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Knowing the Publics and Messages

Presented by Aastha Jindal

Who shall we talk to

Who are publics

Customers, Business Partners, Potential Customers, Retailers Vendors, Competitors Stakeholders, Banks, Financial agencies Employees, Unions, Company Pensioners Government, Trade Bodies, International Banks

An organization's specific relationship with a group of people, around specific issues, defines its various publics

The communication with publics is prioritized and designed based on the respective relationships

The Mistake PR professionals make while mapping publics

A particular group of people contains individuals who all act in the same way

Public Opinion

A consensus which emerges over time from all the views that cluster around an issue in debate

This consensus exercises power

A prevalent view held by majority of people Both a cause and effect of PR activities

Everybody has a perception

Convert it into an opinion People are selective in what news they read/ listen to Various news sources chop down the real messaging

Uniform public opinion occurs occasionally

Types of Publics

Non-publics Latent publics Aware publics Active publics

All-issue publics Single-issue publics

Hot-issue publics

Apathetic publics

Defining Publics
1. 2.


Problem recognition Constraint recognition Level of involvement

Hence A public is defined by considering very carefully exactly who will be affected by the policies and activities of that organization By monitoring the environment it is possible to identify those publics that have particular interests in specific issues, whose opinion and behaviour will significantly affect the activities of the organization

Other Segmentation Techniques

Publics can also be segmented on the basis of nature of the PR Programme

Geographically- where they live, work etc Demographically- Age, gender, income Psycho graphically- Attitudes, opinions, beliefs Groups- trade bodies, clubs, societies By media- consumption- who reads magazines or watch news or prefer newspapers Type of Power Overt- Religious leaders, politicians Covert- Influencers like teachers, parents By Role- CEOs, Financial Heads, Executives

Prioritizing Publics
1. 2.

3. 4. 5.

Investors, Stakeholders, Government Consumers, Points of Purchase Employees Community Vendors

Power: Interest Matrix

Nature of Programmes

Information campaigns

One way Communication Seek to transmit information Seek to influence the behaviour of publics in some way To build coalitions, achieve consensus To identify areas of potential conflict Deliberative engagement is planned

Persuasion campaigns

Dialogue-based campaigns

What do we say?

Rational content is the key Ronal D. Smith: The Primary idea behind a persuasive speech, advertisement, e-letter or other communication vehicle is called a proposition. 4 kinds of Proposition

Propositions can be backed up by

Drawing parallels/ comparisons Examples Case studies Testimonials Statistics Visual Evidence Demonstrations, Exhibitions Love appeals Virtue appeals Humour appeals

Fact- What information already exists/ is proven Conjecture- What is reasonable to conclude basis the evidence, situation Value- The virtue/ worth of an initiative Policy- Adoption of a procedure

Emotional appeals

Sex appeals
Fear appeals



Crafting Messages

If the public plays back to the originator on the message they initiated it determines

Take into account existing perceptions


The message has been received The message is on the board and is being used in some way Determines Effectiveness of communication


Define what shifts can be made in those perceptions

Identify the elements of persuasion Ensure the message is delivered in a credible manner
Format Tone Content


Messages and the way they are conveyed are the starting point of the thinking, attitude or behavioral change that the organization is seeking

Presenting the Message

Repetition Credibility Personability

Thank you!