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Course Name: Managerial Economics Course Code: ECO501
Presented To: Sayera Younus Presented By: Green Power
What Is Renewable Energy?
Renewable energy (R.E) is derived from natural processes that are replenished constantly. In its various forms, it derives directly from the sun, or from heat generated deep within the earth. Included in the definition is electricity and heat generated from solar, wind, ocean, hydropower, biomass, geothermal resources, and bio-fuels and hydrogen derived from renewable resources.
Sources of R.E.
There are number of renewable energy of which only a few are easily exploitable such as
Biomass Bio-gas Solar Energy Wind Power Hydropower Geothermal energy
Tree biomass, agriculture residues, animal wastes, ect are the primary sources of energy in the rural areas. In the past these traditional fuels were available in abundant, and was sufficient demand. But with the increase in population, the total demand is constantly increasing and at the same time clearance of more land for agriculture, use of trees for brick fields and domestic cooking are adversely affecting the supply source of trees biomass. The rural people, particularly the women and children are the worst victim of this. They have to go far place for procuring firewood. Sometimes they have to spend a part of their energies to buy firewood and as a result they have to have less food than they are expected to.
Bio-gas is another prospective renewable energy. It is produced generally based on cow-dung. The government has been trying to popularize this source of energy and a number of projects have already been taken by the government in collaboration with BANSDOC and the Krishi Bank. This is a easy source of energy and is inextensible. It also helps keep the government pollution free. But the main concern is that the number of cattle in Bangladesh is decreasing day by day. Besides, the poor people do not own land or cattle. So the prospects of their getting cow dung free are expected to decrease. If this energy source could be popularize this will save a lot of money which could be used for other purposes including development activities.
Solar energy is the energy derived from the sun through the form of solar radiation. Solar powered electrical generation relies on photovoltaic and heat energy. A partial list of other solar applications includes space heating and cooling and high temperature process heat for industrial purposes. Solar technologies are broadly characterized as either passive solar or active solar depending on the way they capture, convert and distribute solar energy. Active solar techniques include the use of photovoltaic panels and solar thermal collectors to harness the energy. Passive solar techniques include orienting a building to the Sun, selecting materials with favorable thermal mass or light dispersing properties, and designing spaces that naturally circulate air.
This is also another prospective source of renewable energy. Bangladesh being a more or less flat land, wind power is available almost all the year round. The power could be used for driving motors for grinding grains, water pumps etc. Wind power is used for producing energy in some European countries. We can also exploit this renewable source of energy.
Hydropower, hydraulic power, hydrokinetic power or water power is power that is derived from the force or energy of falling water, which may be harnessed for useful purposes. Since ancient times, hydropower has been used for irrigation and the operation of various mechanical devices, such as watermills, sawmills, textile mills, dock cranes, and domestic lifts. Since the early 20th century, the term is used almost exclusively in conjunction with the modern development of hydroelectric power, the energy of which could be transmitted considerable distance between where it was created to where it was consumed.
Geothermal energy is energy obtained by trapping the heat of the earth itself, both from kilometers deep into the Earth's crust in volcanically active locations of the globe or from shallow depths, as in geothermal heat pumps in most locations of the planet. It is expensive to build a power station but operating costs are low resulting in low energy costs for suitable sites. Ultimately, this energy derives from heat in the Earth's core.
Importance of Renewable Energy
The availability of natural resources such as gas, coal and petroleum are limited. Today or tomorrow these resources will come to end. In order to ensure uninterrupted supply of energy, the renewable energy is very important. Besides, there are many remote areas in Bangladesh which are not likely to be covered by the network due to inaccessibility and low demand density.
Therefore, renewable energy technologies are considered a viable technical option for such isolated far-off areas for ensuring equitable development of all areas and different cross-sections of socio-economic groups. Serious research on renewable energy sector started science the days the ‘Global Energy Crisis’ 1973, when oil embargo was imposed by the organization of Petroleum Exports Countries (OPEC). That was the time when people became acutely aware of the fact that availability of natural resources (gas, coal, and petroleum) has to be found out.
Barriers for Sustainability of Alternative Energy Technologies
• • • • • • • 1. High initial cost 2. Dependence on the weather 3. Lack of awareness 4. Lack of established high-volume supplier-dealer chains. 5. High prices of the components. 6. Lack of fund. Under the circumstances sustainability depends on the correct design of the installment payment • mechanism that takes into consideration recipients’ cash constraints and the upper limit of the • amortization period. • According to Mr. Eusuf (1997), it is well known that for any new systems and as such effective postinstallation monitoring and services must be ensured.
Role of BRAC on Alternative Energy Technology
BRAC is implementing Biogas project in one of the BRAC operated area as experimental basis since September 1996. There are two biogas plants is presently running. It will be extended to a pilot project at all Rural Development Programme (RDP) areas at the end of this year. BRAC has a plan for extension of this biogas project to all over Bangladesh after successful completion of pilot project. BRAC’s another indirect activity related to renewable energy is social forestry programme. Which is one core programme under BRAC’s Rural Development Programme.
• It appears that some forms of renewable energy can play a very important role in our development, especially in the rural areas. Traditional fuels which are renewable contribute almost 50 percent to the total energy demand of Bangladesh. These fuels can also contribute significantly poverty alleviation. Attention should be focused on how to use them in efficient and effective ways. To this effect, the following recommendation may be considered. • Renewable energy contribution targets should be fixed, say solar PV system should contribute at least 1.0 percent of the total energy requirement by the year 2015.
• Appropriate steps should be taken for wide distribution of PV system to the remote rural areas. Measures may also be taken to reduce the initial high cost of solar PV system. • Industries should be set up for fabrication of flat-plate type solar water heaters. • The social movement for tree plantation which is already in action should be further accelerated to enhance biomass production. • Applied research on other renewable energy sources should be carried out. • A commission such as ‘Bangladesh Renewable Energy Commission’ may be established to provide institutional support to this very important sector of energy, which contributes about 50 percent, the highest percentage of the total energy supply of the country.
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