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TESTING OF TURBOGENERATORS

DESIGN DETAILS OF TURBOGENERATORS


Stator Core:
Low loss silicon sheet steel laminations

Standard Thickness of the lamination : 0.5 mm


Lamination Varnish: Phenolic varnish (CPV 4000)

Stator winding:
Up to 36 MW, Multi turn windings are used & above 36 MW Bar windings are used.

DESIGN DETAILS OF TURBOGENERATORS


Rotor:
Forged Rotor

0.1% Ag is added in rotor winding to make it more soft.


60% of the rotor is slotted for rotor winding and 40% is left for forming poles

ROUTINE TESTS
Dynamic Tests Mechanical run test Short circuit characteristic and losses measurement Open circuit characteristic and losses measurement Phase sequence check Shaft voltage measurement Impedance measurement at standstill, at 1/3, 2/3 and 3/3 of rated speeds.

ROUTINE TESTS
Static Tests Insulation Resistance measurement on stator and Rotor winding; PI value measurement High voltage Test on stator and rotor winding RTDs Checks DC Resistance measurement on stator and rotor winding

Short circuit characteristic (Scheme)


Outlet box
Vd Id Ia CTS NORMA 6200 Ib Shunt If

Outlet box

DC DRIVE MOTOR shunt

Generator Field
TURBOGENERATOR

OUTLET BOXES

RTD,TC measurement in HP 3852S DAS

OUTLET BOX

Vibration monitor Thyristor Convertor Thyristor convertors

Short circuit characteristic


The machine is prepared for short circuit characteristic using current
transformers and shorting links

The machine is run at rated speed and drive motor input voltage and current are noted and m/c is excited gradually in steps, at 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, 90% and 100% In (In: rated current of machine).
At each step the following parameters are noted: a) Stator current (Ia & Ib). b) Rotor current (If) corresponding to stator current. c) Drive motor voltage(Vd) and current(Id) corresponding to stator current. e) Bearing vibrations at rated stator current (100%In). d) RTDs readings at rated stator current (100%In).

Short circuit characteristic (Log Format)


Ia Ib %In If Vd Id DM Input kW

Short circuit characteristic


The excitation is reduced and cut off. The speed is reduced and the machine is cooled at lower speed. The temperatures are checked from m/c RTDs. The machine is stopped when it is sufficiently cooled down. (The stator winding temperatures to be less than 60 0 C).

From the above data, the characteristic curves are plotted as follows:

a) %In v/s If. b) %In v/s m/c looses in kW.

Short circuit characteristic(Graph)


%In
SCC

100%

Ifk
Field current in Amps.

Copper losses(Graph)
1.Copper Losses 3.Mechanical losses 4.Drive Motor losses

Losses in kW
Pcu1

3 Pmech 4 Drive motor losses

%In,%En

Open Circuit characteristic (Scheme)

Vd
NORMA 6200
If

Id
PTS

A B C Shunt

DC DRIVE MOTOR

Generator Field TURBOGENERATOR Slip rings

shunt

Open circuit characteristic


The machine is prepared for open circuit characteristic

The machine is run at rated speed and drive motor in put voltage and current are noted and m/c is excited gradually in steps, at 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, 90%, 95%, 100%, 105%, 110% and 120%En (En: rated voltage of m/c). At each step the following parameters are noted:

a) Stator Voltages (Vab, Vbc & Vca). b) Rotor current (If) corresponding to stator voltage. c) Drive motor voltage (Vd) and current (Id) corresponding to stator voltage.

Open characteristic (Log Format)


Vab Vbc Vca %In If Vd Id DM Input kW

Open circuit characteristic(Graph)


Air Gap line 120 100 80 %En/%In OCC

A B

AGL Ifo

Ifo

Field current in Amps.

OCC & SCC (Graph)


Air Gap line 120 100 80 %En/%In OCC

AGL Ifo

Ifo

Ifk

Field current in Amps.

Losses(Graph)
1.Copper losses 2.Iron losses 3.Mechanical losses 4.Drive Motor losses
Losses in kW Pcu1 Pfe 3 Pmech 4 Drive motor losses

1 2

%In,%En

Phase sequence check (Scheme)

Phase sequence indicator

DC DRIVE MOTOR

TURBOGENERATOR

Shaft voltage measurement (Scheme)

DC DRIVE MOTOR

TURBOGENERATOR

Multimeter

Impedance measurement
Equipment:
50 Hz (Power frequency) A.C source. AC/DC Power analyser. Current transformer (25/5 A or 50A/5A or 100A/5A). Connecting leads. A variable 50 Hz A.C. voltage of single phase is applied across input leads of Brush less Exciter and readings of voltage and current are noted down from ~ 50V to ~ 200 volts in steps of ~ 50 V. This test is done at standstill and at 1/3rd,2/3rd and at 3/3 of rated rpm

Impedance measurement
Evaluation of Impedance: Evaluation of Impedance is done by using formula : Z = V/I . where, Z : Impedance in ohms. V : Voltage in Volts. I : Current in Amps.
DC DRIVE MOTOR TURBOGENERATOR

The Impedance of rotor at standstill and at rated speed is plotted as applied voltage v/s Impedance.

CT V

Power Analyser

Variable AC 50 Hz source

Measurement of insulation resistances of stator and rotor windings before and after high voltage test (m/c at rest):
Equipment: a) Megger (500V/2500V). b) Earthing Rod & earthing wire/cable. Insulation resistance of the stator and rotor windings are measured separately before and after high voltage test using Megger of 2500 V for stator & 500V for rotor windings.

Measurement of insulation resistances of stator and rotor windings before and after high voltage test (m/c at rest):
IR values are measured at 15 sec. and at 60 sec. Absorption coefficient of insulation is found out as, Absorption coefficient = IR at 60/ IR at 15

If insulation resistance values are quite high, the absorption coefficient is not considered because of early saturation (often observed in low voltage windings like rotor etc.).

Measurement of insulation resistances of stator and rotor windings before and after high voltage test (m/c at rest): Minimum I.R. value : The minimum value of insulation resistance (Rm) at 60 is recommended as: Rm = (kV+1 ) M. (where kV is voltage in kilovolts to be applied for test.) In practice a fairly high value is obtained. The winding is discharged to earth after each measurement.

High voltage test on stator and rotor winding (m/c at rest):

Equipment:
a) 50 Hz A.C. High Voltage transformer and its Induction regulator/input autotransformer. b) Potential transformer (35 or 100 kV/100V). c) Volt meter. d) Binding Wire. e) Earthing Rod & earthing wire/cable. The m/c is prepared for High voltage test

High voltage test on stator and rotor winding (m/c at rest):


When H.V. test is done on one phase winding, all other phase windings, rotor winding, instrumentation cables and stator body are earthed. The high voltage is applied to winding by increasing gradually to required value and maintained for one min. and reduced gradually to minimum. The transformer is switched off and winding is discharged to earth by shorting the terminal to earth using earthing rod connected to earthed wire/cable. The test is conducted on all the phases and rotor winding separately.

High voltage test on stator and rotor winding (m/c at rest):


High voltage test levels : Stator winding : (2 Ut + 1) kV = 23 kV for 11kV m/cs. Rotor winding : (10 times Up) volts. (with minimum of 1500V and maximum of 3500V.) where, Ut : Rated voltage of the machine under test. Up : Excitation voltage.

High voltage test on stator and rotor winding (m/c at rest): Scheme
SPR Variable A.C. 50 Hz Supply from Auto transformer/ Induction regulator as Input to HVT

V H.V To Stator winding & Earth to Frame

* :H.V.T: SPR : P.R : C.T : A : V :

High voltage transformer. Series protective resistance. Potential transformer. Current transformer. Ammeter. Voltmeter.

High voltage test on stator winding (m/c at rest): Scheme


ABC ABC ABC

Arrangement of phases for High voltage test.

PI Value measurement (m/c at rest):


Measurement of polarization index of stator winding: The polarization index of stator winding, all the three phases together, is measured using 2500 V Megger after high voltage test. The insulation resistances are noted at 1 and at 10 from starting of measurement. The polarization Index is evaluated as follows: Polarization Index (P.I.) = I.R. value at 10 / I.R. value at 1 The minimum allowable PI value is 1.8.

Absorption Coefficient (m/c at rest):


Measurement of Absorption Coefft. of stator winding: The Absorption Coefft. of stator winding, all the three phases together, is measured using 2500 V Megger. The insulation resistances are noted at 15 sec and at 60 sec from starting of measurement. The Absorption Coefft. is evaluated as follows: Absorption Coefft.(A C.) = I.R. value at 15 sec / I.R. value at 60 sec The minimum allowable A C value is 1.3.

Measurement of D.C resistance of Stator and Rotor windings in cold condition:


Equipment : a) Digital Micro ohmmeter & its measuring leads. b) Thermometer (Hg in glass). DC resistances of stator and rotor windings are measured separately using micro ohmmeter. The instrument terminals are connected to the m/c terminals and proper range in meter is selected. The stabilized reading is recorded. Ambient temperature from Hg in glass thermometer is recorded. The stator RTDs values are noted and average value of stator winding temperature is evaluated.

Measurement of D.C resistance of Stator and Rotor windings in cold condition:


Evaluation of resistance values at 20 C: Evaluation of resistances at 20 C (R20) is done by using formula: R20 = Rt. (235+20) / (235+t) m. where, R20 : Resistance at 20 C in m. t : Average temperature of the stator winding in C. Rt : Measured resistance of winding in m. Variation in maximum and minimum values of d.c. resistance of 3 phases of stator windings up to 5% is acceptable.

RTD Checks
Measurement of d.c. resistances and insulation resistance of RTDs: The d.c. resistances and insulation resistances of RTDs are measured using multimeter and Megger respectively and recorded.

Evaluation of short circuit ratio (S.C.R)


Evaluation of short circuit ratio (S.C.R): From the test data S.C.R. is calculated using formula: S.C.R = Field current at 100%En from OCC / Field current at 100%In from SCC

REACTANCES Xd - Sub transient Reactance Xd - Transient Reactance Xd - Synchronous Reactance IEC std. Xd shall not be less than 10% Xd shall not br more than 20% Peak Initial short circuit current: 1.8 X In Xd

Base Z = Rated V Rated I

SHORT CIRCUIT RATIO

Field current at 100% Rated voltage of gen. from OCC


SCR = Field current at 100 % Rated Current of gen. From SCC

If occ If scc

IS std. : SCR>= 0.5 IEC std.: SCR > 0.43 Manufacturers std. : SCR > 0.5

Impedance measurement
1. At rated rpm (Rotor inside stator) 2. At Standstill (rotor inside stator) 3. At standstill (Rotor outside stator)

Mechanical Run test (Scheme)


DC DRIVE MOTOR TURBOGENERATOR

RTD,TC measurement OUTLET BOXES

Vibration monitor Ward-Leonard set Or Thyristor convertors

Mechanical Run test


Before running the machine ensure

correctness of all the electrical connections

Lube oil is flowing through bearings and gearbox


All the instruments are working.

Roll the machine and check all the parameters.

Slowly raise the speed to 1/6 th rpm.


Give command for collecting samples if Data Manager is not collecting samples.

Observe slow roll vibrations,temperatures and oil flows.

Mechanical Run test


Raise the speed to 1/3rd rpm slowly and record vibrations,temperatures and oil flows. Let the machine warm up for bearing oil temperature to around 40C. Now raise the speed to 2/3 rpm by observing all the parameters and record all the parameters. Raise the speed to 3/3 rpm by observing all the parameters,critical speed and record all the parameters. Roll the machine for stabilisation of bearing temperature and record mechanical losses.

TYPE TESTS
Dynamic Tests
Mechanical Heat run test. Short circuit heat run test. Open circuit heat run test. Wave form Analysis and THF measurement Line to line sustained short circuit test. Line to line and to neutral sustained short circuit test. Residual voltage measurement. GD2 measurement. 3-phase sudden short circuit test.

Mechanical Run test (Scheme)

DC DRIVE MOTOR

TURBOGENERATOR

Mechanical Run test (Scheme)

DC DRIVE MOTOR

TURBOGENERATOR

OUTLET BOXES RV41/RV42

Mechanical Run test(Scheme)


DC DRIVE MOTOR TURBOGENERATOR

OUTLET BOXES RV41/RV42

Ward-Leonard set in 86 Bldg Or Thyristor convertors in 86 A Bldg

Mechanical Run test (Scheme)


DC DRIVE MOTOR TURBOGENERATOR

RTD,TC measurement in HP 3852S DAS OUTLET BOXES RV41/RV42

Ward-Leonard set in 86 Bldg Or Thyristor convertors in 86 A Bldg

Mechanical Run test (Scheme)


DC DRIVE MOTOR TURBOGENERATOR

RTD,TC measurement in HP 3852S DAS OUTLET BOXES RV41/RV42

Ward-Leonard set in 86 Bldg Or Thyristor convertors in 86 A Bldg

Vibration measurement in Bently 3300 Vibration monitor

Mechanical Run test


Vibration is The oscillatory (back and forth) motion of a physical object. The vibrations are measured in Velocity and in displacement Displacement - The change in distance or position of an object relative to a reference. Machinery vibration displacement is typically a peak to peak measurement of the observed vibrational motion or position, and is usually expressed in units of mils or micrometres. Proximity probes measure displacement directly. Signal integration is required to convert a velocity signal to displacement, but does not provide the initial displacement (distance from a reference) measurement. Velocity - The time rate of change of displacement. millimetres/second, zero to peak. Velocity measurements are used to evaluate machine housing and other structural response characteristics. Electronic integration of a velocity signal yields displacement, but not position.

Mechanical Run test(Vibration plots)


Timebase - A presentation of the instantaneous amplitude of a signal as a function of time. A vibration waveform can be observed on an oscilloscope in the time domain. Orbit - The path of the shaft centerline motion during precession . The orbit can be observed with an oscilloscope connected to XY vibration-measuring transducers. Amplitude Phase Vs Time - the trend plot of filtered vibration amplitude and phase lag angle data. Shaft centreline trend - Transient or trend plot of the shaft average radial
centerline position within the bearing clearance. Spectrum - Commonly a presentation of the amplitudes of a signal's frequency components versus their frequencies. Or the frequency content of a signal. Waterfall ( Spectrum plots at different time) Bode Plot - A pair of graphs in Cartesian format displaying the 1X vibration vector (phase lag angle and amplitude) as a function of shaft rotative speed. Polar plot - Polar format presentation of the locus of the shaft 1X (or 2X,...) filtered vibration vector from a single channel as a function of shaft rotative speed. Cascade (Spectrum Plots at different speeds)

Short circuit characteristic(Graph)


%In
SCC

100%

Ifk
Field current in Amps.

Evaluation of Efficiency:
After completion of routine tests, efficiency of the machine is evaluated. The following sequence of calculation is followed. Short circuit characteristic is plotted from S.C.C. results by selecting X- axis as field current and Y-axis as % of rated current. Values of field current (Ifk) at 100%In is obtained from the curve.

Evaluation of Efficiency:
Open circuit characteristic is plotted on a graph paper from O.C.C results by selecting X- axis as field current and Y- axis as % of rated voltage. Values of field currents at 80%, 100%, 115% & 130%En are obtained from the curve. Air gap line for OCC is drawn and field current for air gap line at 100 % En is obtained

OCC & SCC (Graph)


Air Gap line 120 100 80 %En/%In OCC

AGL Ifo

Ifo

Ifk

Field current in Amps.

Evaluation of Efficiency
TG losses:
Copper loss characteristic is plotted from S.C.C results by selecting X- axis as % of rated current and Y-axis as losses in kW. The value of copper loss(kWcu1) at 100%In is taken from the curve. Iron loss characteristic is plotted from O.C.C results by selecting X- axis as % of rated voltage and Y-axis as losses in kW. The value of iron loss (kWfe) at 100%En is taken from the curve.

Losses(Graph)
1.Copper losses 2.Iron losses 3.Mechanical losses 4.Drive Motor losses
Losses in kW Pcu1 Pfe 3 Pmech 4 Drive motor losses

1 2

%In,%En

Evaluation of Efficiency
Drive motor with gear box losses: From calibration curves of drive motor used during testing following data is taken. Drive motor iron losses at voltage Vd = kw1 Drive motor copper losses at current Id = kw2 Drive motor loss kw3 = (kW1+kw2) Drive motor iron losses at 100%In = kw4 Drive motor copper losses at 100%In = kw5 Drive motor loss at 100% In (kW6) = kw4+kw5 Drive motor iron losses at 100%En = kw7 Drive motor copper losses at 100%En = kw8 Drive motor loss at 100% En (kW9) = kw7+Kw8

Evaluation of Efficiency
Mechanical losses of the T.G + Drive unit: Average mechanical losses (kWmech.) = average of Mech. losses before SCC and OCC

Losses at 100 % In i.e.kW100%In mech. = kW av mech + (kW6 - kW3)


Losses at 100 % En i.e. kW100%En mech. = kW av mech + (kW9 - kW3)

Evaluation of Efficiency
Machine losses: i) Mechanical losses (Pmech) = kW av mech - kW3 ii) Stator copper losses at 100 % In (Pcu1) = kWcu1 - kW100%In mech iii) Stator iron losses at 100%En (Pfe) = kWfe-kW100%Enmech iv) Rotor copper losses (Pcu2) = Ifn2 . R75 where Ifn : Excitation at full load. R75 : Rotor winding resistance at 75 C.

Evaluation of Efficiency
iv) Excitation losses : This shall be taken as 5% of rotor copper losses. Or static excitation losses ( Data furnished by Static excitation manufacturer) v) Brush drop losses: In case of m/c with conventional excitation system with slip rings on rotor, the brush drop losses are calculated taking voltage drop of 1.0 volt each polarity multiplied by the rated excitation current.

Evaluation of Efficiency
iv) After obtaining the machine losses i.e. mechanical losses including exciter mechanical losses (if any), stator copper losses, stator iron losses, rotor copper losses, excitation losses, brush drop losses (if any); all the losses are added to get total loss. Percent Efficiency (%) is evaluated as follows: % = {OUT PUT / (OUT PUT + Total Loss)} . 100

Evaluation of Efficiency
LOAD% Stator current Active Power Rotor current Mechanical Losses Iron Losses Stator copper losses Rotor copper losses Excitation losses Total losses Input Efficiency In Ps Ifn * Pmech Pfe Pcu1 $ PCu2 # Pe Pt Ps+Pt A kW A kW kW kW kW kW kW kW % 100 394.00 6000.00 421.30 31.78 46.10 44.30 33.22 1.66 157.06 6157.06 97.45 75 295.50 4500.00 352.10 31.78 46.10 23.71 23.20 1.16 125.95 4625.95 97.28 50 197.00 3000.00 286.20 31.78 46.10 10.11 15.33 0.77 104.09 3104.09 96.65 25 98.50 1500.00 225.30 31.78 46.10 2.52 9.50 0.48 90.37 1590.37 94.32