CHAPTER 1

UNDERSTANDING PHYSICS

Physics is a branch of science which studies physical and natural phenomena around us.

The word ‘physics’ actually comes from Greek word ‘physikos’ which means nature.

System of units and Measurem
Basics and derived quantities and their units of SI, prefixes and conversion of units.  Measurements tools  study of measuring instrument.

Mechanics

Scalar and vector quantities, speed, velocity and acceleration, speed-time graph and velocity-time graph. Linear equations- derivations and applications

Linear Momentum

Principle of conservation of momentum, elastic and inelastic collision. Newton’s Law of motion

Mass and Weight

Differences, friction, applications on inclined plane.

Work

Work and its applications in our daily life.

Energy

Kinetic and potential energy

Power

Pressure

In constant fluid- Pascal’s principle and pressure principle, atmospheric, barometer etc In moving fluid- Bernoulli’s principle

Heat
 

Heat and temperature Gas Law- Boyle’s principle, Charles’s principle, Lussac’s principle

Electricity and Electromagnet
Electricity  Conductor, insulator, semiconductor.  Ohm’s Law and Kirchoff ‘s Law.  Electrical power and work. Electromagnetic induction  Lenz’s Law, Faraday’s Law, Fleming’s rules.  Ac and dc current.  Transformer and capacitor.

Physical Quantity

 

A physical quantity is a quantity that can be measured. Examples: speed, length, mass etc. A non-physical quantity is something that can not be measured. Examples: beauty, feelings etc.

Physical quantity consists of:  a numerical value- magnitude  a unit  Unit: SI unit is based on the French system of units, ‘Le Systéme International d’Unites’

Base Quantity

A base quantity- is a physical quantity which cannot be defined in terms of other physical quantities Unit- base unit: the measuring unit of a base quantity (SI unit). The international system is commonly referred to throughout the world as SI, after the initials of Système International. five basic units and they are exactly the same in all languages. Each of these base units is defined on fundamental constants, and all other units are based on these five units.

INTERNATIONAL SYSTEM OF UNITS (SI units) Base Quantity   Length Mass Time Electric current Thermodynamic temperature Name of Symbol Symbol Base SI Unit  of unit SI meter (or m l metre) kilogram kg m second ampere Kelvin   t I T s A K  

DEFINITION OF THE BASE UNITS
Standard Notes A meter is defined as Unit the distance light travels in a vacuum in of a second (in physics it is customary l, x (for Length Meter (m) to use metric distances) measurements although the basic principles apply if you to use feet instead of m, M (when A kilogram is defined meters) used with Kilogram as the weight of a Mass measuremen (kg) specific platinumts in meters) iridium cylinder Abbreviation Name (Symbol)

Seconds are defined as 9,192,631,770 vibrations of Time t Second (s) radiation from a cesium atom A degree Kelvin is defined Temperatur as of the distance T Kelvin (K) e between absolute 0 and the triple point of the amount of An ampere is water charge (C) passing through a surface per second, and is defined as the current which produces a force of Electric Newton per meter of length I Ampere (A) Current between two infinitely long, perfectly straight and parallel conductors with an infinitely small cross section separated by one meter in a vacuum..

Derived Quantity

Derived quantity is a physical quantity derived from combination of base quantities through multiplication or division or both. Examples of derived quantities:

Some derived units - have been assigned special names
INTERNATIONAL SYSTEM OF UNITS-TABLE 4 Quantity Special Name of Symbo Derived SI l Units Derived SI Unit Hertz Hz 1/s Newton Pascal joule watt  coulomb  N Pa J W C  kg•m/s2 N/m2 N•m J/s  A•s 

Frequency Force Pressure, stress Energy, work, quantity of heat Power Quantity of electricity

Prefixes

0.0005 kg

5000 kg

Prefixes are used to simplify the description of physical quantities that are either very big or very small.

Units trillions billions millions thousands hundreds one tenth one hundredth one thousandth one millionth one billionth one trillionth

Multiplication Prefix Symbo Factor l 12 1 000 000 000= 10 tera T 000  1 000 000 000 = 109 giga G 1 000 000 = 106 1 000 = 103 100 = 102 0.1 = 10–1 0.01 = 10–2 0.001 = 10–3 mega kilo hecto deci centi milli M k h d c m µ n p

0.000 001 = 10–6 micro 0.000 000 001 = 10–9 nano 0.000 000 000= 10–12 pico 001 

Examples
Please help Naruto to express: 2. 0.0015 kg to g 3. 5200 g to kg Solution: 0.0015 x 103=1.5 g 5200 ÷ 103 = 5.2 kg

Examples
Convert: 2. 0.000006 Mm its equivalent in cm. 3. 570000 cm its equivalent in km. Solution: 5. 0.000006 Mm = 0.000006 x 106 = 6 m 6 ÷ 10-2 = 600 cm

1.

570000 cm = 570000 x 10-2 = 5700 m 5700 ÷ 103 = 5.7 km

Exercises
Convert: 2. 0.03 m = _____ cm 3. 0.0000000094 ns = _______ s

Scientific Notation
Numerical values which are very big or very small can be written in standard form or scientific form.  Scientific notation:

where: i)1 ≤ A < 10 , A=integer/decimal value ii) n= positive or negative integer

A x 10

n

Examples
The mass of the earth: =6 020 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 kg =6.02 x 10²⁴ kg
1. 1.

The diameter of one of the oil molecule: =0.000 000 000 74m =7.4 x 10-¹⁰ m

Conversion of Units

The unit of a derived quantity can be conversed into another unit by multiplying its current value by a suitable factor- SI unit.

Examples
1.

5.23 mm = ____ km = 5.23 x 10-3 ÷ 10 3 = 5.23 x 10-3 x 10 -3 = 5.23 x 10-6 km 2.5 m3 = _____ cm3 = 2.5 ÷ (10-2)3 = 2.5 x 106 cm3

Examples
7200 kmh-1 = ______ ms-1 = 7200 x 103/1x60x60 = 2 x 103 ms-1 2.16 kmh-2 = _______ ms-2 = 2.16 x 103/(1x60x60)2 = 1.67 x 10-4 ms-2

Exercises
The density of a solution is 720 kgm-3. what is its density in gcm-3? A 2 cm cube has a volume of……(Give your answer in SI unit) Convert 110.2 kmh-1 its equivalent in ms-1. Convert 2.5 gcm-3 its equivalent in kgm3

Units
   

SI units C.G.S System M.K.S Systems F.P.S System

C.G.S Systems
 

C.G.S.. the form cm-gm-sec The mechanical units are the same in all c.g.s systems: Length, mass, and time, The units of the cgs system are generally much smaller than the comparable units of the M.K.S system.

Definitions and conversion factors of CGS units in Equival mechanics CGS unit Symb ent Quantity CGS unit abbreviati Definition ol in SI on units length, centime 1/100 of = L, x cm position ter meter 10−2 m 1/1000 of = mass m gram g kilogram 10−3 kg time t second s 1 second = 1 s centime = velocity v tre per cm/s cm/s 10−2 m/ second s = force F dyne dyn g cm / s2 10−5 N energy E erg erg g cm2 / s2 = 10−7 J erg per = 2 3 power P erg/s g cm / s second 10−7 W = 2 pressure p barye Ba g / (cm s ) 10−1 Pa

M.K.S Systems

The result was two clustering of metric units in science and engineering. One cluster, based on the centimeter, the gram, and the second, is called the CGS system. The other, based on the meter, kilogram, and second, is called the MKS system. When we say, for example, that the dyne is the CGS unit of force, this determines its definition: it is the force which accelerates a mass of one gram at the

The MKS unit of force, the Newton, is the force which accelerates a mass of one kilogram at the rate of one meter per second per second. The ratio between a CGS unit and the corresponding MKS unit is usually a power of 10. A Newton accelerates a mass 1000 times greater than a dyne does, and it does so at a rate 100 times greater, so there are 100 000 = 105 dynes in a

Although some of the CGS units remain in use for a variety of purposes, they are being replaced gradually by the SI units selected from the MKS system.

F.P.S System

That is the English system, also known as FPS (Foot-Pound-Second). This system, which has two slightly different flavors (US & UK), is still in use in countries such as the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, and few other former colonies of the United Kingdom.

MEASUREMENT TOOLS
   

RULER VERNIER CALIPER MICROMETER SCREW GAUGE ZERO ERROR

RULER

 

The metre ruler- to measure lengths of a few centimeters to a meter. Measurement is accurate up to 0.1 cm. Can measure: the length of a pencil, the width of a book etc

The length of a pencil= 7.9 cm

The diameter of a cactus = 2 cm

VERNIER CALIPER

The vernier callipers- to measure lengths of less than 10 cm. Suitable for measuring internal or external of round objects like pipes and cylindrical container. Can measure also- thickness of a book etc.

Two inside calipers

Three outside calipers

Odd leg calipers

dial caliper A pair of dividers Digital caliper

Parts of a vernier caliper: •Outside jaws: used to measure external diameter or width of an object •Inside jaws: used to measure internal diameter of an object •Depth probe: used to measure depths pf an object or a hole •Main scale: gives measurements of up to one decimal place(in cm). •Main scale: gives measurements in fraction(in inch) •Vernier gives measurements up to two decimal places(in cm) •Vernier gives measurements in fraction(in inch)

HOW TO USE

How to Use

Reading the main scale = 3.2 cm Reading the vernier scale = 3 x 0.001 cm So: = 3.2 + (3 x 0.01)   = 3.2 + 0.03   = 3.23 cm

Example

Exercise

What is the diameter of metal rod?

MICROMETER SCREW GAUGE
  

Is used for measuring very small length. Its accurate up to 0.01 mm. Can be used to measure the thickness of cardboard, a coin or a key and the diameter of a wire etc

Part of Micrometer Screw Gauge

How to Use

Examples

Reading = reading on the main scale+ reading on the thimble scale   = 2.5 mm + (46 x 0.01)   = (2.5 + 0.46) mm   = 2.96 mm

Examples

Examples

Reading = reading on the main scale+ reading on the thimble scale   = 7.5 mm + 0.22  = 0.72 mm

Exercises
5.8 mm

3.09 mm

Exercises

What is the thickness of the ruler?

ZERO ERROR

Important aspects in measurement:
 Consistency  Accuracy  Sensitivity

The consistency of an instrument is the ability of the instrument to give consistent readings when the same physical quantity is measured more than once.

ZERO ERROR

The accuracy of a measuring instrument is the ability of the instrument to give measurements of a physical quantity which are close to the actual value. The sensitivity of a measuring instrument means the ability of the instrument to detect small changes in a quantity measured.

Experimental Error
An error- the difference between the measure value and the actual value.  2 types of error: 1. Systematic error 2. Random error

Systematic error

is an error in reading the scale when a physical quantity is being measured. Caused by- the instrument, observer, surrounding.

0.9 cm

1.0 cm

Zero error

Occurs when the reading shown on the instrument is not zero while the true reading is zero. Caused  when there is a flaw in the instrument.  The pointer of the instrument dos not return to zero when it is not being used.

Vernier caliper

Micrometer screw gauge

Random error
Occurs when the observer is reading the scale on the measurement instrument.  Example: Parallax error Error in reading of the scale Error due to miscount etc.

Parallax error

Happens when making measurement using incorrect positions of the eyes.

Example

Exercises

Exercises

What is the thickness of the ruler?

THE END

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