The Industrial Revolution

Change is inevitable in a progressive society. Change is constant. - Benjamin Disraeli, 1867

For hundreds of years there was very little change in technology in Europe.
People lived and worked with the same simple tools that their ancestors had used. . Little had changed since the time the ancient Romans lived 1,500 years before.

Candles lit homes, animals provided help for transportation, and craftsmen used their skills to make hand-constructed goods needed in the primitive society.

Even books were written and illustrated by hand. Look at the beautiful writing and illustrations of the pages in the books on the next slides. They are from the Book of Words .





The Industrial Revolution began. This was a revolution of inventiveness. .In the mid-1700s life began to change in Europe. The change started slowly. but rapidly began to grow.

The age of the machine had begun and life would NEVER be the same! .

What could have been done to keep the Model T up to par with other cars? Think of cars today. .1927 20 horse power Ended production May 26 1927. The model could not keep up with the changing times.

Was the exportation to Japan successful? . Very much like the Model T. very reliable. It was exported to Japan.British made. 10.5 horse power.

1913 10 horse power. French made. Why would a European company attempt to compete with the popular Model T? . This was an attempt to compete or answer the Model T.

1918 20 horse power. What are some possible explanations as to why the Chevy was not able to fully compete with the Ford Model T? . but did not succeed. In the 1910’s began to challenge the Model T in popularity.

That Nation of Shopkeepers! -.Napoleon Bonaparte .

Early Canals Britain’s Earliest Transportation Infrastructure .

Mine & Forge [1840-1880]
ù More powerful than water is coal.

ù More powerful than wood is iron.
ù Innovations make steel feasible.  ―Puddling‖ [1820] – ―pig iron.‖  ―Hot blast‖ [1829] – cheaper, purer steel.  Bessemer process [1856] – strong, flexible steel.

Young Coal Miners

Child Labor in the Mines
Child ―hurriers‖

“Pioneer of the Factory System” Richard Arkwright: The ―Water Frame‖ .

] more than skilled labor. machines. Located near sources of power [rather than labor or markets]. Requires a lot of capital investment [factory. etc. ) ) ) . Only 10% of English industry in 1850. labor].Factory Production ) Concentrates production in one place [materials.

 12-14 hour day.The Factory System  Rigid schedule.  Mind-numbing monotony.  Dangerous conditions. .

Textile Factory Workers in England .

1812 .British Coin Portraying a Factory.

Young “Bobbin-Doffers” .

Jacquard’s Loom .


John Kay’s “Flying Shuttle” .

The Power Loom .

James Watt’s Steam Engine .

Steam Tractor .

Steam Ship .

An Early Steam Locomotive .

Later Locomotives .

The Impact of the Railroad .


19c Bourgeoisie: The Industrial Nouveau Riche .

Criticism of the New Bourgeoisie .

Stereotype of the Factory Owner .

“Upstairs”/“Downstairs” Life .


The Life of the New Urban Poor: A Dickensian Nightmare! .

Private Charities: Soup Kitchens .

The “Lady Bountifuls” Private Charities: .

Ned Ludd [a mythical figure supposed to live in Sherwood Forest] .The Luddites: 1811-1816 Attacks on the ―frames‖ [power looms].

The Luddite Triangle .

The Luddites .

The Neo-Luddites Today .

1842 .The Chartists Key Chartist settlements Centres of Chartism Area of plug riots.

Payment for Members of Parliament. Annual general elections. Equal electoral districts. V Radical campaign for Parliamentary reform of the inequalities created by the Reform Bill of 1832. The secret ballot. . Abolition of the requirement that Members of Parliament [MPs] be property owners.       Votes for all men.The “Peoples’ Charter” V Drafted in 1838 by William Lovett.

.The Chartists A female Chartist A physical force— Chartists arming for the fight.


.Thomas Malthus  Population growth will outpace the food supply.  War.  The poor should have less children.  Food supply will then keep up with population. or famine could control population. disease.

workers have more children. .David Ricardo  ―Iron Law of Wages.‖  When wages are high.  More children create a large labor surplus that depresses wages.

 There is a role to play for government intervention to provide some social safety net.Jeremy Bentham & John Stuart Mill  The goal of society is the greatest good for The Utilitarians: the greatest number. .

Jeremy Bentham .

 Their goal was a society that benefited everyone.Utopians & Marxists The Socialists:  People as a society would operate and own the means of production. . not individuals. not just a rich.  Tried to build perfect communities [utopias]. well-connected few.



Northern Italy East Germany  Saxony . Belgium. The Netherlands. Western German states.By 1850: Zones of Industrialization on the European Continent ù ù ù ù ù ù Northeast France.

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