Unit 1- Part 4 INFRASTRUCTURE MANAGEMENT

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Content
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Selection,Maintenance of Hardware Communication Equipment and Software as per MIS Needs of the Organization. Ensure Uptime of Hardware Resources Database Management End User Training
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Infrastructure Management
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The computer industry is undergoing constant change. Major vendors of yesterday may not be the major vendors of tomorrow. Information Technology faced being very dynamic, practically every week new hardware and software are released in the market. These new products in the market offers more and more sophisticated facilities to the users. Sometimes organization thinks that existing infrastructure for I.T. in adequate to meet the needs of changing business. Procurement of infrastructure such as hardware and software is a strategic decisions.
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What is Infrastructure Management ?

IT is the IT business processes that control the quality, efficiency and effectiveness of IT services. It brings together people, processes, organization and technologies to support the objectives of its customers business.
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Selection of Hardware
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Because of advancement in technology hardware is changing very rapidly. Similarly changes are constantly being made in the peripheral devices. The computer reliability has increased considerably in the last decade, installing, repairing and modifying hardware is still important job. Many companies rely on original vendor or outside service firms. Different system configurations are available in different technologies to satisfy the need of MIS. The configurations are the LAN, WAN, Client - Server systems. Each configuration is tested on the basis of the approach to the information processing. The processing can be distributed and centralized.

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Selection of Hardware
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configuration -technical merits and demerits compared on some other criteria for its selection. Each has a wide cost spectrum resulting due to different The MIS specialists play a role of expert in selecting hardware resource. A standard brand which fulfills the criteria is chosen. By working with standard hardware, MIS staff can make sure about the reliable resources. The MIS department also takes care of repairing the existing computers. If a computer system breaks down, someone has to identify the problem and install replacement parts or notify the vendor. Hardware devices also need routine maintenance. Networks sometimes need to be reorganized as new accounts are added and deleted almost daily.

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Maintenance of Hardware
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You should follow some common senses precaution to protect your hardware. Because of a computer attacks dirt, dust, and smoke particles. A smoke particle in large enough to cause hard drive crash. Use blowers to clean the machines. Do not spray glass cleaner on the monitor. Instead, spray the glass cleaner onto a cloth and then wipe the monitor. Computer should be opened and cleaned regularly, it depends upon how well the environment in maintained. To clean you computer, open the case and clean the inside by using compressed air and a special vacuum. Do not eat or drink near a computer. The crumbs can find their way into the fan and then into the system. Spilled liquids can ruin a keyboard or an entire system.

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Ensure Uptime of Hardware Resources

One of the most common cause of computer failure is a battery that needs replacing. Microcomputer store internally information about devices attached to the system. This information is maintained by battery power. You should print copies of essential files, such as autoexec.bat and config.sys and system setup to same time in case you ever need to recover. Electrical system experience both surge and burn outs. A surge occurs when a large amount of power flows through the outlet. This occurs when lightning strikes wearing or when power in restored after a blackout. Protect your hardware from surge protector. If a business requires that a computer system continue to function even when power fails, a UPS (Uninterruptible power supply) in needed.
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Selection of Software
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Software selection is more critical than hardware selection. MIS staff can help users in deciding, software to purchase and install it. Commercial software versions change almost every year. Some software requires critical operating system versions. Some software versions are efficient on one hardware and not on other.
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Selection of Software
When installing new software the support team must know, what software is already loaded on machine.  Following features are checked before selecting a software : a) User Preferences b) Compatibility c) Easier Access d) Easier Training e) Ease of Maintenance

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Software Maintenance

System development is complete when the system is operational, that is when the system is being used by users in an actual production environment. A work done to change the system after it is in operation is considered to be Maintenance
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Software Maintenance

Software maintenance activities involve making enhancements to software products, adapting products to new environments and correcting problems. It is not uncommon for maintenance to consume more than 50 percent of the total life-cycle budget for a software product. More expensive phase of SDLC

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Types of Maintenance
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Corrective Maintenance Adaptive Maintenance :It is necessary to modify software to properly interface with a changing environment and accommodate changes in its external environment Preventive Maintenance :preventive maintenance involves changing some aspect of the system to prevent failure Perfective Maintenance:: During the maintenance of a system, we examine documents, design, code and test, looking for opportunities for improvement. Perfective maintenance involves making changes to improve some aspect of the system even when the changes are not suggested by faults.

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Database Maintenance

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Database are most important component of information system. Data is the basic raw material for IS. Data has to be represented in specific manner for storage and manipulation by computer hardware and software. A database administrator (DBA) is usually appointed to manage the databases at the firm. The DBA needs to know the technical details of the database management system (DBMS) and the computer systems. The DBA also needs to understand the business operations of the firm. The DBA also schedules backups and recovery and establishes security controls.

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The DBMS is a collection of interrelated files and a set of programmes through which the users can access and modify these files. There are three types of database models :
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Hierarchical Database Model (HDBMS) Network Database Model (NDBM) Relational Database Model (RDMS).
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End user Training

Effective use of MIS and information technology can be obtained if end users are trained on new softwares, machines and infrastructure capabilities. This training may be for making users aware of specific tools designed for their daily work assignments. End user may be a manager or a person on shop float, they have to be informed about the importance and significance of using system. There are ready made CBT’s (Computer Based Training). So that users can learn. Many software packages are designs to make user IT literate.

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