You are on page 1of 33

Agenda

   
MICROWAVE BASICS PRODUCT INFORMATION TROUBLE-SHOOTING PRECAUTIONS / HEALTHY O&M PRACTICES

ISM Bands
• Industrial, Scientific and Medical

• Defined by the ITU-R in 5.138 and 5.150 of the Radio Regulations
• License free communications applications such as WLAN and Bluetooth
• 2.4 GHz band

• 5.8 GHz band

Microwave Frame Structure (1)
RFCOH
171.072 Mbit/s

15.552 Mbit/s
RFCOH

STM-1 155.52 Mbit/s
SOH Payload

MLCM DMY XPIC ATPC WS RSC INI ID FA 11.84 Mbit/s 64 kbit/s 16 kbit/s 64 kbit/s 2.24 Mbit/s 864 kbit/s 144 kbit/s 32 kbit/s 288 kbit/s RFCOH: Radio Frame Complementary Overhead MLCM: Multi-Level Coding Modulation DMY: Dummy XPIC: Cross-polarization Interference Cancellation ATPC: Automatic Transmit Power Control WS: Wayside Service RSC: Radio Service Channel INI: N:1 switching command ID: Identifier FA: Frame Alignment

LOSS Cable/Connectors pigtail cable + Transmit Power RSL (receive signal level) .Path Loss over link Antenna distance Antenna RF Cable .RF Link Budget + Antenna Gain RF Cable + Antenna Gain .LOSS Cable/Connectors pigtail cable .

. connectors.. body loss...RxL • • • • Where : RxP = received power (dBm) TxP = transmitter output power (dBm) TxG = transmitter antenna gain (dBi) • • • • • TxL = transmitter losses (coax.. connectors.) (dB) An antenna has gain if it radiates more strongly in one direction than in another. other losses.) (dB) FSL = free space loss or path loss (dB) ML = miscellaneous losses (fading.TxL .ML + RxG .) (dB) RxG = receiver antenna gain (dB) RxL = receiver losses (coax.RF Link Budget • RxP = TxP + TxG . Gain is measured by comparing an antenna to an isotropic antenna . polarization mismatch..FSL .

Polarization • The polarization of an antenna is determined by the electric field or E plane • For LoS communications. it can make a tremendous difference in signal quality to have the transmitter and receiver using the same polarization .

Product Introduction .

Introduction to Pasolink Family Pasolink Family Tree .

.

SDH and LAN. The transmission signals are 4 to 48 x E1. 2/4 x 10/100 Base-T(X) and GbE signals. Pasolink NEO/I IDU Antenna and ODU (Direct Mount 1+0) (11 – 52 GHz) . 1 to 2 x E3.NEO/i Capacity The PASOLINK NEO ODU system provides interface types of PDH. 1 to 2 x STM-1.

.

.

Indoor Installation 4-Connect the IF Cable (Paso+ N type) (Neoi TNC type) 5-Connect the Power Cable 2-Connect the frame Earthing 3-Connect the STM1 Cable 1-Fix the 4 screw (2 for each side) .

Operation & Maintenance Troubleshooting using Loop-Back Tests .

Loopback operation is not performed with an opposite station simultaneously. • IF Loopback • Near End Loopback • Far End Loopback 3. Service will be interrupted during Loopback condition.Loopback Notes: 1. 2. Following Loopback operation is not performed simultaneously. .

Setup the test equipment according to the following diagram.Loopback Test Loopback When loopback condition is necessary. When there is an interruption of signals. set the system to loopback condition. . use the STM/SONET analyzers and isolate the faulty section by checking the traffic signal by loopback.

If no abnormality is found in the signal with NEAR END loopback.Loopback • IF loopback Used for localizing equipment failure to ODU or IDU. then the radio equipment (IDU or ODU) has a problem. The input STM-1 signal from MUX is looped back at IF stage. If no abnormality is found in the signal after IF loopback. Signal is looped back at the IDU of the opposite station. If no abnormality is found in the signal through FAR END loopback. The input STM-1 signal from MUX is looped back and then output with STM-1 signal. • STM-1 loopback (FAR END) Used for localizing equipment failure to MUX equipment or radio equipment. then the local radio equipment (IDU or ODU) has no problem. • STM-1 loopback (NEAR END) Used for localizing equipment failure to MUX equipment or radio equipment. . then the ODU has a problem.

.

.

.

Persons performing maintenance must take necessary steps to avoid Electro-static Discharge (ESD) which may damage the modules on the IDU or cause error. The –48 V DC power is superimposed on the center conductor of the coaxial cable between the IDU and the ODU. Warning: 1. This will minimize static build-up during maintenance.PRECAUTIONS The following precautions must be carefully observed during maintenance. Wear a conductive wrist strap connected to the grounded (G) jack on the front of the equipment shelf. . The maintenance personnel should report arrival at and departure from a station to the relevant station. The following are dangers and warnings to the maintenance personnel. Connecting test equipment directly to this terminal may damage it and touching the coaxial cable core may cause electrical shock. 2.

Do not remove/connect the IF cable with the IDU power ON. 6. or equipment may be damaged. Contact NEC before program download on the LCT is performed. 4. Perform the TX Mute control in the Maintenance mode or turn the PWR switch off at the IDU before disconnecting cable or feeder from the ODU TX output.PRECAUTIONS 3. . Equipment may not function correctly with improper operation. Repeatedly turning the power ON and OFF within a short interval may cause the IDU to fail. wait at least 1 minute before turning it OFF again. Turn the IDU power OFF before connecting/ disconnecting the IF cable. After turning ON the equipment. Do not allow open or short circuit of ODU TX output with the TX power on conditions. 5.

When the TX SW is activated.Healthy O&M Practices 1. 3. do not stare at the laser beam or look at it directly with optical instruments. 6. Before removing or installing the IDU/ODU. turn off the power switch on the MODEM . When replacing the MODEM. During maintenance. In a system using the OPTICAL STM-1 INTFC. it may hurt your eyes (Class 1 Laser Product). 2. traffic will be momentarily interrupted. the IDU should be set to Maintenance "On" condition by the local craft terminal (LCT). 4. momentary traffic interruption may occurs 7. If each setup item of "Equipment Setup" or "Provisioning" is changed during in operation. Otherwise. STM-1 INTFC or DC-DC CONV (optional) turn off the PWR switch and disconnect all cables connected to the module which is to be replaced. The top surface of the IDU above MODEM is hot in operation. 5.

RX LEV varies depending on received RF signal level. Power Supply voltage at ODU varies depending on IF cable length between the IDU and ODU. . 2. If an abnormal indication appears. check Alarm/ Status. performance monitor and perform loopback test to distinguish sections of normal and alarmed. 3.PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE Notes: 1.

PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE .

Continuously. connect the PC to the LCT jack on the IDU and check arm/status indication. (c) Loopback In the case of an abnormal BER measurement result among the meter reading items. The alarm and status of each module and ODU are displayed.CORRECTIVE MAINTENANCE Alarm/Status When an alarm event has occurred. At first. Meter Reading on the LCT. For the explanation of the ALM LED indication (b) Meter Readings Based on the meter readings during periodical inspection with LCT a faulty part can be located by checking if the reading values exceed the permissible ranges. . try to distinguish the faulty part. (a) Check of the ALM LED Indications and LCT Indication A faulty part can be located by checking the ALM LED indicators and LCT Alarm indications. check alarm indication on the front of the IDU.

When the input signal from the IDU is lost.CORRECTIVE MAINTENANCE ODU TX Power: Indicates the status of the transmitter in the ODU. Mute Status: Indicates the control status of the ODU TX power output. When the TX power is set to Mute. ODU CPU/Cable Open: Indicates the status of the CPU in the ODU or IF cable. “On” is issued. RX Level: Indicates the status of the received RF signal level of the ODU. “Alarm” issued. “Alarm” is issued. When any abnormality occurs the CPU operation or IF cable is open. TX Input: Indicates the status of the ODU input signal from IDU. . When the transmission level is decreased 3 dB or more from preset ATPC minimum level. “Alarm” is issued. “Alarm” is issued. When the level decreased below the RX threshold level.

The settable threshold values are: 1E-3.CORRECTIVE MAINTENANCE MODEM Unequipped: Indicates the status of the MODEM existence. High BER: Indicates the quality severe deterioration status between radio sections. When the synchronization from DMR is lost. Module: Indicates the status of the modulator-demodulator. The settable threshold values are: 1E-6. “Alarm” is issued. When the signal deteriorates below the preset threshold value. LOF: Indicates the frame synchronization status. Low BER: Indicates the quality unsevere deterioration status between radio sections. When a failure occurred in the modulator demodulator . . “Alarm” is issued. “Alarm” is issued. “Alarm” is issued. 1E-4 and 1E-5. 1E-7. When ID number assignment is improper. “Alarm” is issued. When the MODEM is loose contact or it is not mounted according to the “Equipment Setup”. Frame ID: Indicates the status of ID number against MODEM of opposite station or the other channel in Twin path configuration. 1E-8 and 1E-9. When the signal deteriorates below the threshold preset value. “Alarm” is issued.

When input signal is out of synchronization. MOD Alarm is issued. this alarm is issued. When any failure occurs in the modulator section.CORRECTIVE MAINTENANCE • Mod/Dem : Indicates the operating status of the Modem. • INTFC(1/2): Module: Indicates the status of the Interface card operation. • STM –1 LOS ( MUX ): Indicates the input signal status of STM-1 from Mux. • STM –1 LOF/LOS (DMR): Indicates the status of input signal from DMR. this alarm is issued. this alarm is issued. When any failure occurs in this INTFC module. . When the input is out of frame synchronization.

Troubleshooting flow ODU section Troubleshooting flow ODU section .

ODU RX section troubleshooting flow .

IDU Troubleshooting flowchart .