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Materials and Programs for Literacy Instruction

Chapter 6

Changes in Approaches
UP until mid-1980s, most children were
taught through basal readers Holistic movement through the use of childrens literature Currently use a balanced approach with skills instruction and reading with literature are integrated

Basal Approach
Series of readers, or anthologies, and supplementary
materials that gradually increase in difficulty. Begins with emergent literacy and extends through sixthgrade reading. Todays basals have specific provision for belowaverage, average, and above-average achievers. Are more language based, offer teaching suggestions, big books, supplementary libraries, read-aloud books, wide array of games and manipulative, audiotapes, computer software, videodiscs, inservice programs, posters, charts, supplementary spelling and language books, end-ofthe-unit tests, placement tests, observation guides, portfolio systems, Web sites, and more

Basal Teachers Edition

Scope and sequence chart Reduced version of the students text Lesson plans

Students Basal Text

Anthology of original contemporary and
classic stories, poems, news clips, and expository text selections Comprehension questions Glossary of words

Anatomy of a Basal Reading Lesson

Activating prior knowledge Skill lessons Previewing and predicting Setting the purpose for reading Guiding the reading of the selection Confirm predictions Comprehension discussion questions Skill instruction and practice Theme projects

Advantages to Basals
Convenient package of materials,
techniques, and assessment devices. Offer varied reading selections, an abundance of practice material, carefully planned units and lessons, and a wealth of follow-up and enrichment activities. Sequenced from grade to grade, providing continuous reading instruction

Disadvantage to Basals
Core of the program is the anthology, workbook,

and manual to provide a base of materials for all students to move through. Question of pacing and time spent with a selection. Basal selections are presented to the whole class. Selections may lack sufficient challenge for high achievers and will be too hard for those reading below grade level.

Phonic-Linguistic Basals
Emphasis to reinforce phonic elements or
linguistic patterns. Tightly controlled vocabulary and are used primarily for struggling readers. Selections are contrived so it is difficult to use context clues. Examples: Reading Mastery and Merrill

Linguistic Readers

Literature-Based Approach
Teaching reading in which literary
selections are the major instructional materials. Reading materials can be tailored to students interests and needs. Models: core literature, text sets, and thematic units.

Core Literature: selected literature to be
read as a whole class (e.g., Shiloh or

Text Sets: a series of related books to

Number the Stars).

foster making connections Thematic Units: series of books organized around a central idea, topic, or focus.

Individualized Reading Workshop

Preparation: state-of-the-art class conference
and a minilesson to present a skill/strategy lesson on predicting, inferences, context clues, etc. Self-Selected Reading and Responding: approx. 30 min. silent reading and meet in literature discussion group, write in journal, work on an extension activity Conferences: meet with teacher to discuss the book through questioning (see pg. 464)

Language-Experience Approach
Students dictate a story based on an
experience they have had. The teacher writes the dictated story. Through discussion, the teacher can help students organize and reflect on their experiences.

Language-Experience for ELL

Accept the childs language and show that it is

valued. If the teacher edits it, it becomes the teachers language, not the childs. However, if mispronounced, the teacher should spell correctly. As children grow in language, they will have opportunities to develop fuller knowledge of verbs, contractions, and pronunciation.

Reading Recovery
Designed to reduce reading failure in the
1st grade for the lowest performing 20% of students 1:1 intensive reading instruction for 30 min. per day Engage in 5 activities

Reading Recovery Activities

Reread 2 familiar books Teacher takes a daily running record of oral

reading Work with letters and words (magnetic letters on a cookie sheet) Child dictates a sentence or two and teacher helps to write a story Introduce new story discuss new vocabulary and sounding out words

Success for All

Total school reform grades K-3 Goal is to get all students reading at the
3rd grade Provides individual tutoring sessions Homogeneous groups for reading 90 min. reading block

Four Blocks
30 min. reading blocks Basal block Writing block Working with words block Self-selected reading block

Early Steps

Early intervention program 1:1 intensive daily reading instruction 30 min. per day Reread familiar books Word sort activities (word families or rimes) Child writes a sentence Introduction of a new book