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What is Buying cycle?
The key events and process in which the fashion buyer is involved in order to buy a garment range.
The occurrence and the names of sub seasons vary from company to company.August – January The competitive and constantly changing fashion business requires a more frequent introduction to merchandise.July Autumn/Winter.Fashion Industry traditionally splits the year into two main seasons. . resulting in most stores introducing new ranges many times in between these two main seasons. Spring/Summer.February.
Mid Jan 6 Weeks 2 Weeks Four distinct and two promotional season within each half of annual retailing Period .Mid Apr Mid Apr-End May Mid May to Mid July Mid July to Beg Aug Mid July to End Aug Beg Aug -End Sept Beg Oct -Mid Nov Mid Oct-Mid Nov 6 Weeks 8 Weeks 2 Weeks 6 Weeks 8 Weeks 2 Weeks 6 Weeks 8 Weeks 6 Weeks 3 Weeks Winter 2 /Christmas Winter Sale Mid Nov-Beg Jan Beg Jan .End Mar Beg Apr.Seasons Spring Transition Spring Spring promo Summer 1 Summer 2 Summer Sale Autumn Transition Autumn Winter 1 Winter Festive/Holiday Approximate Durations (with overlaps) Mid Jan-End Feb Beg Feb .
Various ranges introduced within the season. • TRANSITIONALS.Ranges which bridge the gap between one season and the next season. .• PHASES.
The Buying Cycle Review of current Season’s sales Budget Planning Comparative Shopping Directional Shopping Sourcing for product development .
The Buying Cycle (Contd…) Range planning Garment samples sourcing for range Pre Selection of garment samples Price negotiation with suppliers Final Range Selection .
The Buying Cycle (Contd…) Placing orders for ranges Pre production sampling & approvals Bulk garment manufacturing Delivery of products to the retailer Purchase by customer Review of current season’s sales .
Comparative Shopping Often referred as comp. shop Undertaken at the beginning of each season and continues with once a month visit Byers & Designers are involved Starts with the looking at current merchandise in the stores of competitors which sell comparable ranges Report will be produced with few sketches & information grid Analysis of missing important trends in own range .
. Buyers usually have budget to buy samples which are referred as bought samples Designers may share responsibility of directional shopping with buyers.Directional Shopping Term used for trips to gain inspiration for design concepts Trips depend upon the buyer’s product range & travel budget Buyer may visit designer RTW ranges to mass market ranges Makes note on key shapes. details. colors and fabric for ref.
Pre selection . Price and Delivery – Sourcing strategy regarding product and Supplier base. • Range is reviewed vis a vis: – Styling. Colors . Marketing.• Time after the Range planning stage at the Buyers’ end can be in form of the Line review/Range review meeting. • Garments samples featuring on the Range plan are presented. Merchandising and QC teams. Participants are the Design.
. Change in styles if any. prices for the Final Range. suppliers. Request for additional samples if required for the final range review meeting by the buyer. • Involves: Informing suppliers regarding the styles which have been included in the final Range.Period after Line/ Range review • Finalization of the Styles . Price re-negotiations Order Delivery dates re-negotiations. Styles dropped.
These may be generated by the Merchandising department or by a separate Purchase department. . orders are placed with the suppliers in form of sending Purchase orders /Purchase sheets for each individual items selected to be on the range.Final Order Placement After the Final Range Selection meeting.
key events calendar. in the right mix.Merchandising Calendar • Primary control tool when developing a seasonal line. . line development calendar. • Also called the line plan calendar. at the right price at the right time to the customer. critical path/task calendar or line calendar • Helps to control key events needed to get right product.
. WIP and finished goods) • Inventory turns=annual value of inventory created/annual value of inv throughout the year • Accommodate changes in quickest possible time. quality.Ingredients of a successful apparel season! • Manufacture what the consumer wants (style. cost) • Deliver proper product mix on a timely basis • Maintain low inventory (raw material.
each one must be analyzed to determine the time required to accomplish it. • Critical functions are then interfaced into a master calendar in the form of a GANTT CHART (series of parallel horizontal graphs which show activities plotted against time) .Critical path method (CPM) • Determines the critical functions necessary to perform an activity or series of activities required to achieve an overall objective. • How is the criticality of the activity decided?? • After selection of critical functions.
Raw Materials. growth strategy. color and print direction) and initiate QA raw material approval Prepare hindsight. Merchant intent and assortment line plan Focused raw material scouting / selection for garment Seasonal Alignment Meeting (6/25) Functional Responsibility Design. Raw Materials Design. style. PreProduction Merchant Timing (weeks) 1 42 41 40 1 2 Raw Materials 4 Cross Functional .ACTIVITIES PRE SEASONAL ALIGNMENT MEETING Activity Initiate development and pass raw material shelf to PreProduction Complete seasonal concept (concept.
1 Logistics 0.7 Logistics 1.1 Logistics 2. alleviating pressure for Logistics team Floor set (3/29) 1 Continuation of activity that begins in week 22.7 Logistics 2. Additional 25% to flow post first shipment .7 Logistics 1.5 4 (1) 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 3 (1) Production 4 Production 6 Production 2 Design Tech 2.1 Store hold and prep Logistics Sewing can start during this timeframe if materials arrive early.PRODUCTION AND LOGISTICS ACTIVITIES POST BUY REVIEW Activity Buy Review Meeting (11/10) Final PDM approval Final costing Bulk lap dip Color PO to factory – transmission phase Waiting for delivery of raw material to factory • Bulk color approval Transit from RM vendor to factory Sewing of garments – sleepwear and panties Sewing of garments – bras TOPs testing Air flow DC staging DC Ops Truck outbound 0.4 Procurement 8 Production 6 1 Functional Responsibilit y Crossfunctional Design Tech Procurement Timing 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 (weeks) 1 day 1.
executing and maintaining and effective merchandising calendar is the responsibility of the merchandiser • It is an important element of ‘pre-season’ planning. • Pre-Season Planning coordinates product development and sales expectations with material purchases and production capacities. .• Computer Applications-Many project scheduling software programmes which help in developing the merchandising calendar • Developing.
Critical path/Time and Action Calendar for the buyer The key activities and the timelines associated with them. By virtue of the T&A the various activities involved in the Product development/Production processes and the responsible party is fixed . for processes like product development and production of any item forms the critical path or the Time and Action calendar.
production & delivery Style no.Time & Action Calendar for product development. Style Description Supplier & Country of Origin Lab dip/strike off approval Trim approval Fitting Sample approval Size set approval Bulk fabric & trim approval Pre production sample approval Bulk production Ex factory Due in warehouse .
References Fashion Buying-Helen Gowrek-Chapter 3 Apparel Merchandising-The Line Starts Here-Rosenau and WilsonChapter 4 .
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