DENSITY AND URBAN FORM

UD / 2012 / SPA

MRIGANK

READING THE
MAYANK

Urban Form (morphology)
Study of the form of human settlements and the process of their formation and transformation.
Understanding of spatial structure and character of a metropolitan area, city, town or village by examining the patterns of its component parts and the process of its development.

Analysis of physical structures at different scales as well as patterns of movement, land use, ownership or control and occupation.

The study of urban tissue, or fabric, as a means of discerning the underlying structure of the built landscape.

Tools and theories for urban form
The tools for analyzing Urban Morphology have some theories like: Space syntax, Figure and Ground etc. Three Theories of Urban Spatial Design: 1. Figure and Ground 2. Linkage theory 3. Place Theory
DENSITY

LAYOUT

INFRASTRUCTURE

URBAN FORM

TRANSPORT

LANDUSE

or floor space. the that that is a DENSITY PRESCRIPTIVE DESCRIPTIVE Urban density used to describe a built environment. services. dwellings. However. It is a formula for managing city growth. Urban density used as a norm in the process of planning and designing the city. since it broad and complex concept.Concept of Density The concept of density in urbanism is frequently used to describe relationship between a given area and the number of certain entities in area. These entities might be people. it is possible to suppose this is a quite reductionist way of approaching the issue of density. .

WHILE THE REPORTED DENSITY MAY BE LOW. The logic of density and its implications for urban form in different scales of analysis 3. THE PERCIEVED DENSITY AND EXTENT OF CROWDING MAY BE VERY HIGH COMPLEXITIES OF DENSITY 1. Difficult to measure 2.Concept of Density DECEPTIVELY COMPLEX CONCEPT WITH A NUMBER OF INTERRELATED DIMENSIONS. Conditions – subjective and qualitative . OBJECTIVE SUBJECTIVE SPATIALLY BASED NUMBER OF PEOPLE IN A GIVEN AREA SOCIAL INTERPRETATION INDIVIDUAL DEPENDENT EXAMPLE – CANNAUGHT PLACE.

a minimum of ten times that density would be considered low. . 2006). In Hong Kong however. Current English housing policy states that new residential building should be at a minimum of 30 dwellings/ha which for some may be an unacceptably high density (DCLG. Example.CULTURAL DIMENSION People live is considered as relative.

Coverage 4.Regional planners and geographers The measurement methods are: 1. Spaciousness .Urban morphology People/Hectare .Density as a measurement Residential density number of people (population density) or the amount of housing (accommodation density) in a specified area of land. Five Density measures FAR GC SOS OSR SCR Floor area / Site area Building footprint / Site area Open space area / Site area Open space area / Floor area Open space area X Floor area / Site area2 = SOS X FAR FAR . Population and dwelling density 2. Land use intensity 3. Building height 5.

Illustration of city form Factors included FAR GC OS OSR SCR SAME DENSITY IN DIFFERETN LAYOUTS WITH VARYING GC AND CONSTANT FAR .

4 .Illustration of city form IDENTICAL FAR OF 1 AND GC .2 IDENTICAL FAR OF 1 AND GC .

Illustration of city form RESIDENTIAL DENSITY OF FOUR DIFFERENT URBAN FORMS .

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Population Density & Morphology Density (person/km2) (Source . 75169) (INNER AREA 18225) (ADMINISTRATIVE AREA 19040) . 78355) (INNER AREA 20483) (ADMINISTRATIVE AREA 24454) BANGALORE (PEAK DEN. 101066) (IINNER AREA 19636) (INNER AREA 34348) (ADMINISTRATIVE AREA 9340) (ADMINISTRATIVE AREA27378) KOLKATA (PEAK DEN.Urban Age) DELHI (PEAK DEN. 96460) MUMBAI (PEAK DEN.

Density is largely driven by topographical constraints and the location of public transport and other infrastructure. In doing so. . high density urban areas can enhance a city’s vitality and make the provision of public transport and other amenities more viable. Skyline of Mumbai While high density is sometimes associated exclusively with poor and overcrowded urban environments. it can also enable a higher quality of life and reduce the environmental impact of cities by facilitating walking and cycling. but also by each city’s inherited traditions of urban planning and development.

Skyline of Delhi Urban Planning and development rule define the skyline Skyline of Kolkata Density is largely driven by topographical constraints Density is not necessarily indicative of a particular morphology .

Skyline of Bangalore Urban Planning and development rules define the skyline .

Mumbai Pudong. Shanghai Downtown Manhattan .Population Density representation Bandra Kurla.

757 18.567.471 6.957.000 3.954 23.956 18.999 12.000 1.986.369.464.963.827.531.000 8.963.369.496 745.000 22. In Delhi the number of residents jumped by 70%. at 4% growth. at least by Indian standards.066.741.582 6. In contrast Kolkata’s population was almost flat.832 19.883.420.000 16.000 3. 1950 2007 2020 Mumbai Delhi Kolkata Bangalore New York Shanghai London Mexico city Johannesburg Berlin 2. India’s population grew by a dramatic 23%.671.894 14. with growth in Bangalore pull ahead of that in Delhi and other cities.579 .710 9.000 3. Projections suggest population growth nationwide will continue but at a reduced rate of 14% to 2010.000 23.185.000 19.710 18.000 3.040.000 3.Population growth trend In the 1990s.338.369 4.000 8. although this was partly due to a boundary change and Bangalore grew by 38%.435.799.705. Mumbai’s population grew by 21%.513.857.361. falling back slightly on its relative position.351. but this fast growth was outpaced in the main cities.493 14.931.000 900.405.009 20.000 2.000 8.618.

Urban Age) .Density – Major cities (Source .

Density – Major cities (Source .Urban Age) .

BROOKLYN AND QUEENS MEXICO SKYLINE IS CONSISTENTLY LOW MULTICENTERED Similar density profiles shows how high-rise buildings do not necessarily create higher density in comparison to more tightly planned low-rise development URBAN FORM AND DENSITY ARE DIFFERENT CONCEPTS. MULTICENTERED LOWER DENSITY DEVELOPMENT PATTERNS OF BERLIN AND LONDON IN NEW YORK. CONSTRAINTS OF WATERWAYS DRIVE DENSITIES THAT RISE TO A ‘SPIKE’ IN MANHATTAN AND PARTS OF THE BRONX.Density patterns VERY HIGH DENSITIES IN THE CENTRES OF MUMBAI AND SHANGHAI LIMITED AREAS OF HIGH DENSITY AROUND A DOWNTOWN IN JOHANNESBURG IN THE MIDST OF A VERY LOW-DENSITY SPRAWL SAO PAULO DENSITY PATTERN SIMILAR SKYLINE IS DOMINATED BY HIGH RISE. .

Extremes of wealth and poverty as shown here on the edge of the Paraisópolis favela. São Paulo.represent deep inequalities in the .

Urban Age) Mumbai New York London Mexico Kolkata Shanghai Johannesburg Berlin .Moving in the city Delhi Bangalore (Source .

(Source .Urban Age) All cities under study have a higher Human Development Index (HDI) than their national data. . educational enrolment ratio with its per capita Gross Domestic Product to provide a snapshot of the quality of life in each city. The HDI score combines life expectancy. literacy rate.

large programs like JNNURM are promoting densification of inner core – Resulting policy gaps needs to be addressed QOL IMPROVES AS DENSITY INCREASES TILL A TIPPING POINT.Density as a planning tool . • Density patterns have a strong linkage to income distribution. they are also more likely to feel more secure. • Moderate to high density neighborhoods are more likely to have better access to services and facilities.India INTEGRAL COMPONENT OF URBAN PLANNING • Mostly ignored in India – Has led to further sprawls • No ‘one size fits all’ where density is concerned – Indian cities need to see what fits their requirement • Socio-economic characteristics of density have an important role to play in India • Master Plans do not incorporate density as a tool for development. – Higher income category populations prefer to stay away from city center in low to moderate density areas – Lower income category prefer to stay near city center .

Master plan analysis .

• stretches the resources of social services and facilities. fumes.5 dwellings/ha) Source: Development Code Precinct Planning. • It reduces the economy of public transport systems and dwellers tend to rely on private car use with resulting increases in emissions. loss of air quality. and can impact on the use of productive land for agricultural purposes. • involves high infrastructure costs. threatening existing eco systems and bio-diversity. Typical lot configurations for low density (12.Issues related to various densities Low density issues large regions with low density development is considered to be unsustainable as it results in • urban sprawl. and in a way or other it results in social isolation. The Growth Centres . • The sprawl and greater urban footprint associated with low density development can also put pressure on the natural environment.

Source: Development Code Precinct Planning. • Denser development where dwellings are placed and residents live in close proximity to each other in tighter spaces brings with it issues that are less common in low density development – issues such as privacy. • lack of private open space is normally can be countered by creating communal open spaces or parks to offer recreational opportunities and amenities for dwellers. solar access (natural light). The increase in density effectively results in • lower costs per unit of producing dwellings. infrastructure and social services and facilities. as well as a more efficient use of scarce land resources.69 dwellings/ha) issues of parking etc. adequacy of private open space. Typical lot configuration for medium density (20.Medium density issues Housing types associated with medium density housing development can cater for the needs of a range of demographic and socio-economic profiles. The Growth Centres .

. although. • High density development generates similar issues to medium density development. create hindrance for open space around it and other buildings nearby. high density development plays vital role and hence more open area within the built fabric and agricultural land can be protected. • With high density development. and spaces between buildings are issues that can be dealt with by appropriate siting and the arrangement of buildings blocks. • The issues of privacy. • High density development close to activity centres and public transport routes represents the most efficient use of urban resources.High density issues In order to achieve the total requirement of land. bulk and height of buildings. It generates the smallest ecological footprint of all three density types. solar access and car parking can be dealt with in the design of buildings. at a much more intense scale. and lack of private open space can be resolved by provision of communal open space and parks.

configurations and orientation to allow future buildings to be designed and sited on these blocks to optimum effect.To achieve the best outcome. Typical lot configuration for high density (38.55 dwellings/ha) Source: Development Code Precinct Planning. • Another issue associated with high density development is the increase in opportunity for anti-social behavior and crime due to increased population density. increased unrecognizability and higher concentration of different social mixes. the planning and layout of the blocks in the master planning stage must ensure appropriate block sizes. The planning and layout of the area must be developed such that all blocks face towards streets or public open spaces. The Growth Centres Commission .

Analysis .

Comparison of FAR regulations .

In Mumbai FSI values are: • Very low • Not differentiated between commercial and residential • Uniform over very large areas • not reflecting the difference in accessibility around train stations • not linked to land market values .Case .0 20.0 Mumbai FSI values are very different from most major cities around the world.Mumbai FAR regulations FAR across cities Pune Gurgaon Bangalore Mumbai Delhi Noida Chennai Shanghai Manhattan New York 0.0 10.

• Higher residential densities should be located near activity centres and along public transport routes to maximize access and convenience to services. as well as in close proximity to public transport routes.Choice of appropriate densities We can make some conclusion on basis of different density studies to establish our choices of using suitable density. • The choice of locations for different densities is also influenced by the site topography. nature reserves. • Medium density should be assigned to locations of high amenity. with the lowest density located at the fringes of a city bordering non-urban areas. which may coincide with activity centres or neighbourhood parks. . • The remaining residential areas can be allocated to lower density housing forms. such as open space corridors. lake/ water side. Slopes of greater than 20% are generally not considered suitable for medium density development due to excessive retaining requirements adding to extra costs.

amenities and employment are brought closer to home. Clustered communities promotes higher transit ridership and shorter trip lengths between home. b) Density and land consumption: land is a finite resource. c) Density and transport: high density encourages commercial development.A LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY APPROACH TO SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN RELATION TO HOUSING DENSITY Residential development should be designed with the existing environment a) Density and zoning: distribution of facilities in an area have implications on its intensity of use and utility. . The need for the car decreases as services. work and social activities. Increasing density in an area conserves land. and job opportunities.

fire. DENSITY AND COMMUNITY INTERACTION Lower density developments encourage dispersed land use patterns and often reduce community interaction by increasing the distance from the home to work. sanitary and storm sewers. . water supply. waste collection and disposal. friends and family. High density residential neighbourhoods facilitate a greater mix of land uses. adults and elderly people to move out and interact without having to go too far away from home. services. which encourages young children.Sustainability and Role of density DENSITY AND INFRASTRUCTURE COSTS Higher densities and effective redevelopment can reduce public costs. DENSITY AND HOUSING MIX/ TYPE Increased density facilitate the development of a greater mix of housing form. High density housing increases the amount of public space available by building on less land. youth. Compared to lower density developments. higher density compact neighbourhoods can reduce both the capital and operating costs for police.

Graph showing comparitive cost percentages of land and infrastructure development 120 100 80 Cost of infrastructure deve. 100 80 60 40 20 0 Apartment Single.family unit Cost of land This comparison of Energy Use by House Type (assuming Equal Floor Area and Orientation) shows the importance of Density to Sustainable Development Energy… 60 40 20 0 Detached End of Top Floor Centre of Centre House Terrace Flat Terrace Floor Flat House House .

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