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Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D.

1
Human Figure Drawings in
Personality Evaluations:
Old Controversy, New Data
Achilles N. Bardos
University of Northern Colorado
School Psychology Programs
(970) 351-1629
e-mail: abardos@edtech.unco.edu
Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D. 2
Human Figure Drawing
B
What can we say
about the girl who
drew this picture of
herself (9 yrs. old)?
B
Is she intellectually
normal?
B
Does she have
emotional
problems?
Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D. 3
100 years of history
B
Luquet (1903)
v
intellectual development
v
changes in drawings reflect emotional stability
Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D. 4
DAP History (continues)
B
Goodenough (1926)
v
Drawings reflect intellectual level and provide
information about the emotional aspects of a
child (Goodenough, 1926)
v
Drawing probably carry profound meaning,
had we but the wisdom to understand them
(Goodenough, p. 60).
v
Conclusion: Human figure drawings are
multidimensional in nature
Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D. 5
DAP History (continues)
B
Lewis (1928)
v
viewed drawings as more valuable than dreams
in understanding interpersonal relationships.
B
Buck (1948)
v
The most well known effort to interpretation
v
H-T-P
Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D. 6
DAP History (continues)
B
MACHOVER (1948)
v
Personality projection in the drawing of the
HF
v
A one to one relationship was hypothesized to
exist between particular signs and areas of
conflict the drawer might be experiencing.
Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D. 7
DAP History- Projective
Hypothesis
B
Frank (1948) - the essential feature of a
projective technique is that it evokes from
the subject what is in various ways
expressive of his private world and
personality process (p. 47)
B
this private world is created by the
individual as the result of his special
experiences [based on] geographical,
cultural, and social environments (Rabin,
1981, p. 10)
Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D. 8
DAP History (continues)
B
Koppitz (1968)
v
most recent approach that uses total number of
items
v
first actuarial method attempting to differentiate
meaningful from non-meaningful items
Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D. 9
Critical reviews
B
Machovers hypothesis lacks empirical support
B
Koppitzs system failed the test of diagnostic
validity
B
Literature review conclusions
v
lack of objectivity in scoring
v
number of items more important in
discriminating normal from clinical groups
v
global aspects should be used for interpretation
v
Use DAP as a screening measure
Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D. 10
Frequency of DAP use?
B
The DAP continues to be ranked in the 10
most frequently used instruments in
personality evaluations.
Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D. 11
Arguments Against the Use of HFD
B
Popularity should not
equate with clinical utility
B
Questions about validity--
can drawing by a person
tell about that persons
behavior, personality or
emotions?
B
Experts arent any more
accurate in interpretation
than the untrained.
B
Use with other tests wont
give any additional
information. Dont use
less valid test with valid.
B
Artistic ability affects the
score on these tests.
B
Cites research against
and flawed studies-why do
studies with the
psychiatric population, it
is obvious they are
disturbed.
B
They are popular due to
ease of administration and
lower cost.
Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D. 12
Arguments for the Use of Human
Figure Drawing Tests
B
They utilize a variety of methods, techniques and scoring.
It is hard to group all DAP tests together.
B
Recent tests like DAP:SPED made scoring more objective
and standardized.
B
Psychologists know that using a multi-method approach
yields better results.
B
Literature also supports the use and utility of human figure
drawing tests.
B
Efficiency of resources used(personnel, instruments).
Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D. 13
DAP:SPED Development
B
We studied over 75 years of research on
DAP and found the following needs:
v
Scoring rules were vague and lacked objectivity
and had low reliability (Roback, 1968;
Swensen, 1957, 1968)
v
Items associated with emotional disturbance
appear in drawings of nondisturbed children
v
The number of items found is more important
than the presence of any single item (Koppitz,
1968)
Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D. 14
DAP:SPED Development
v
One-to-one interpretation of one sign to a
specific interpretation lacked empirical support
v
Global interpretation is effective to identify
children with emotional problems (Kahill,
1984; Roback, 1968; Swensen, 1957, 1968)
v
DAPs can be used for screening purposes for
gross levels of maladjustment
v
DAPs can be used for evaluation of emotional
and intellectual dimensions (Koppitz, 1968).
Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D. 15
Draw A Person: Screening
Procedure for Emotional
Disturbance - DAP:SPED
Draw A Person: Screening
Procedure for Emotional
Disturbance - DAP:SPED
Jack A. Naglieri
Timothy J. McNeish
Achilles N. Bardos
1991
Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D. 16
DAP:SPED Development Goals
B
A DAP scoring system should:
v
have objective items
v
include experimentally validated items
v
Be normed on a representative sample
v
Have good reliability
v
Show differentiation of known groups
Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D. 17
DAP:SPED Test Construction
B
Collected many potential items
B
Subjected the initial items to careful review
and revision to ensure objectivity
B
Tested the items rates of occurrence in the
normal standardization sample
B
Only selected items that were unusual (that
is equal to or more than 1SD from the
mean)
Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D. 18
Item Types
B
Measurement items
v
Tall or short Figure
v
Small or big figure
v
Top or Bottom placement
v
Left or Right placement
v
Slanting figure
B
Content items
v
sign is present or not
Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D. 19
Smiling mouth .723
Slash mouth .090
Arms Outstretched .230
Feet Shading .247
Frowning Mouth .017
Talons .130
Monster .007
Neck Omitted .230
Aggressive symbols .010
Base Rates of Original Items
Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D. 20
Drawing Size
B
How do you know
when a child draws a
small figure?
B
How do you know
when the figure is
close to the page?
B
What is normal !
v
Ages 9-12:
*
Height =105 mm
*
Width = 54 mm
68 mm
97 mm
93 mm
74 mm
Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D. 21
What is Abnormal Size
B
For Ages 9-12
Mean SD
Height 105 36
Width 54 25
Top 74 36
Bottom 97 39
Left 68 18
Right 93 20
B
Mean + or - 1 SD
> 1SD
Tall > 140
Short < 70
Top Plcmt
Top < 39
Bottom > 135
Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D. 22
DAP:SPED Standardization
B
2,260 children (6780 drawings were evaluated on
93 items)
B
Ages 6 - 17 years
B
Representative of the US on the basis of
v
Age
v
Gender
v
Race
v
Geographic Region
v
Ethnicity
v
Socioeconomic Status
Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D. 23
Psychometric Properties
B
Reliability
v
Internal consistency
v
Inter-rater reliability
v
Intra-rater reliability
v
Test-retest stability
Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D. 24
Reliability
B
Internal Reliability
v
Typical projective test reliability is the .20s
(Anastasi, 1988)
v
DAP:SPED Total Test Reliabilities are
*
Ages 6-8 = .76
*
Ages 9-12 = .77
*
Ages 13-17 = .71
Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D. 25
Validity evidence for the
DAP:SPED
Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D. 26
DAP:SPED Validity
B
McNeish & Naglieri
(1993) Journal of
Special Education, 27,
115-121
v
81 Special Ed (SED)
v
81 Regular Ed
v
Matched Groups
v
All males (75% white)
v
7-13 years of age
B
SED earned
significantly higher
mean T-score (55.3;
SD =10.6) than control
group (49.5; SD=8.6)
>55 < 55
SED 49% 51%
Normal 32% 68%
Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D. 27
DAP:SPED Validity
B
Naglieri, & Pfeiffer, S. I. (1992). Psychological
Assessment, 4, 156-159.
B
54 Subjects in psychiatric day treatment at the
Devereux Foundation & 54 matched controls
B
DSM-III-R Disruptive Behavior Disorders
B
Age range 7-17 years, 78% males; 95% white
B
DAP:SPED means significantly different
v
56.6 (SD 10.3) vs 49.4 (SD =8.7)
v
78% of controls and 48% of DBD correctly
identified
v
SPED improves accuracy of prediction by
25%
Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D. 28
Additional Studies with the
DAP:SPED
0
Psychiatric Residential Sample
O
Public School Setting with ED
students/New York
O
Public School Setting with ED
students/Colorado
O
Learning Disabled Students/Ohio
O
Hearing Impaired Students
O
5 recent dissertations
Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D. 29
Study 1.
Psychiatric Residential Sample
Clinical Group Control Group
Males 33 177
Females 16 41
Age 15.3 years 14.5 years
Race
Black 7 4
White 36 211
Hispanic 3 ` --
Other 3 3
Other Clinical Group Information
Court Referral Yes 44 No 5
Court Decision: In Need of Supervision (37), Juvenile Delinquents (7)
Committee on Special Education (3)
Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D. 30
Study 1.
Psychiatric Residential Sample
Age DAP:SPED Percentages
Sample N Mean SD Mean SD Males White
Clinical 49 15.3 1.1 57.0 6.4 67 33
Normal 218 12.9 2.2 49.1 8.1 81 19
T-test = 7.41, p<.001
Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D. 31
DAP:SPED and Self Concept
(study 1)
Mean SD Pearson
Corr.
DAP: SPED 57.0 6.4
MSCS
Social 103.9 17.5 .04
Personal Competence 97.8 15.7 .06
Personal Affection 97.6 15.9 -.26*
Achievement 97.3 15.3 .14
Family 92.2 15.0 -.43**
Physical 100.4 18.6 -.19
Total 95.8 16.8 -.17
Note: * p< .05
** p< .01
Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D. 32
Study 1.
Psychiatric Residential Sample
Nonreferred (N=22) Referred (N=26)
Mean SD Mean SD
DAP:SPED 51.8 2.1 61.3 5.1
MSCS
Social 106.3 19.9 101.9 15.3
P. Comp. 97.8 20.3 97.7 11.1
P. Affec. 103.9 18.5 92.5 11.4
Achieve. 95.7 16.1 98.6 14.7
Family 96.0 16.6 88.9 12.9
Physical 106.7 15.5 95.3 19.6
Total 100.4 17.5 92.0 15.4
Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D. 33
Efficiency of Classification with
ED Adolescents (study 1)
Emotional Classification Normal ED
DAP: SPED Decision
Do not Refer 160 22
Refer for Further Evaluation 56 27
Sensitivity: .55 55% of children scoring 55 or above will be
correctly identified
Specificity: .74 Accurate screening predictions were made
for 74% of the children
Efficiency of .33 There is a 33% chance that a child
outcome refer referred will have emotional difficulties
Efficiency of .85 85% chance that a child referred will be
do not refer judged as being normal
Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D. 34
Study 2.
ED Students In Public School Setting
ED Group Control Group
Males 50 226
Females 8 38
Age Mean Mean
6-8 7.2 years 6.9 years
9-12 11.5 years 10.8 years
13-17 14.9 years 14.7 years
Race
Black 7 4
White 36 211
Hispanic 3 --
Other 3 3
Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D. 35
Study 2.
Additional Relevant Information
Mean SD
WISC-R VIQ = 96.3 11.1
PIQ = 95.3 16.8
FSIQ = 94.9 12.4
Program in Special Education
Option II 38
Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D. 36
Study 2.
Age DAP:SPED Percentages
Sample N Mean SD Mean SD Males White
ED 58 12.1 1.2 54.8 9.2 86 91
Normal 262 11.3 1.0 49.7 9.0 86 97
t-test = 3.85, p< . 001
Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D. 37
Groups Emotional Classification
Normal Emotionally
Disturbed
DAP:SPED Decision
Do Not Refer 191 30
Refer for Further
Evaluation 71 28
Results of DAP:SPED Classification
(study 2).
Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D. 38
Efficiency of Classification (study 2)
Hit Rates
What this means:


Sensitivity .48 48% of those scoring 55 or above will be
correctly identified
Specificity: .73 Accurate screening predictions were
made for 73% of the children
Efficiency of screening
outcome refer .28 There is a 28% chance that a child
referred by DAP:SPED will be judged
as having emotional difficulties
Efficiency of screening .86 There is a 86% chance that a child not
outcome do not refer being referred by DAP:SPED will be
judged as normal
Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D. 39
Study 3
EBD Students in Colorado
Subjects: 42 students identified SIEBD (Significant
Identifiable Emotional/Behavioral Disorder)
Age: 8-17 years
Sex: 38 males
4 females
Race:
Black 6
Hispanic 1
White 34
American Indian 1
Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D. 40
Study 3.
Instruments Administered
B
DAP: SPED
B
Emotional and Behavior Problem Scale
(EBPS) by teacher
B
Multidimensional Self Concept Scale
(MSCS)
Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D. 41
DAP:SPED 54.2 10.0 40-80
EBPS--Empirical Interp.
Aggre/Conduct Disorder 8.1 3.4 1-12
Emo. Withdrawal/Depress. 8.4 3.1 0-12
Learning Comp. Disorder 8.3 3.2 1-13
Avoidance/Unresponsive 8.0 2.6 1-12
Aggre/Self Destructive 9.0 2.9 0-13
Total (Sum of St. Scores) 41.0 12.0 10-60
Study 3
DAP:SPED and EBPS
Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D. 42
Study 3.
DAP: SPED and MSCS
Mean SD Range
DAP:SPED 54.2 10.0 40-80
MSCS
Social 95.0 18.8 47-145
Personal Competence 95.0 18.4 28-145
Personal Affect. 95.0 17.6 63-145
Achievement 92.3 18.3 63-145
Family 97.3 16.2 72-125
Physical 99.2 14.7 66-141
Total 93.6 16.3 64-145
Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D. 43
Study 3.

DAP:
SPED
EBPS
Aggression/Conduct disorder -.19
Emotional withdrawal/Depression -.22
Learning Comp. Disorder -.42*
Avoidance/Unresponsive -.05
Aggressive/Self Destructive -.02
Total score -.33*
Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D. 44
Study 3.
DAP:SPED and MSCS
MSCS
Social .05
Personal Competence .09
Personal Affection -.11
Achievement -.01
Family -.13
Physical -.03
Total .01
Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D. 45
Study 4
Children with Learning Disabilities
Normal Learning Disabled
Ages N Mean SD N Mean SD t-test
9-12 818 50.0 9.4 78 56.5 9.6 5.88**
13-17 912 49.8 9.7 51 54.8 8.8 3.60*
Note: * p< .05, **p<.01
Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D. 46
Study 4.
DAP: SPED, DAP:QSS, and WISC R
Correlations
DAP:QSS DAP:SPED
WISC-R
M SD
VIQ 92.8 9.6 .04 .10
PIQ 100.0 10.1 .25** -.05
FSIQ 95.5 7.8 .11 .04
DAP:
QSS 94.1 14.3 .45**
Note: **p< .01
Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D. 47
Study 5.
Hearing Impaired Students (Colorado)
Total Sample N=307
Gender Race Hispanic 61
Males 142 Asian or P. Islander 8
Females 127 Black 18
Missing 38 Native American 7
Age (in years) White 186
5-12 136 Other 19
13& older 113 Missing 69
Missing 58 Classroom Placement (52 missing)
Full-time/Regular 24
Part time /Special Ed 94
Full time /Special Ed 137
Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D. 48
Study 5.
DAP:SPED and the Devereux Behavior Rating
Scales--(Ages 5-12 years)
Variable Mean SD IP IBF D PSF Total
DAP:SPED 56.17 11.46 -.04 -.05 -.11 -.04 -.05
Devereux Scales
IP 10.56 3.03 .86 .64 .70 .92
IBF 10.72 3.06 .56 .74 .91
D 10.77 3.32 .63 .79
PSF 11.17 3.01 .87
Total 104.48 14.84
Note: P=Interpersonal Problems, BF= Inappropriate Behaviors/Feelings,
D=Depression, SF=Physical Symptoms/Fears
All correlations between the Devereux Subtests were p<.001
Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D. 49
Study 5.
DAP:SPED and Devereux Behavior Rating Scales--
Ages 13 -18
Variable Mean SD IP IBF D PSF Total
DAP:SPED 50.37 8 -.33* -.31* -.19 -.16 -.30*
Devereux Scales
IP 11.04 3.06 .84 .59 .66 .90
IBF 11.22 3.12 .60 .58 .88
D 11.35 3.30 .74 .83
PSF 11.58 3.20 .85
Total 107.22 14.66
Note: P=Interpersonal Problems, BF= Inappropriate Behaviors/Feelings,
D=Depression, SF=Physical Symptoms/Fears
All correlations between the Devereux Subtests were p<.001
Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D. 50
Study 5.
Present Special Education placement
B
Learning Disabled 6
B
Speech and Language Impaired 9
B
Mentally Retarded 8
B
Seriously Emotionally Disturbed 6
B
Hard of Hearing/Deaf 247
B
Orthopedically Handicapped 4
B
Deaf/Blind 40
B
Other Health Impaired 2
B
Other 3
Special Services
B
Psychological Counseling/Therapy 35
B
Psychiatric Hospitalization/Resid. Treatment 2
Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D. 51
Results of DAP: SPED
with Hearing Impaired Students
254 Valid Cases/Student Records show 5 as ED
Criterion Number Services
Identified Provided
55 or less 135 11
(no need for further evaluation)
55 to 65 74 3
(further evaluation is suggested)
>65 45 2
(Evaluation is strongly indicated)
Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D. 52
DAP:SPED
Recent Dissertations
B
Parental stress and childrens drawings
B
DAP:SPED with hearing Impaired children
B
Cultural Differences
v
Navajo children
v
Research in Greece
B
Sexually abused
B
Emotionally Disturbed
Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D. 53
DAP:SPED & Stress
B
Sample of 100 regular education (ages 6-9)
students given DAP:SPED whose mothers
completed the Parenting Stress Index.
There was a significant difference between
childrens scores of those with mothers
under high stress versus low stress. Males
scored higher than females.
Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D. 54
DAP:SPED
with Deaf Children
Sample of 39 deaf children (9-12) given
DAP:SPED and Meadow-Kendall Social-
Emotional Inventory for Deaf children
and corroboration of emotional disturbance
by psychologist. No significant
differences were found between the two
groups.
Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D. 55
DAP:SPED with Native
American Students
B
Sample of 40 Reservation Navajo school-
aged students who attend public schools.
They were administered the DAP:SPED
under timed and untimed conditions.
Cultural differences in time did not effect
the results. No significant differences were
found between the groups.
Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D. 56
DAP:SPED with Greek Children
(Politikos, 1998)
B
The exact same procedures used in the
development of the DAP:SPED were employed
using the drawings of a sample of Greek Children.
B
There were differences in item performance.
Items that did not meet selection criteria in the
U.S. norms were deemed necessary for a Greek
version.
B
The DAP:SPED might not be as transportable to
other cultures as originally thought
Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D. 57
Drawings of sexually abused
children and the DAP:SPED
Impact of rater knowledge on sexually abused
and nonabused girls scores on the
DAP:SPED. (Chiristi Bruening et.al. 1997,
Journal of Personality Assessment).
B
The DAP:SPED ...is sufficiently objective to
withstand the counfounding influence of varying
case descriptions.
Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D. 58
MACI, Devereux & DAP:SPED
and children with ED
Dwors, J. (1996). Differences in normal and seriously
emotional disturbed students on the Devereux Behavior
Rating Scale-School Form, DAP:SPED and the Millon
Adolescent Clinical Inventory.
Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D. 59
Learning the DAP:SPED scoring
system
B
Training of raters
v
a one day workshop
*
competency scoring with 90% accuracy
*
periodical monitoring of rater performance
*
final competency using drawings in chapter 5.
B
New users
v
Use chapter 5
Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D. 60
Administration
B
Directions appear in the Record Form
B
Drawing time for the man, woman, self) is 5
minutes each (max total time = 15 minutes)
Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D. 61
THE DAP:SPED
SCORING SYSTEM
55 items
Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D. 62
1. Tall Figure
B
scored if the distance between the
uppermost and the lowermost points of the
figure is greater than the height of Line 1
(use the template for the appropriate age).
B
Articles of clothing such as hats or shoes
are included in the measurement, although
other objects (e.g. handbag, briefcase,
backpack, baseball bat) are not included.
B
The template must be aligned squarely with
the page (not rotated).
Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D. 63
Figure Size
Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D. 64
2. Short Figure
2. Short Figure
B
scored if the distance between the uppermost point
of the figure and the lowermost point of the figure
is less than Line 2 (use the template for the
appropriate age).
B
Articles of clothing such as hats or shoes are
included in the measurement, although other
objects (e.g. handbag, briefcase, backpack,
baseball bat) are not included.
B
In all cases, the template must be aligned squarely
with the page (not rotated).
Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D. 65
3. Big Figure
3. Big Figure
B
is scored if the figure exceeds both the
vertical and horizontal dimensions of Box 3
(use the template for the appropriate age).
B
Articles of clothing such as hats or shoes are
included in the measurement, although other
objects (e.g. handbag, briefcase, backpack,
baseball bat) are not included.
B
The template must be aligned squarely with
the page (not rotated).
Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D. 66
4. Little Figure
4. Little Figure
B
is scored if the figure fits completely within Box 4
(use the template for the appropriate age).
B
Articles of clothing such as hats or shoes are
included in the measurement, although other
objects (e.g. handbag, briefcase, backpack,
baseball bat) are not included.
B
The template must be aligned squarely with the
page (not rotated).
Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D. 67
5. Top Placement
5. Top Placement
B
is scored when any part of the figure is in Box 5 and the
figure is entirely above Line 5 (use the template for the
appropriate age).
B
Articles of clothing such as hats or shoes are included in
the measurement, although other objects (e.g. handbag,
briefcase, backpack, baseball bat) are not included.
B
is scored when any part of the figure is in Box 8 and the
figure is entirely to the right of Line 8 (use the template for
the appropriate age).
B
Articles of clothing such as hats or shoes are included in
the measurement, although other objects (e.g. handbag,
briefcase, backpack, baseball bat) are not included.
Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D. 68
Placement on the Page
Box 5
Box 6
Line 6
Line 5
Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D. 69
6. Bottom Placement
6. Bottom Placement
B
is scored when any part of the figure is in
Box 6 and the figure is entirely below Line
6 (use the template for the appropriate age).
B
Articles of clothing such as hats or shoes
are included in the measurement, although
other objects (e.g. handbag, briefcase,
backpack, baseball bat) are not included.
Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D. 70
7. Left Placement
7. Left Placement
B
is scored when any part of the figure is in
Box 7 and the figure is entirely to the left of
Line 7 (use the template for the appropriate
age).
B
Articles of clothing such as hats or shoes
are included in the measurement, although
other objects (e.g. handbag, briefcase,
backpack, baseball bat) are not included.
Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D. 71
8. Right Placement
8. Right Placement
B
is scored when any part of the figure is in
Box 8 and the figure is entirely to the right
of Line 8 (use the template for the
appropriate age).
B
Articles of clothing such as hats or shoes
are included in the measurement, although
other objects (e.g. handbag, briefcase,
backpack, baseball bat) are not included.
Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D. 72
9. Slanting Figure
9. Slanting Figure
B
is scored if the vertical
axis of the figure (i.e., the
line from midpoint of head
width to midpoint of
stance width) deviates by
15 degrees or more from a
perpendicular to the
bottom edge of the page
(use the Item 9 template).
B
Use Scoring Template
Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D. 73
B
10. Legs Together
v
is scored if the legs are drawn together with no
visible space between legs or if only one leg is
visible in profile.
B
11. Baseline Drawn
v
is scored if a ground line, grass, etc., is drawn.
Items 10, 11
Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D. 74
Items 12, 13
Items 12, 13
B
12. Lettering/Numbering
v
is scored if letters, words, phrases, or numbers
appear anywhere on the page other than on the
figure (on the figure includes worn accessories)
B
13. Rotated Page
v
is scored if the figure is drawn with the longest
dimension of the page on the top (i.e., the
folded edge of the Record Form is at the bottom
or top instead of on the side.
Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D. 75
Items 14, 15
Items 14, 15
B
14. Left/Right-Facing Figure
v
is scored if the entire figure or head only is in
the left-facing or right-facing profile.
B
15. Figure Facing Away
v
is scored if the entire figure or head only is
facing away from the viewer so that only the
back of the head is visible.
Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D. 76
16. Failed Integration
16. Failed Integration
B
is scored if any of the following are present but
not attached:
v
head is attached to neck or top of torso
v
two arms (one if in profile) are attached to the top half
of the torso (above the halfway mark in the vertical
measurement of the torso or bottom of a dress). The
torso extends from the top of the trunk, where it meets
the head or neck, to the bottom, where it meets the legs
or crotch.
v
two legs (one if in profile) are attached at the bottom of
the torso (below the halfway mark in the vertical
measurement of the torso or bottom of a dress).
Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D. 77
16. Failed Integration
B
Arms are attached
below the midpoint
between the vertical
measurement of the
torso - so score as 1
Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D. 78
17. Transparencies
17. Transparencies
B
is scored if any body
part shows through
clothing or another
body part.
Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D. 79
Items 18, 19
Items 18, 19
B
18. Restart
v
is scored if one or more human figures are
obviously abandoned (erased, scratched out, or
merely left incomplete) and a more complete
figure appears on the page.
B
19. Head Omitted
v
is scored if the figures head is absent. Any
attempted representation of a head cannot be
scored as an omission.
Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D. 80
Items 20, 21
Items 20, 21
B
20. Hair Omitted
v
is scored if the figure has no hair on its head.
Any attempted representation of hair on head,
including beard, etc., cannot be scored as an
omission.
B
21. Eyes Omitted
v
is scored if the figures eyes are absent. Any
attempted representation of eyes (including
only one eye) cannot be scored as an omission.
Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D. 81
Items 22, 23, 24
Items 22, 23, 24
B
22. Nose Omitted
v
is scored if the figures nose is absent. Any attempted
representation of a nose cannot be scored as an
omission.
B
23. Mouth Omitted
v
is scored if the figures mouth is absent. Any attempted
representation of a mouth cannot be scored as an
omission.
B
24. Torso Omitted
v
is scored if the figures torso is absent. Any attempted
representation of a torso cannot be scored as an
omission.
Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D. 82
Items 25, 26, 27
Items 25, 26, 27
B
25. Arms Omitted
v
is scored if the figure has no arms. Any attempted
representation of arms (including only one arm) cannot
be scored as an omission.
B
26. Fingers Omitted
v
is scored if the figure has no fingers. Any attempted
representation of fingers cannot be scored as an
omission.
B
27. Legs Omitted
v
is scored if the figure has no legs. Any attempted
representation of legs (including only one leg) cannot
be scored as an omission.
Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D. 83
Items 28, 29
Items 28, 29
B
28. Feet Omitted
v
is scored if the figure has no feet. Any
attempted representation of feet (including only
one foot) cannot be scored as an omission.
B
29. Crotch Erasure
v
is scored if erasure is apparent in the area of the
figures crotch (below the waistline or belt and
above the knee area of the leg).
Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D. 84
30. Crotch Shading
30. Crotch Shading
B
is scored if pencil
strokes are present on
the figures crotch area
(below the waistline or
belt and above the knee
area of the leg) which
fill in an area by
coloring or darkening
(including stripes or
checks on clothing).
Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D. 85
31. Hand Shading
31. Hand Shading
B
is scored if pencil
strokes are present
on the figures
hand(s) which fill
in an area by
coloring or
darkening.
Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D. 86
32. Feet Shading
32. Feet Shading
B
is scored if pencil strokes are present on the
figures feet (foot) which fill in an area by
coloring or darkening. (Shoelaces are not
scored as shading.)
Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D. 87
33. Outside Shading
33. Outside Shading
B
is scored if pencil
strokes are present
outside of the
figure which fill in
an area by
coloring or
darkening.
Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D. 88
B
is scored if both
the figures eyes
(one if in
profile) are
empty (i.e. open
circles).
34. Vacant Eyes
Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D. 89
Items 35, 36, 37
Items 35, 36, 37
B
35. Closed Eyes
v
is scored if both the figures eyes are closed.
B
36. Crossed Eyes
v
is scored if both the figures eyes are crossed.
B
37. Gazing Left/Right
v
is scored if both the figures eyes (one if in
profile) are gazing toward the raters left or
right.
Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D. 90
Items 38, 39
Items 38, 39
B
38. Frowning Mouth
v
is scored if the figures mouth is frowning.
B
39. Slash Mouth
v
is scored if the figures mouth is a straight line
or slash.
Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D. 91
40. Teeth
40. Teeth
B
is scored if teeth
are present in the
figures mouth.
Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D. 92
Items 41, 42
Items 41, 42
B
41. Object in Mouth
v
is scored if an object (cigar, pipe, etc.) is
present in the figures mouth.
B
42. Reaching Arms
v
is scored if both the figures arms (including
hands) extend above the top of the figures
head.
Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D. 93
43. Pressed to Torso
43. Pressed to Torso
B
is scored if both the figures arms are down
at the side of figure with no visible space
between the torso of the figure and the
arms.
Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D. 94
44. Inconsistent Position
44. Inconsistent Position
B
is scored if each of the figures arms is in a
different position (i.e., reaching,
outstretched, hanging, or pressed to torso,
as defined below).
v
a reaching arm extends above the figures head
v
an outstretched arm is approximately horizontal
v
a hanging arm points downward
v
an arm is pressed to torso if there is no space
between it and the torso
Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D. 95
45. Hands Cut Off
45. Hands Cut Off
B
is scored if there
are no hands or
fingers at the ends
of the arms.
(Hands hidden
behind back of
figure or in
pockets not
scored.)
Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D. 96
Items 46, 47, 48
B
46. Hidden Hands
v
is scored if the hands are hidden behind the
back of the figure or in pockets.
B
47. Fists
v
is scored if the hands are made into fists.
B
48. Talons
v
is scored if one or more fingers are clearly
pointed (like a claw) or knife-like.
Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D. 97
Well, lets seeSo far Ive got
rhythm, Ive got Musicactually who
could ask for anything more?
49. Aggressive
Symbols
B
is scored for the
presence of one or
more aggressive
symbols, gestures,
or written
statements (e.g.,
guns, knives, clubs,
written profanity, or
other symbols of
aggression).
Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D. 98
Items 50, 51
Items 50, 51
B
50. Object Attached
v
is scored for the presence of one or more objects
attached to, or being held by, the figure (e.g., handbag,
briefcase, backpack, baseball bat, but excluding
aggressive symbols and articles such as eyeglasses and
jewelry).
B
51. Background Filled In
v
is scored for the presence of anything drawn in addition
to the human figure which is not attached to or being
held by the figure (e.g., animal, automobile, building,
tree, sun, moon, clouds, raindrops).
Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D. 99
Items 52, 53
B
52. Monster
v
is scored if the figure is drawn as a nonhuman
or monster.
B
53. Multiple Figures
v
is scored for the presence of more than one
complete person (or monster) on the page.
Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D. 100
54. Nude Figure
54. Nude Figure
B
is scored if a fully or
partially unclothed
figure is drawn. This
item includes any
representation of
genitalia, for example,
but bare feet, short
pants, or short sleeve
shirt are not scored.
Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D. 101
55. Uniformed Figure
55. Uniformed Figure
B
is scored for a figure drawn as a soldier,
cowboy/cowgirl, policeman, etc.
B
sports figures or cheerleaders are not
scored.
Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D. 102
DAP:SPED:
Interpretation
Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D. 103
DAP:SPED Interpretation
B
Use the <55, 55-65, and >65 as a guide
B
Describe the childs score as like normal or
children with emotional problems
Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D. 104
DAP:SPED Interpretation
Julies emotional status was assessed using
several different kinds of measures. She
earned a T-score of 64 (90% confidence range
is 58-70) on the Draw A Person: Screening
Procedure for Emotional Disturbance. This
score falls at the 92nd percentile, meaning
that she had more signs of emotional
problems in her drawings than about 92% of
the standardization sample. Similarly, she
earned very high scores on the Devereux
Scales ...
Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D. 105
DAP:SPED Interpretation
B
Relate the DAP:SPED scores to other
measures of emotional status
B
Consistency across projective and
behavioral rating scale methods is not
necessarily expected
v
An indication of a problem in either type of
evaluation system is cause for concern and
further examination of the case
Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D. 106
DAP:SPED
1. Tall Figure
3. Big Figure
11. Baseline Drawn
12. Lettering/Numbering
30. Crotch Shading
31. Hand Shading
32. Feet Shading
37. Gazing Eyes
39. Slash Mouth
50. Object Attached
TOTAL = 10 (normal mean
is 3 points per drawing)
Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D. 107
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