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Utility Based Scheduling in Cognitive Radio Networks

Term Project CmpE-300 Analysis of Algorithms
Spring 2009 Computer Engineering, Boğaziçi University, Istanbul
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Outline
• Wireless networks
– FDMA, TDMA, CDMA

• Dynamic Spectrum Access
• Cognitive Radio Networks • Problem Formulation
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Cellular Networks 3 .

Cellular Networks 4 .

Cellular Networks • MSC: Mobile Switching Center • How do different mobile stations communicate simultaneously with the BS? 5 .

Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) • Each mobile device tunes to a frequency band • Analogous to people talking in different rooms 6 .

Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) 7 .

Avea 8 . Turkcell – Type-B: 35 MHz. Vodafone – Type-C: 30 MHz.Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) • Each mobile device transmits data in a different time slot • Analogous to people talking one by one • GSM: Combination of FDMA and TDMA – 25 MHz bandwidth divided into 124 carrier frequencies of 200 KHz bandwidth – Each carrier frequency divided into 8 time slots using TDMA • 3G licenses: – Type-A: 40 MHz.

Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) 9 .

Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) • Analogous to people talking in different languages 10 .

Dynamic Spectrum Access (DSA) • PROBLEM : Underutilized spectrum resources due to fixed assignment strategy • IDEA : Utilizing “white spaces” in the spectrum without disturbing licensed users [1] • CHALLENGE : – Sensing the environment. detecting “white spaces” – “white spaces” frequently change by time and space – Changing radio parameters on the fly 11 .

Frequency Allocation Charts • In Turkey: http://www.tr/Duzenlemeler/teknik/marfl/_marfl1.asp 12 .tk.gov.

White Space Concept 13 .

Cognitive Radio (CR) Concept • Initially proposed by Mitola [2] • Next step evolution of Software Defined Radio (SDR) • Cognitive Radio (CR): Intelligent devices that can [2]: – Sense and autonomously reason about their environment – Adapt their communication parameters accordingly – Realize DSA concept 14 .

Terminology • Primary User (PU): – Licensed user – Has exclusive rights for the spectrum • Secondary User (SU): – Unlicensed user – Opportunistically utilizes the white spaces – Has to vacate the spectrum band as soon as a PU appears – Also called cognitive user 15 .

IEEE 802.22 Network Architecture 16 .

Research Problem • totalNetworkUtility: Total number of SU’s that are satisfied in terms of throughput Maximize (totalNetworkUtility) subject to No interference is imposed on the PU’s Reliable communication with the CBS is achieved No collisions occur among the SU’s 17 .

Research Problem Terminology • • • • N: Total number of SU’s F: Total number of frequencies T: Total number of time slots Uif= Maximum number of packets that can be transmitted by user i to the CBS using frequency f (in a time slot) • 1. if user "i" transmits with frequency " f " in timeslot " t Xift   " 0 . otherwise  ti = Throughput (data rate) of SU i g(ti)=The level of satisfaction of SU i from throughput ti timin= Minimum throughput required by SU i 18 • • • .

Problem Formulation totalNetworkUtility Each SU is assigned at least 1 time slot At most 1 user is assigned a certain time slot and frequency pair Throughput of SU i 19 .

Problem Formulation 20 .

Problem Formulation 21 .

Doctor of Technology. Royal Institute of Technology (KTH). pp. Lee.. 50. W. “NeXt generation/dynamic spectrum access/cognitive radio wireless networks: A survey”. 13. 22 . Mohanty. 2000. Computer Networks. Stockholm. 2006.. Vol. “Cognitive Radio: An Integrated Agent Architecture for Software Defined Radio”. No. [2] Mitola. Vuran. Sweden.References [1] Akyildiz. I. M. 2127-2159. J. and S.

Questions? 23 .