Writing 2 – Week 3

Purpose:
◦ To describe how something works ◦ To describe how something is done ◦ To state the reasons for some phenomenon

Structure
◦ General Statements ◦ Description of each phase of the processes

Linguistic Features
◦ General Participants ◦ Clauses of Action (Material Processes) – Simple Present ◦ Sequence Markers

Describing

a cycle

◦Metamorphosis ◦Water-cycle ◦Wedding Ceremony

Do you know how paper is produced?

1. Cutting the trees, debarking the logs 2. Pulping 3. Washing 4. Screening 5. Pressing & Drying 6. Cutting & Rolling

Paper Producti on Process

General Statements Paper is made of wood fiber. The wood goes through several stages of process before it becomes a piece of paper.

Stage One
To begin the process, trees are cut down from the forests. They are made into logs, and transported to the factory.

Stage Two
At the factory, the logs are then passed through a debarker, where the bark is removed. After that, the bark-free logs go through chippers, where spinning blades cut the wood into two centimeter pieces.  Those wood chips are then cooked with a mixture of water and chemicals. The result of this process is the pulp.

Stage Three
In the next process, the pulp is washed, refined, cleaned and sometimes bleached, then turned to slush in the beater.  Color dyes, coatings and other additives are mixed in, and the pulp slush is pumped onto a moving wire screen.

Stage Four
As the pulp travels down the screen, water is drained away and recycled.   The resulted crude paper sheet, or web, is squeezed between large rollers to remove most of the remaining water and ensure smoothness and uniform thickness.  The semidry web is then run through heated dryer rollers to remove

Stage Five The finished paper is then wound into large rolls, which can be 9 meters wide and weigh close to 25 tons.  Finally, a very sharp knife cuts the paper into smaller rolls, and the paper is ready for use.

Simple Present  Verbs of Action: Material Processes  Passive Voices  Sequence Markers

Explanation
◦ How something is produced ◦ Explain the processes ◦ Declarative ◦ Focus on the thing (the subject being discussed)

Procedure
◦ How to produce something ◦ Give guidance ◦ Imperative ◦ Focus on “you”

Collectin g

Sorting & Separating from other items Drying & Storing Making the porridge

Rolling & Making new product

Pressing & drying

Screening