Chapter 13a Organic Chemistry

13-1. Carbon Bonds 13-2. Alkanes 13-3. Petroleum Products 13-4. Structural Formulas 13-5. Isomers 13-6. Unsaturated Hydrocarbons 13-7. Benzene 13-8. Hydrocarbon Groups 13-9. Functional Groups 13-10. Polymers

Organic chemistry is the chemistry of carbon compounds; inorganic chemistry is the chemistry of compounds of all elements other than carbon.
The general properties of carbon compounds are: 1. Most carbon compounds are non-electrolytes. 2. The reaction rates of carbon compounds are usually slow. 3. Many carbon compounds oxidize slowly in air but rapidly if heated. 4. Most carbon compounds are unstable at high temperatures.

13-3. Petroleum Products
Fractional distillation Catalytic cracking
Modern cracking uses zeolites as the catalyst.

13-3. Petroleum Products Polymerization-the making of plastics Vinyl .

13-3. Petroleum Products .

which have only single carbon-carbon bonds (alkanes and similar compounds) at/chm19104/isomers/intro.htm 13-6.htm Structural Isomers http://www.uoguelph.13-5. Isomers Optical Isomers http://www. Unsaturated Hydrocarbons Unsaturated compounds have double or triple carbon-carbon bonds and are more reactive than saturated compounds.uoguelph. m19104/isomers/stereoisomers/index.

7 Benzene Aromatic compounds Aliphatic compounds are organic compounds that do not contain benzene rings. .13.

8 Hydrocarbon Groups Alkanes or Hydrocarbons Methane 1 carbon Ethane 2 carbons Propane 3 carbons Butane 4 carbons Pentane 5 carbons Hexane 6 carbons Heptane 7 carbons Octane 8 carbons .13.

Table 13.1 .

Functional Groups Alkenes Ethene 2 carbons Alkynes Acetylene 2 carbons Propyne 3 carbons Butyne 4 carbons Propene 3 carbons Butene 4 carbons Pentene 5 carbons Hexene 6 carbons Heptene 7 carbons Pentyne 5 carbons Hexyne 6 carbons Heptyne 7 carbons Octyne 9 carbons Octene 8 carbons .13-9.

Acetylene gas welding and cutting.9. . 13.Fig. etc.

13-9. Functional Groups Alcohols Ethanol 2 carbons Propanol 3 carbons Butanol 4 carbons Pentanol 5 carbons Hexanole 6 carbons Heptanol 7 carbons Octanol 8 carbons .

13-9. Functional Groups Ethers oxygen in the middle Aldehydes Double bond “O” with “H” on end .

13-49 Functional Groups Ketones Double bond “O” in middle Carboxylic Acids Double bond “O” with “OH” .

13-9. Functional Groups Amines NH2 on end Esters Double bond “O” with “O” both in middle .

Table 13.2 .

and Plexiglas (or Lucite). .13-10 Polymers A polymer is a long chain of simple molecules (monomers) linked together. Teflon. Orlon. Some examples of polymers include Styrofoam. Polymers that contain the vinyl group are classed as vinyls. meaning it softens and can be shaped when heated but becomes rigid again on cooling.. Plexiglas is thermoplastic.

Table 13.3 .

13-10 Polymers A copolymer is a polymer that consists of two different monomers. elastic polymers called elastomers. . Polyamides and polyesters are polymers produced by chemical reactions rather than by the polymerization of monomers. Dynel and Saran Wrap are examples. . rubber and neoprene are examples. Certain monomers that contain two double bonds in each molecule form flexible.

. . It is used as a nostick surface in cookware.13-10 Polymers Teflon is polymer with a strong bond between carbon and fluorine atoms.

Lipids 13-14. Nucleic Acids 13-17. Origin of Life . Proteins 13-15 Soil Nitrogen 13-16.Chapter 13b Organic Chemistry 13-11. Photosynthesis 13-13. Carbohydrates 13-12.

13-11. Carbohydrates D -Allose D -Altrose D -Glucose D -Mannose D -Gulose D -Idose D -Galactose D -Talose -Glucose (an aldose) D α-D-Glucose β-D-Glucose β-D-Glucose (chair form) .

13.11 Polysaccharides Sucrose Lactose Maltose Amylopectin .

13. Microorganisms in the stomachs of cows help them digest cellulose in plants. .11 Polysaccharides Cellulose in wood is extracted and converted to paper at this plant in Maine.

13.12 Photosynthesis .

13.12 Photosynthesis .

13-13. Lipids Soap Molecule with Polar head and non-polar tail Saturated and Unsaturated Fatty Acid .

Lipids .13-13.

Instead. It should therefore be as flexible as a simple hydrocarbon chain. this structure appears to be connected entirely by single C-C or C-N bonds. Note that flexing in a covalent structure does not occur by bending bonds.13-14. Proteins The polypeptide chain forms a backbone structure in proteins: On first inspection. and the normal tetrahedral or trigonal planar bond angles are maintained. different shapes are obtained by torsional rotation about the axis of the bonds: .

13-15 Soil Nitrogen .

Changes in the sequence of the bases in a DNA molecule can result in a mutation. Nucleic Acids . Chromosomes consist of DNA molecules.13-16. .

13-17. Origin of Life .

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