent the increased competition for jobs  St. Louis

 Largest

of the race riots in many cities  9 whites and 40 blacks were killed

Chicago race riots
 Blacks

were expanding into white neighborhoods  Finding jobs as strike breakers  Reign of terror for 2 weeks  Black and white gangs roamed streets  15 whites killed and 23 blacks

The South
Conditions not better in the South  Racial prejudice and fear of returning African American soldiers create race violence and lynching's by whites

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