Clean Coal Technology in Japan

March 2013

Sohei SHIMADA

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Outlines
• Clean Coal Technology System • Coal firing power generation technology Pulverized coal combustion/IGCC/IGFC • Flue gas treatment technology • Ash utilization • Future outlook for CCT
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Formation and Type of Coal
Type of coal
Wood -CH4 -H2O ②

①Peat ②Lignite ③Brown coal ④Sub-bituminous coal

⑤Bituminous coal
-CO2

⑥Anthracite

Van Krevlen’s coal band
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Background of Clean Coal Technology (CCT)
Disadvantages Large CO2 emission per unit heat generation compared to other fossil fuels Increase of global warming Decrease of CO2 emission Large SOx and Difficulties in Nox emission handling due to in combustion solid fuel Generation of ash after combustion

Disadvantages Counterme asures

Acid rain Decrease of SOx and NOx emission

Poor handling ability Improvement of handling anility

Generation of ash Ash treatment

Technical Measures

Increase of Development thermal efficiency De-SOx and De-NOx technologies

Development of liquefaction, gasification and slurry technologies

Utilization of ash

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Clean Coal Technology System (1)

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Clean Coal Technology System (2)

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High Efficiency Pulverized Coal-fired Power Generation Technology (Ultra Super Critical Steam Condition)
The pulverized coal-fired power generation system is widely used as an established, highly reliable technology. In 2000, 600/610C USC (Ultra Super Critical Steam Condition) systems were installed. Further challenges will be to use more types of coal, increase generation efficiency, improve environmental measures and enhance load operability.

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Changes in steam condition over time

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Power generation efficiency and CO2 reduction rate

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IGCC (Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle)
Charactersitics: 1: Improved power generation esfficiency 2: Low environment burden 3: Flexibility to use different grades of coal 4: Increase ash use

5: Reduction of water
consumption
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Integrated Coal Gasification Fuel Cell Combined Cycle (IGFC)
The integrated coal gasification fuel cell combined cycle (IGFC) gasifies coal for use in triple combined power generation, which combines three different types of generation systems: fuel cells, gas turbines and steam turbines. This high-efficiency power generation technology is expected to provide power generation efficiency of 55% or higher, if successfully developed, and to reduce CO2 emissions by approximately 30% from the level of existing pulverized coal-fired power generation systems. IGFC is expected to become a coal-fired power generation technology of the future, although there are still many challenges to be overcome for commercialization, including the development of inexpensive high-efficiency fuel cells.

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Utilization of ash
Fields of ash utilization

1)Cement
2)Civil engineering 3)Construction 4)Agriculture/Fishery/Forestry

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Progress of Generation Technology
Net Thermal Efficiency
Average Japan(1997) PC

CO2 Emission Ratio

Developed

Under dev. PC: Pulverized Coal Combustion PFBC: Pressurized Fluidized-bed Combustion IGCC: Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle IGFC: Integrated Coal Gasification Fuel Cell Combined Cycle
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Flue Gas Treatment Technologies

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Electrostatic precipitator Flue gas containing ash and dust passes between two electrodes that are charged by a high voltage current. The negatively charged ash and dust are attracted toward and deposited on the cathode. The ash and dust deposited on the cathode are tapped periodically, and are collected in the lower section of the electrostatic precipitator and then subsequently removed. The principle is the same as the phenomenon where paper and dust adhere to a celluloid board electrostatically charged by friction. Flue gas desulfurizer Limestone is powderized to prepare a water-based mixture (limestone slurry). The mixture is injected into the flue gas to induce a reaction between the limestone and the sulfur oxides in the flue gas to form calcium sulfite, which is further reacted with oxygen to form gypsum. The gypsum is then separated as a product. Flue gas denitrizer Ammonia is injected into the flue gas containing nitrogen oxides. The gas mixture is introduced to a metallic catalyst (a substance which induces chemical reactions). The nitrogen oxides in the flue gas undergo catalyst-induced chemical reactions, causing them to decompose into nitrogen and water.
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History of Emission Level in Coal-firing Power Generation Plant in Japan
Year Emission Level

Dust (mg/Nm3 ) 1960s 1,000 600-800 100-400 36 1980s 50 300 20-100 38 1990s 50 60 20-30 39 2000 50 45 10 41 2005 20 20 10 41 2007(*) construction 10 13 5 41 (*)under Technology target :3 tens
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SOx (ppm)

NOx (ppm)

Gross Thermal Efficiency

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Future Outlook for CCT (Gasification and Liquefaction)
The first trend is that many different technologies or systems related to coal gasification are now under development. As an example, R&D on high-efficiency power generation systems, including the integrated coal gasification combined cycle (IGCC) and the integrated coal gasification fuel cell combined cycle (IGFC), has steadily progressed toward commercialization. Another example is conversion into liquid fuel or chemical raw materials that are clean and contain no impurities, such as methanol, DME and GTL. These technologies will lead to coproduction systems, including co-generation, with a view to a zero-emission world.
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The second trend is towards efforts to build a hydrogen energy society, which is the direction the energy sector is expected to move. According to the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis 2000 (IIASA 2000), in terms of the "H/C (hydrogen/carbon)" ratio, global primary energy consumption was on a near-constant increase between the mid-1800’s to around 1980. In and after 1980, the H/C ratio remained almost unchanged at around two due to an increase in oil consumption. As a whole, however, the pre1980 trend is expected to resume, leading to a situation where, around 2030, the H/C ratio will equal four. In a society where the primary energy source is shifting from natural gas to hydrogen, energy consumption derived from carbon combustion will finally be discouraged.
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Various CCT development cored by Coal Gasification

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Ratio of hydrogen to carbon (H/C) in primary energy

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IGCC: Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle IGFC: Integrated Coal Gasification Fuel Cell Combined Cycle A-PFBC: Advanced Pressurized Fluidized-bed Combustion
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Society will be forced to deal with CO2 emissions resulting from the direct combustion of coal by heavily relying on CO2 separation, recovery, sequestration and fixation. Thus, there are basically two important clean coal technology challenges. One is to develop a series of upstream technologies to separate, recover, sequester and store CO2 generated through the direct combustion of coal and to collect crude oil and gases.

The other is to build high-efficiency coal utilization technologies, including coal gasification, reforming and conversion technologies, so that the carbon component in coal can be used as fuel or as a feedstock for the chemical industry, thereby reducing CO2 emissions generated through direct combustion.

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