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Chemistry 104A
Inorganic Chemistry



An introduction to inorganic chemistry
Topics covered will include:
atomic structures, periodic trends,
symmetry and group theory, inorganic solids,
molecular orbital theory, molecular structure,
acid-base chemistry, band theory, and
descriptive chemistry of the main group elements.


Completion of a general chemistry sequence
(chemistry 1B, 3A or 4B) is prerequisite.
Chemistry 104A
Inorganic Chemistry


Miessler, G. L., Tarr, D. A.
I norganic Chemistry, 3rd

edition,
Prentice Hall, Inc., New Jersey,
1999
DeKock and Gray, Chemical
Structure and Bonding, 2
nd
Ed.,
University Science Books, 1989

Vincent, Molecular Symmetry and
Group Theory, Wiley, 2001.
Chemistry 104A
Inorganic Chemistry


Cotton, Wilkinson, and Gaus, Basic Inorganic Chemistry, Wiley, 1995
Cotton, Chemical Applications of Group Theory, Wiley, 1990
Douglas, McDaniel, and Alexander, Concepts and Models of
Inorganic Chemistry, Wiley, 1994
Huheey, Keiter, and Keiter, Inorganic Chemistry, 4
th
Ed. HaperCollins,
1993
Shriver, Atkins, and Langford, Inorganic Chemistry, W. H. Freeman,
1990
Porterfield, Inorganic Chemistry, Academic Press, 1993
Cotton and Wilkinson, Advanced Inorganic Chemistry, 5
th
Ed., Wiley,
1998
Greenwood and Earnshaw, Chemistry of the Elements, Butterworth
Heineman, 1997
Atomic Structure

Periodic Trends

Symmetry and Group Theory

Ionic Solids

Molecular Orbital Theory

Band Theory

Acid Base Chemistry

Main Group Chemistry
Grading:

Problem sets (6) 10%
Exam 1 25%
Exam 2 25%
Final 40%
Instructor: Professor Peidong Yang
B68 Hild.
Tel: 643-1545
E-Mail: p_yang@uclink.berkeley.edu
Office Hours:
Fridays 1:30 3:30 pm

TA:
Andrea Tao (atao@uclink.berkeley.edu), Wednesday. 4-6 pm
Lori Greene (legreene@uclink.berkeley.edu), Monday. 1-3 pm

What is inorganic chemistry?
Required course for a BS degree in chemistry.
Organic Chemistry:
the chemistry of life
the chemistry of hydrocarbon compounds
C, H, N, O
Inorganic Chemistry:
Non-living chemistry
Chemistry of everything else
Chemistry of the entire periodic table
Taxol
The natural source, the Pacific yew tree, is an environmentally protected
species, which is also one of the slowest growing trees in the world.
Isolation of the compound, which is contained in the bark, involves
killing the tree, and the quantities available by this method are pitifully
small. It would take six 100-year old trees to provide enough taxol to
treat just one patient.
Taxol: the drug that now has the generic name
"paclitaxel", and the registered tradename
"Taxol " (Bristol-Myers Squibb Company)



Carbon: 4 bonds
Hydrogen: 1 bond
Nitrogen: 3 bonds
Oxygen: 2 bonds
Constant atomicity (valence)

August Kekule (1829-1896, German)

Organic molecules: successful
Inorganic molecules: ???
Organic
Compounds
Inorganic
Compounds
Single Bond
Double Bond
Triple Bond
Quadruple bond
Coordination No. Constant Diverse
Geometry Fixed Diverse
[Re2Cl8]
2-
Quadruple Bond
Oil Refining: Catalysts for converting crude oil to gasoline
One way to smelt iron is in a blast furnace made from coal and limestone
(CaCO3). Huge quantities of air blast in at the bottom of the furnace. The
calcium in the limestone combines with the silicates to form slag. At the
bottom of the blast furnace, liquid iron collects along with a layer of slag on
top. Periodically, you let the liquid iron flow out and cool.

Steel Refining
Semiconductor Industry
Superconductor
Nanoscience & Nanotechnology
Total Synthesis of Taxol

Need catalysts!
Bioinorganic Chemistry
Hemoglobin
Common applications of inorganic chemistry

Catalysts: aluminum oxides, zeolites, transition metals
Semiconductors: Si, Ge, GaAs, InP
Polymers: silicones, (SiR
2
)
n
, polyphosphazenes
Superconductors: NbN, YBa
2
Cu
3
O
7-x
, Bi
2
Sr
2
CaCu
2
O
z

Magnetic Materials: Fe, SmCo
5
, Nd
2
Fe
14
B
Lubricants: graphite, MoS
2

Nanostructured materials: nanoclusters, nanowires and nanotube
Fertilizers: NH
4
NO
3
, (NH
4
)
2
SO
4

Paints: TiO
2
, PbCrO
4

Disinfectants/oxidants: Cl
2
, Br
2
, I
2
, MnO
4
-

Water treatment: Ca(OH)
2
, Al
2
(SO
4
)
3

Industrial processes: H
2
SO
4
, NaOH, CO
2

Organic synthesis: reaction catalysts
Biology: Vitamin B
12
, hemoglobin, Fe-S protein

What you will you be able to do after taking this course?
Predicting IR spectra, chemical analysis
Knowing Crystal Structures
Understanding Molecular Orbitals
Understand chemical reaction
Atomic Structure
Reading: MT 1,2; DG 1
Rutherford BackScattering
1913, Danish Physicist, Niels Bohr
Electrostatic Fe=Outward Fo
2
2
2
r
e
r
v
m
e
=
Total Energy:

E = KE + PE


r
e
r
e
r
e
r
e
v m E
e
2
) (
2
1
) (
2
1
2
2 2
2
2
=
=
+ =
E <0
What would be lowest energy state?
R 0
Energy Quantized (Planck Equation)

E = hv
Angular Momentum of electron is quantized.

mev.r = nh/2t
Come to the rescue.
s J h . 10 62 . 6
34
=
r m
nh
v
e
t 2
=
Velocity of the electron quantized
r m
nh
v
e
t 2
=
2
2
2
r
e
r
v
m
e
=
0
2
2 2
2 2
4
a n
e m
h n
r
e
n
= =
t
r1=Bohr radius =a0=0.529 A
o
r
e
r
e
r
e
r
e
v m E
e
2
) (
2
1
) (
2
1
2
2 2
2
2
=
=
+ =
2 2 2
4 2 2
2
2 n
k
h n
e m
r
e
E
e
n
n
= = =
t
k= 13.606 eV
1
1
2 2
10824 , 97492 , 82259
109679
/ 1
)
1 1
(

=
=
=
=
cm v
Lyman
cm R
wavenumber
m n
R v
H
H
H

Calculating the emission line:


from level m to level n
Bohr Model can NOT explain Zeeman effect.
Dual Nature of Matter
Reading: MT 2, DG 1
1924, French physicist Louis de Broglie:

All matter possesses wave properties
p
h
mv
h
= =
Baseball: 200g
Speed: 3000 cm/sec (67 miles/hour)
cm
32
10

=
Electron:

Same velocity
g
27
10

m 20 =
Experimental evidence: electron diffraction
The uncertainty principle
1927, Werner Heisenberg
It is impossible to know simultaneously both the
momentum and the position of a particle with
certainty.
t 4
) )( (
h
x p
x
> A A
s J h - =
34
10 62 . 6
Baseball: 200g
Speed: 3000cm/sec (67 miles/hour)
Electron:

Same velocity
g
27
10

Accuracy: one part per trillion


cm x
cm g p
cm g p
21
1 7
1 5
10
sec 10 6
sec 10 6

= A
= A
=
cm x
cm g p
cm g p
9
1 36
1 24
10
sec 10 3
sec 10 3
= A
= A
=


Electron motion: wavefunction
Schrodinger wave equation (1926):
nergy potrntiale V
y totalenerg E
s Planck h
mass m
s coordinate z y x
ion eigenf unct on wavef uncti
E V
z y x m
h
:
:
' :
:
: , ,
/ :
) (
8
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2



t
= +
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c

.
.
=
H
E H
: Hamiltonian
operator