World Energy Situation and Energy Resources Development Technology

March 2013

Sohei SHIMADA

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Outline
1: Energy situation World, USA 2: Energy resources production technology 2-1: Conventional resources Coal, Natural gas, Oil 2-2: Unconventional resources

Oil sand, Shale gas, Coalbed methane,
Underground coal gasification
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World Energy Situation

3

EIA:Intern. annual energy outlook 2011

World Energy Situation

4

EIA:Intern. annual energy outlook 2011

World Energy Situation

5

EIA:Intern. annual energy outlook 2011

World Energy Situation

6

EIA:Intern. annual energy outlook 2011

World Energy Situation

7

EIA:Intern. annual energy outlook 2011

World Energy Situation

8

EIA:Intern. annual energy outlook 2011

World Energy Situation

9

EIA:Intern. annual energy outlook 2011

US Energy Situation

Crude oil production, particularly from tight oil reservoirs, rises sharply over the next decade.
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EIA: Annual energy outlook 2013 early release overview

US Energy Situation

Unconventional gas (shale gas, tight sand gas, coalbed methane) share the major natural gas production in the USA.

11

EIA: Annual energy outlook 2013 early release overview

US Energy Situation

Natural gas production increase serves the industrial and electric power sectors, as well as an expanding export market.

12

EIA: Annual energy outlook 2013 early release overview

US Energy Situation

With improved efficiency of energy use and a shift away from the most carbonintensive fuels (coal) to natural gas, U.S. energy-related carbon dioxide emissions remain more than 5 percent below their 2005 level through 2040. 13

EIA: Annual energy outlook 2013 early release overview

US Energy Situation
Results of “Shale Gas Revolution”
Drastic decrease of gas price. (1/2 of EU, 1/3 of Japan.) Change of natural gas import country to export country.

LNG plants for import will be switched to for export plants.
Return of chemical industry from China to USA.(Energy price in USA is cheaper than China)
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Outline
1: Energy situation World, USA 2: Energy resources production technology 2-1: Conventional resources Coal, Natural gas, Oil 2-2: Unconventional resources

Oil sand, Shale gas, Coalbed methane,
Underground coal gasification
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Process of Mineral Resources Development
• • • • • • • Exploration Evaluation Mining, Production Washing, Dressing, Refining Transportation Utilization Reclamation

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Coal Mining
Surface coal mining or Open pit coal mining
1) Drag-line, 2) BWE=Bucket Wheel Excavator, 3)Blasting + dump car Overburden ratio(or Stripping ratio) =Removed rock (m3)/Produced coal (t) (Overburden must be usually less than 15 for economical coal mining. )

Underground coal mining
1) Longwall coal mining: drum cutter + self-advancing support
2) Room and pillar coal mining:continuous miner
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Underground Coal Mining (room & pillar)
Pillar Continuous miner

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Underground Coal Mining (Longwall)
Roadway Goaf (or) Mined out area Coal seam

Roadway

Belt conveyor

Drum Cutter

Self advancing support
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Surface Coal Mining

Drag Line
BWE (Bucket Wheel Excavator)

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Structure and traps oil deposit
Anticline trap Unconformity trap

Cap Rock

Reservoir

a) anticline trap

World large oil reservoir is mainly anticline trap.

b)fault trap c) unconformity trap d)permeability trap
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Drilling and Completion of Oil/Natural Gas Well
1: Well Drilling 2: Well Completion • Casing schedule • Cementing • Formation Access access from well to reservoir by using slot and perforation 3:Stimulation In order to increase permeability artificially, Hydro-fracturing) 4: Production

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Drilling and Completed Well

Rotary grilling rig

Tri-Cone Bit
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Surface Footprint in Oil Well

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Surface Footprint in Oil Well

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Properties of Reservoir Related to Oil Production
1: Porosity primary porosity, secondary porosity 2: Permeability q/A= - K (dP/dL)/μ Unit: darcy(d), mili-darcy (md) q: volume (flowing per unit time and unit pressure gradient through unit area in porous media) A: sectional area, K:permeability , P:pressure, L:length, μ:viscosity 3: Wettability related to surface tension
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EOR (Enhanced Oil Recovery)
To achieve increased oil production by acting the external force outside of the reservoir.
• • • • Water Flooding Gas Injection Miscible Flooding Chemical Flooding: use of polymer and surface active agent • Steam Injection • Fire Flooding
Recovery rate by (self) flowing 30% + EOR 40%
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EOR with CO2 Injection (Miscible Flooding)

29 CCS Source: IPCC Special Report on

Outline
1: Energy situation World, USA 2: Energy resources production technology 2-1: Conventional resources Coal, Natural gas, Oil 2-2: Unconventional resources

Oil sand, Shale gas, Coalbed methane,
Underground coal gasification
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New Development Method of Fossil Energy Resources
Future Oil Resources
1) Tar Sand or Oil Sand for shallow reservoir : surface mining + extractin of oil by steam or chemical agent for deep reservoir : CSS(Cyclic Steam Stimulation) SAGD(Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage) 2) Oil Shale

Future Natural Gas Resources
1) Shale Gas, Tight Sand Gas(or Tight Gas ) 2) Coalbed Methane: CBM 3) Methane Hydrate: MH

Gas recovery method from coalbed
1) CBM:Coalbed Methane 2) UCG:Underground Coal Gasification
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World Oil Sand & Oil Shale Deposits

Oil sand

Oil shale

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Heavy Oil Resources in the World

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Development of Oil Sand
Surface mining

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Rehabilitation (Reclamation) of Mined Area

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Recovery Method of Oil Sand (CCS)
CCS: Cyclic Steam Stimulation

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Recovery Method of Oil Sand (CCS)

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Recovery Method of Oil Sand (SAGD)
SAGD: Steam assisted Gravity Drainage

VAPEX (Vapor Extraction):Vaporizer like ethylene is used instead of steam
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Recovery Method of Oil Sand (SAGD)

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Oil Production Costs from Canadian Oil Sands

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R/P of Oil
R: reserves , P: production (annual) year 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 R/P 34.9 34.9 30.1 34.0 33.1 30.0 28.5 28.2 year 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 R/P 31.4 33.0 33.4 34.0 34.4 32.0 41.3 40.4 year 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 R/P 43.4 43.1 43.1 43.0 42.8 42.2 40.9 41.0

1979
1980

27.1
28.7

1989
1990

43.6
42.6

1999
2000 2001 2002

43.0
39.9 39.9 40.6
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World Oil Reserves

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Oil cost curve, including technological progress: availability of oil resources as a function of economic prices

Source: IEA

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Types of Gas Resources

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Types of Unconventional Gas Resources
Order of permeability 1000 md 10 md 0.01 md 0.001md Types: Tight Sand Gas (TSG) Coalbed Methane (CBM)

Shale Gas (SG)、
Methane Hydrate (MH)

Common characteristics of TSG,CBM,SG: Stored in very fine pores of sedimentary rocks (sandstone, shale, coal). Very low permeability. Need special drilling methods for economical production.
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MIT, Future of Natural Gas, 2011

Outcrop of Gas Shale in Canada

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Estimate of Natural Gas Production

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IEA: Are we entergin the golden age of gas? 2011

World Natural Gas Resources

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IEA: Are we entergin the golden age of gas? 2011

World Natural Gas Resources

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Multiple lateral wells, Hydro-fracturing

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Hydrofracturing (Hydro-frac)

Fracture with time

Gel

Proppant

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Monitoring by micro-seismic

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Enhanced Coalbed Methane Recovery (ECBMR)
CO2, N2 and flue gas from power station are used as injection gases. Large scale demonstration experiment at San Juan Basin, USA (Production enhancement was observed). CO2 storage (CO2 sequestration) when CO2 is injected.

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Principle of Underground Coal Gasification
Primary reaction (reaction of C in coal with gasification agent)
C+O2 = CO2 2C+O2=2CO

C+H2O=CO+H2
C+2H2O=CO2+2H2

Secondary reaction
C+CO2=2CO

C+2H2=CH4
2CO+O2=CH4 2H2+O2=2H2O CH4+2O2=CO2+2H2O

CO+H2O=CO2+H2
2CO+2H2=CH4+CO2 CO+3H2=CH4+H2O
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Source:NEDO-E-0152

Principle of Underground Coal Gasification

Combusted gas generated in oxidation zone is gasified by reacting with coal in reducing zone. Gas is also produced by pyrolysis. 56

World UCG Project Sites

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Swan Hill UCG Project (Alberta, Canada)

http://www.zeuslibrary.net/Gasification/project_overview.aspx?plantid=45858

Thank you for your attention

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