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Levine Chapter 18 Presentation statistic for manager using microsoft excel

Levine Chapter 18 Presentation statistic for manager using microsoft excel

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6th Edition

Chapter 18

18-1

Learning Objectives

In this chapter, you learn:

methods to use to conduct a data analysis

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Numerical Categorical

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Describe the characteristics of the variable (possibly broken into several groups) Draw conclusions about the mean and standard deviation of the variable in a population Determine whether the mean and standard deviation of the variable differs depending on the group Determine which factors affect the value of the variable Predict the value of the variable based on the value of other variables Determine whether the values of the variable are stable over time

18-4

Develop tables and charts and compute descriptive statistics to describe the variables characteristics:

Stem-and-leaf display, percentage distribution, histogram, polygon, boxplot, normal probability plot Mean, median, mode, quartiles, range, interquartile range, standard deviation, variance, and coefficient of variation

Statistics

18-5

Confidence interval for the mean based on the t-distribution Hypothesis test for the mean (t-test)

18-6

Pooled t-test if you can assume variances are equal Separate-variance t-test if you cannot assume variances are equal Both tests assume the variables are normally distributed and you can examine this assumption by developing boxplots and normal probability plots To decide if the variances are equal you can conduct an F-test for the ratio of two variances Wilcoxon rank sum test

18-7

continued

Paired t-test

F-test

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continued

18-9

18-10

How to predict the value of a variable based on the value of other variables

Multiple regression model

Data taken over a period of time and you want to forecast future time periods

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How to determine whether the values of a variable are stable over time

Studying a process and have collected data over time Develop R and X charts

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Describe the proportion of items of interest in each category (possibly broken into several groups) Draw conclusions about the proportion of items of interest in a population Determine whether the proportion of items of interest differs depending on the group Predict the proportion of items of interest based on the value of other variables Determine whether the proportion of items of interest is stable over time

18-13

18-14

Confidence interval for proportion of items of interest Hypothesis test for the proportion of items of interest (Z-test)

18-15

How to determine whether the proportion of items of interest differs depending on the group

Two proportion Z-test 2 -test for the difference between two proportions McNemar test 2 -test for the difference among several proportions

2 -test of independence

18-16

How to determine whether the proportion of items of interest is stable over time

p-chart

18-17

Possible Questions

How to describe the characteristics of the variable (possibly broken into several groups)? How to draw conclusions about the mean and standard deviation of the variable in the population?

Numerical Variables

How to determine whether the mean and standard deviation of the variable differs depending on the group? How to determine which factors affect the value of the variable? How to predict the value of the variable based on the value of other variables? How to determine whether the values of the variable are stable over time?

How to describe the proportion of items of interest in each category (possibly broken into several groups)?

Categorical Variables

How to determine whether the proportion of items of interest differs depending on the group? How to predict the proportion of items of interest based on the value of other variables? How to determine whether the proportion of items of interest is stable over time?

18-18

continued

Create Tables & Charts How to describe the characteristics of the variable (possibly broken into several groups)? Stem-and-leaf display, percentage distribution, histogram, polygon, boxplot, normal probability plot

Calculate Statistics

Mean, median, mode, quartiles, range, interquartile range, standard deviation, variance, coefficient of variation

How to draw conclusions about the mean and standard deviation of the variable in the population?

Mean

2 independent groups

Mean Variance

Separate variance t test (both variables must be normal) Wilcoxon rank sum test (variables do not have to be normal) F-test (both variables must be normal) Paired t test (differences must be normal)

How to determine whether the mean and standard deviation of the variable differs depending on the group?

One Way Anova (variable must be normal) Kruskal-Wallis Rank Test (variable doesnt need to be normal) Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 18-19

continued

One independent variable How to predict the value of the variable based on the value of other variables? Two or more Independent variables Data taken over time to forecast the future How to determine whether the values of the variable are stable over time?

Multiple regression model Moving averages Exponential smoothing Least squares forecasting Autoregressive modeling

Develop

X and R charts

18-20

continued

Summary tables How to describe the proportion of items of interest in each category (possibly broken into several groups) Bar charts Pie charts Pareto charts Side-by-side charts How to draw conclusions about the proportion of items of interest in a population Two categories & two independent groups Two categories & two matched groups How to determine whether the proportion of items of interest differs depending on the group Confidence interval for the proportion of items of interest

Two proportion Z test

McNemar test

More than two categories & more than two groups

18-21

continued

How to determine whether the proportion of items of interest is stable over time

p-chart

18-22

Chapter Summary

Discussed how to choose the appropriate technique(s) for data analysis for both numerical and categorical variables Discussed potential questions and the associated appropriate techniques for numerical variables Discussed potential questions and the associated appropriate techniques for categorical variables

18-23

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Printed in the United States of America.

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