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Arteries

  

Elastic arteries Muscular arteries Arterioles

Capillaries

 Continuous  Fenestrated  Sinusoidal

Veins

Veins, venules

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Structure of Blood Vessels

Composed of three layers (tunics)

 Tunica intima – composed of simple squamous
epithelium  Tunica media – sheets of smooth muscle

 Tunica externa – composed of connective tissue
Lumen

 Contraction – vasoconstriction  Relaxation – vasodilation

 Central blood-filled space of a vessel

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Veins. Inc.. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 19.1a .Structure of Arteries. and Capillaries Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education.

Types of Blood Vessels    Arteries – carry blood away from the heart Capillaries – smallest blood vessels  The site of exchange of molecules between blood and tissue fluid Veins – carry blood toward the heart Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education.. publishing as Benjamin Cummings . Inc.

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brachiocephalic.Types of Arteries  Elastic arteries – the largest arteries      Diameters range from 2. common iliac Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education. vertebral. subclavian.5 cm to 1 cm Includes the aorta and its major branches Sometimes called conducting arteries High elastin content dampens surge of blood pressure Aorta.. pulmonary. common carotid. publishing as Benjamin Cummings . Inc.

publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 19.Types of Arteries Muscular (distributing) arteries  Lie distal to elastic arteries  Capable of grater vasoconstriction and vaodilation to adjust the blood flow  Diameters range from 1 cm to 0.3 mm  Includes most named arteries  Tunica media is thick  Many of the arteries anastomose  Unique features  Internal and external elastic laminae  Distribute blood to skeletal muscles & internal organs  Ex: external carotid..2b . mesenteric. Inc. brachial. femoral Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education.

Types of Arteries Arterioles  Smallest arteries  Diameters range from 0.2c . publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 19.3 mm to 10 µm  Larger arterioles possess all three tunics  Diameter of arterioles controlled by  Local factors in the tissues (02 levels)  Sympathetic nervous system  hormonal stimulation Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education.. Inc.

Inc. Through constriction and dilation.. publishing as Benjamin Cummings . Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education. arterioles assume a key role in regulating blood flow from arteries into capillaries and in altering arterial blood pressure.Arterioles      Arterioles are small arteries that deliver blood to capillaries. Also have the three layers as an artery. Tunica media 1-2 layers of smooth muscle fibers A change in diameter of arterioles can significantly affect blood pressure.

Metarteriole Activity 3 2. Inc. Arteriole 3..Arteriole: structure 1. Capillary Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education. publishing as Benjamin Cummings .

Capillaries  Smallest blood vessels  Diameter from 8–10 µm  Red blood cells pass through single file  Site-specific functions of capillaries  Lungs – oxygen enters blood. carbon dioxide leaves  Small intestines – receive digested nutrients  Endocrine glands – pick up hormones  Kidneys – removal of nitrogenous wastes Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education. Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings ..

capiller tidak berpori (continuous Capillaries) dan berpori ( fenestrated). publishing as Benjamin Cummings . Pada liver berupa sinusoid Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education.. Inc. Tempat terjadinya mikrosirkulasi:aliran darah dari arteriole menuju venule malaui kapiler. Precappilary sphincters mengatur aliran darah melalui capillaries.Capillaries      Tempat pertukaran material nutrien antara darah dan jaringan.

have an extensive network of capillaries. cornea and lens of the eye-lack capillaries. All covering and lining epithelia. Inc. Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education.. Tissues with low metabolic requirements have fewer capillaries-tendons and ligaments. such as muscles. They have no tunica media or tunica externa. publishing as Benjamin Cummings . liver and nervous system. Body tissues with high metabolic requirements. kidneys.Capillaries     Capillary walls are made of a single layer of endothelial cells and a basement membrane.

pleen. Sinusoids:are wider and more winding than other capillaries. Inc. choroid plexuses in brain. Gland.pit.Types of Capillaries     True capillaries:emerge from arterioles and metarterioles. ant. villi os the SI. Continuous capillaries-found in skeletal and smooth muscle. ciliary process. publishing as Benjamin Cummings . Present in liver. endocrine glands. and parathyroid glands. red bone marrow.. Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education. Fenestrated capillaries-kidneys. connective tissues and the lungs.

Inc.RBCs in a Capillary Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education..3 . publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 19.

publishing as Benjamin Cummings . Inc..Capillary Beds     Network of capillaries running through tissues Precapillary sphincters  Regulate the flow of blood to tissues Tendons and ligaments – poorly vascularized Epithelia and cartilage – avascular  Receive nutrients from nearby CT Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education.

.4a .Capillary Beds Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education. Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 19.

Capillary Beds Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education.. Inc.4b . publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 19.

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Local control of blood vessels  Sphincters contract or relax based on demand for:    nutrients (AA.. Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings . glucose. CO2 load. fatty acids) Dissolved gases (O2. lactic acid) Additional capillaries grow in to area to satisfy increased energy demands Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education.

Capillary Permeabillity

 

Endothelial cells – held together by tight junctions and desmosomes Intercellular clefts – gaps of unjoined membrane

 Small molecules can enter and exit

Two types of capillary

 Continuous – most common  Fenestrated – have pores

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Structure of Capillaries – Cross Section

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Figure 19.5a

Structure of Capillaries – Cross Section

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Figure 19.5b

publishing as Benjamin Cummings .Routes of Capillary Permeability  Four routes into and out of capillaries  Direct diffusion  Through intercellular clefts  Through cytoplasmic vesicles  Through fenestrations Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education.. Inc.

publishing as Benjamin Cummings . and some anesthetics Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education. Inc.. carbon dioxide.Low Permeability Capillaries  Blood-brain barrier  Capillaries have complete tight junctions  No intercellular clefts are present  Vital molecules pass through  Highly selective transport mechanisms  Not a barrier against  Oxygen.

Inc.Sinusoids   Wide. publishing as Benjamin Cummings . leaky capillaries found in some organs  Usually fenestrated  Intercellular clefts are wide open Occur in bone marrow and spleen  Sinusoids have a large diameter and twisted course Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education..

publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 19.Sinusoids Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education.5c .. Inc.

. publishing as Benjamin Cummings . Inc.Veins      Conduct blood from capillaries toward the heart Blood pressure is much lower than in arteries Smallest veins – called venules  Diameters from 8 – 100 µm  Smallest venules – called postcapillary venules Venules join to form veins Tunica externa is the thickest tunic in veins Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education.

Mechanisms to Counteract Low Venous Pressure   Valves in some veins  Particularly in limbs Skeletal muscle pump  Muscles press against thin-walled veins Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education.. Inc.6 . publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 19.

publishing as Benjamin Cummings .Vascular Anastomoses  Vessels interconnect to form vascular anastomoses  Organs receive blood from more than one arterial source   Neighboring arteries form arterial anastomoses  Provide collateral channels Veins anastomose more frequently than arteries Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education. Inc..

Vasa Vasorum   Tunica externa of large vessels have  Tiny arteries. and veins Vasa vasorum vessels of vessels  Nourish outer region of large vessels  Inner half of large vessels receive nutrients from luminal blood Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education. Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings .. capillaries.

H+ and lactic acid. publishing as Benjamin Cummings . An inc. in sympathetic stimulation typically stimulates the smooth muscle to contract-vasoconstriction.Arteries   Sympathetic fibers of the ANS innervate vascular smooth muscle. K+.. Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education. they relax-vasodilation. When sympathetic stimulation decreases. Inc. or in presence of certain chemicals-NO.

Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings .JANTUNG   RUANGAN  ATRIUM DEXTER ET SINISITER  VENTRICULUS DEXTER ET SINISTER LAPISAN DINDING  ENDOCARDIUM  MYOCARDIUM  PERICARDIUM ( 2 LAPIS) (Berasal dari sebuah kantong berisi cairan)   LAMINA VISCERALIS PERICARDII ( EPICARDIUM ) LAMINA PARIETALIS PERICARDII  STRUKTUR TAMBAHAN     RANGKA FIBROSA VALVULA M.. PAPILLARIS CHORDAE TENDINEAE  SISTEM KONDUKSI Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education.

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Inc.LAPISAN ENDOCARDIUM  SEL ENDOTEL:  POLIGONAL GEPENG  BERLANJUT DENGAN ENDOTEL PEMBULUH DARAH  LAPISAN SUBENDOTEL  LAPISAN JARINGAN PENGIKAT LONGGAR TIPIS: FIBROBLAS. DAN SEDIKIT BERKAS OTOT POLOS  LAPISAN SUB-ENDORKARDIAL  JARINGAN PENGIKAT LONGGAR  MENGANDUNG PEMBULUH DARAH.  SERAT KOLAGEN DAN SEDIKIT SERAT ELATIS LAPISAN JARINGAN PENGIKAT PADAT TEBAL: LEBIH BANYAK SERAT ELASTIS. publishing as Benjamin Cummings . SARAF DAN SISTEM KONDUKSI  JANTUNG MENGIKAT ENDOKARDIUM DENGAN MIOKARDIUM Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education..

publishing as Benjamin Cummings ..LAPISAN ENDOCARDIUM Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education. Inc.

. publishing as Benjamin Cummings .MYOCARDIUM  UMUM:  LAPISAN PALING TEBAL: OTOT-OTOT JANTUNG   SEL KONTRAKTIL (UTAMA) SEL BERFUNGSI KONDUKSI  ANYAMAN SERABUT ELASTIS DI ANTARA SEL-SEL   OTOT JANTUNG DINDING ATRIUM  TERDAPAT ANYAMAN SERABUT ELASTIS ANTARA BERKAS OTOT JANTUNG DINDING VENTRICULUS  LEBIH TEBAL DARIPADA DINDING ATRIUM  SEDIKIT SERABUT ELASTIS  TRABECULAE CARNEAE : TONJOLAN-TONJOLAN BERKAS OTOT JANTUNG KE DALAM RONGGA Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education. Inc.

DINDING JANTUNG DINDING JANTUNG MYOCARDIUM MYOCARDIUM MYOCARDIUM Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education.. Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings .

Cardiac Muscle Tissue and the Cardiac Conduction System  Histology  Shorter and less circular than skeletal muscle fibers  Branching gives “stair-step” appearance  Usually one centrally located nucleus  Ends of fibers connected by intercalated discs  Discs contain desmosomes (hold fibers together) and gap   junctions (allow action potential conduction from one fiber to the next) Mitochondria are larger and more numerous than skeletal muscle Same arrangement of actin and myosin 2009. John Wiley Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education. Inc. publishing asCopyright Benjamin Cummings & Sons. . Inc..

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. SERABUT KOLAGEN. DARAH JANTUNG). SER. publishing as Benjamin Cummings .PERICARDIUM     PEMBUNGKUS SEROSA BERBENTUK KANTONG PERMUKAAN BEBAS DILAPISI OLEH MESOTEL BERISI CAIRAN 2 LAPISAN:  LAMINA PARIETALIS  LAPISAN TIPIS JARINGAN PENGIKAT: SERABUT ELASTIS. Inc. FIBROBLAS. PEMBULUH DARAH (CABANG PEMB. SEL MAKROFAG DAN SELAPIS SEL-SEL MESOTEL MENEMPEL PADA MYOCARDIUM PERMUKAN BEBAS DITUTUPI OLEH SELAPIS SEL-SEL MESOTEL DI BAWAH MESOTEL: JARINGAN PENGIKAT LONGGAR TIPIS MENGANDUNG SERABUT ELASTIS. SARAF  LAMINA VISCERALIS (EPICARDIUM)    Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education.

Inc. John Wiley Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education.. . publishing asCopyright Benjamin Cummings & Sons. Inc.Pericardium and Heart Wall 2009.

PEMBENTUKAN PERICARDIUM EPICARDIUM MESOTHELIUM Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education. publishing as Benjamin Cummings . Inc..

DARI SEPTUM  VENTRICULORUM) TRIGONUM FIBROSUM   TRIGONUM FIBROSUM DEXTER TRIGONUM FIBROSUM SINISTER MEMBATASI OSTIUM ATRIOVENTRICULARIS  ANULUS FIBROSUS   MIKROSKOPIS:  JARINGAN PENGIKAT PADAT  SERABUT KOLAGEN KASAR KE BERBAGAI ARAH  FUNGSI  TEMPAT ORIGO-INSERSI OTOT JANTUNG  PANGKAL VALVULA JANTUNG Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education.. publishing as Benjamin Cummings . Inc.RANGKA FIBROSA  KOMPONEN:  SEPTUM MEMBRANACEUM (BAG.

John Wiley & Sons.. Inc. Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings . Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education. and electrical insulator between atria and ventricles Copyright 2009.Fibrous skeleton  Dense connective tissue that forms a structural foundation. point of insertion for muscle bundles.

Inc.. publishing as Benjamin Cummings . CORONARIA DEXTER A. CORONARIA SINISTRA Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education.RANGKA FIBROSA TRIGONUM FIBROSUM VALVULA TRICUSPIDA LIS VALVULA MITRALIS AORTA ANULUS FIBROSUS A. PULMONALIS A.

.VALVULA  VALVULA TRICUSPIDALIS  OSTIUM ATRIOVENTRICULARE DEXTER  VALVULA BICUSPIDALIS (MITRALIS)  OSTIUM ATRIOVENTRICULARE SINISTER  MIKROSKOPIS:  LEMPENG JARINGAN PENGIKAT (JARINGAN      KHONDROID PADAT DENGAN SEL-SEL BULAT) YANG BERPANGKAL PADA ANULUS FIBROSUS PADA PANGKAL: MYOCARDIUM MASUK KE VALVULA MYOCARDIUM SISI ATRIUM LEBIH TEBAL DP SISI VENT KEDUA PERMUKAAN DILAPISI OLEH ENDOCARDIUM ENDOCARDIUM SISI ATRIAL LEBIH TEBAL DP SISI VENT PADA TEPI BEBAS KETIGA LAPISAN INI BERTEMU Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education. Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings .

Inc. . Inc.. John Wiley Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education. publishing asCopyright Benjamin Cummings & Sons.2009.

Inc.. publishing as Benjamin Cummings .VALVULA ATRIO-VENTRICULARIS SISI ATRIUM SISI VENTRIKEL Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education.

. Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings .MUSCULUS PAPILLARIS  BENTUK:  TONJOLAN KEDALAM DINDING VENTRIKEL MENYERUPAI KERUCUT  PUNCAK KERUCUT TERDAPAT BENANG-BENANG CHORDAE TENDINEAE MENUJU TEPI BEBAS VALVULA LOKASI:  PADA BEBERAPA TEMPAT PERMUKAAN DALAM DINDING VENTRICULUS DEXTER ET SINISTER MIKROSKOPIS  LANJUTAN MYOCARDIUM : OTOT JANTUNG  PERMUKAAN BEBAS DILAPISI OLEH ENDOCARDIUM TIPIS   Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education.

publishing as Benjamin Cummings . PAPILLARIS DAN  TEPI VALVULA MIKROSKOPIS  JARINGAN PENGIKAT PADAT  DISELUBUNGI OLEH ENDOTEL Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education.. Inc.CHORDAE TENDINEAE  BENTUK:  BENANG-BENANG  MENGHUBUNGKAN PUNCAK M.

publishing as Benjamin Cummings . Inc.. A. PAPILLARIS ANTERIOR MUSCULUS PAPILLARIS M. CHORDAE TENDINEAE DAN MUSCULUS PAPILLARIS. CORONARIA DEXTRA A. PULMONALIS VALVULA AORTAE A.HUBUNGAN VALVULA. CORONARIA SINISTRA CHORDAE TENDINEAE VALVULA VALVULA MITRALIS SERPTUM INTERVENTRICU LARIS M. PAPILLARIS POSTERIOR VENTRICULUS DEXTER Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education.

publishing as Benjamin Cummings . AWAL DARI IMPULS MENGAKTIFKAN OTOT-OTOT ATRIUM TRACTUS INTERNODUS: MENGHUBUNGKAN NODUS NODUS ATRIOVENTRICULARIS TRACTUS ATRIOVENTRICULARIS HIS    MENEMBUS TRIGONUM FIBROSUM : KE APEX CORDIS  DALAM LAMINA SUBENDOCARDIUM  CABANG BERKAS KIRI    BERKAS POSTERIOR BERKAS ANTERIOR  CABANG BERKAS KANAN SISTEM PURKINJE : SEL PURKINJE (MODIFIKASI OTOT JANTUNG) Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education. Inc.SISTEM KONDUKSI  NODUS SINOATRIALIS     TEMPAT: BATAS ATRIUM DEXTER DAN V.. CAVA SUPERIOR UKURAN: 1 cm X 3-5 mm MIKROSKOPIS: ANYAMAN PADAT SERABUT PURKINJE FUNGSI:    PACE MAKER.

SISTEM KONDUKSI CABANG KIRI DARI BERKAS BERKAS DEPAN SERABUT PURKINJE NODUS SINOATRIALIS NODUS ATRIOVENTRICULARIS Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education.. Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings .

Inc. . John Wiley Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education.. publishing asCopyright Benjamin Cummings & Sons. Inc.Coronary circulation  Myocardium has its own network of blood vessels  Coronary arteries branch from ascending aorta   Anastomoses provide alternate routes or collateral circuits Allows heart muscle to receive sufficient oxygen even if an artery is partially blocked  Coronary capillaries  Coronary veins  Collects in coronary sinus  Empties into right atrium 2009.

publishing asCopyright Benjamin Cummings & Sons. Inc. Inc. John Wiley Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education.Coronary Circulation 2009.. .

Inc.Normal Coronary Artery Cross Section Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education. publishing as Benjamin Cummings ..

. Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings .60% Narrowing of Coronary Artery Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education.

Inc.90% Blockage of Coronary Artery remaining lumen calcified area Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education. publishing as Benjamin Cummings ..

. Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings .Atherosclerotic Plaque Histology cholesterol crystal (cleft) foam cells Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education.

Thrombus Causing MI Thrombus ocluding artery Likely site of plaque rupture “Needle-Like” white spots are cholesterol crystals Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education. publishing as Benjamin Cummings .. Inc.

Inc.Myocardial Infarction Histology necrosed muscle cells red blood cells Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education.. publishing as Benjamin Cummings .

Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings ..Myocardial Infarction Histology normal muscle cells remaining macrophages and the beginnings of scar tissue Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education.