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INDEX

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Cisco Catalyst 6500 Architecture IP Fundamentals : Layered approach : OSI/TCP-IP model IP Address and subnetting Layer 2 : SWITCHING Switch and Routers Basic Administration IP Routing Access-List RIP and IGRP Border Gateway Protocol – BGP

Soc Classification level 1 © Nokia Siemens Networks

Presentation / Author / Date Created by Krantikumar Sherkhane NSN

Chapter 1 Cisco Catalyst 6500 Architecture

Soc Classification level 2 © Nokia Siemens Networks

Presentation / Author / Date Created by Krantikumar Sherkhane NSN

Cisco Catalyst 6500 Architecture

Soc Classification level 3 © Nokia Siemens Networks

Presentation / Author / Date Created by Krantikumar Sherkhane NSN

Some of the features ofSupervisor Engine 720 : ● MPLS support in hardware ● Support for Security ACL hit counters ● Increased has efficiency for storing ● QoS policies can now be applied on tunnel interfaces ● Layer 2 ACLs can be applied to IPV4 traffic ● Support for matching on CoS and VLAN in ACLs is supported Soc Classification level 4 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date Created by Krantikumar Sherkhane NSN .Cisco Catalyst 6500 Supervisor Engine 720 Backplane capacity 720 Gbps This supervisor will support up to 1GB of DRAM.

● WS-X6748-GE-TX: a 48 port 10/100/1000 RJ45 based line card supporting 2 x 20-Gbps ● WS-X6748-SFP: a 48 port 1000Mb SFP based line card supporting 2 x 20-Gbps fabric ● WS-X6704-10GE: a 4 port 10 Gigabit Ethernet Xenpak based line card supporting 2 x 20-Gbps ● WS-X6704-10GE: an 8 port 10 Gigabit Ethernet X2 optic based line card supporting 2 x 20Gbps Soc Classification level 5 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date Created by Krantikumar Sherkhane NSN .Cisco Catalyst 6500 Architecture: CEF720 Line Cards ● WS-X6724-SFP: a 24 port Gigabit Ethernet SFP based line card supporting a single 20-Gbps.

1 (exisiting) WS-X6724-SFP WS-X6724-SFP WS-X6704-10GE 4 5 6 7 8 9 WS-X6704-10GE WS-SUP720-3B WS-X6748-GE-TX WS-X6748-GE-TX WS-X6748-SFP WS-X6704-10GE Soc Classification level 6 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date Created by Krantikumar Sherkhane NSN .Inline Cards in Mumbai 6509 Slot 1 2 3 Mumbai .

Cisco 10GBASE X2 and Xenpak Modules Soc Classification level 7 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date Created by Krantikumar Sherkhane NSN .

Cisco router products : Soc Classification level 8 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date Created by Krantikumar Sherkhane NSN .

Cisco Switches : Soc Classification level 9 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date Created by Krantikumar Sherkhane NSN .

Chapter 2 IP Fundamentals Layered approach : OSI/TCP-IP model Soc Classification level 10 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date Created by Krantikumar Sherkhane NSN .

• The OSI model was meant to help vendors create interoperable network devices • In the late 1970s. theOSI (Open Systems interconnection) model was created by the International Organization for standardization(ISO) Each layer is responsible for a specific process or role Soc Classification level 11 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date Created by Krantikumar Sherkhane NSN .

The OSI has seven different layers : Soc Classification level 12 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date Created by Krantikumar Sherkhane NSN .

Data is converted to segments and a reliable connection is set up between the transmitting and receiving hosts. 2.1. Segments are converted to packets or datagrams. Soc Classification level 13 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date Created by Krantikumar Sherkhane NSN . Hardware (Ethernet) addresses are used to uniquely identify hosts on a local network segment. 3. Packets or datagrams are converted to frames for transmission on the local network. Frames are converted to bits. 5. and a digital encoding and clocking scheme is used. 4. and a logical address is placed in the header so each packet can be routed through an internetwork. User information is converted to data for transmission on the network.

ARP Request : Soc Classification level 14 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date Created by Krantikumar Sherkhane NSN .

Reverse ARP Soc Classification level 15 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date Created by Krantikumar Sherkhane NSN .

Chapter 3 IP Address and subnetting Soc Classification level 16 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date Created by Krantikumar Sherkhane NSN .

DELCIMAL TO BINARY CONVERSION : 2 7 2 6 2 5 2 4 2 3 2 2 2 1 2 0 binary-to-decimal conversions : 00000000 10000000 11000000 11100000 11110000 11111000 11111100 11111110 11111111 = = = = = = = = = 0 128 192 224 240 248 252 254 255 Soc Classification level 17 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date Created by Krantikumar Sherkhane NSN .

0. Class D is used for multicast addresses and Class E for scientific purposes. Soc Classification level 18 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date Created by Krantikumar Sherkhane NSN .255) Broadcast to all nodes.Network Address Range: Network Address Range: Class A 00000000=0 01111111=127 Network Address Range: Class B 10000000=128 10111111=191 Network Address Range: Class C 11000000=192 11011111=223 Network Address Ranges: Classes D and E The addresses between 224 and 255 are reserved for Class D & E Networks. Network 127.255.255.0.1 Reserved for loopback tests Network address of all 0s means network Entire IP address set to all 1s (same 255.

Soc Classification level 19 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date Created by Krantikumar Sherkhane NSN .

X is the amount of unmasked bits. there are 2 subnets. For example. which is the number immediately preceding the next subnet. What are the valid hosts? Valid hosts are the numbers between the subnets. minus all 0s and all 1s. Soc Classification level 20 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date Created by Krantikumar Sherkhane NSN . 256–192=64. What is the broadcast address for each subnet? Broadcast address is all host bits turned on. 11000000 is 2^2–2. 4. 5. For example. In this example. In this example. 2. or the 0s. X is the amount of masked bits. How many hosts per subnet? 2x–2=amount of hosts per subnet. or the 1s.Subnetting a Class C Address 1. How many subnets? 2x–2=amount of subnets. there are 62 hosts per subnet. What are the valid subnets? 256–subnet mask=base number. 11000000 is 26–2. 3. For example.

62 Last host 192.168.10.255. the answer would be 2^2–2 = 2 Networks.192.10.255. 4. which is the first subnet and our base.255.1 First host 192.168. 192.1. 3.10.63 Broad cast ID Soc Classification level 21 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date Created by Krantikumar Sherkhane NSN .0 Network ID 192. What are the valid subnets? 256–192=64.0 : Network address 255.Class C subnet Practice Example 1: 255. so the equation would be 2^6–2 = 62 hosts. How many hosts per subnet? We have 6 host bits off (11000000).1.168.168.192 : Subnet mask Answer the five questions: 1.255.168.255.192 subnet the network address 192. How many subnets? Since 192 is two bits on (11000000). What are the valid hosts? These are the numbers between the subnets.0 and subnet mask 255.10.255.168. 192. 2.

This is also economical. the ISP and the corporation need to use something called Network Address Translation (NAT). Soc Classification level 22 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date Created by Krantikumar Sherkhane NSN .16. To accomplish this task.0.0 to 172.168.0. but they’re not routable through the Internet.Private IP Addresses : Address Class Class A Class B Class C Reserved Address Space 10.255 These addresses can be used on a private network.0 to 10. ISPs.255 192.255. we would have run out of IP addresses.168.255. corporations.255.0. which basically takes a private IP address and converts it for use on the Internet. It conveniently saves valuable IP address space.255 172. But by using private IP addresses.0 to 192.31.0. and home users only need a relatively tiny group of IP addresses to connect their networks to the Internet. If every host on every network had to have real routable IP addresses.255.

20 . 0 / 24 Turbhe Andheri 12 Users Dadar Worly Vashi 30 Users 24 Users 28 Users Soc Classification level 23 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date Created by Krantikumar Sherkhane NSN .Subnetting example : Network Given : 16 . 20 .

20.2/27 16.161/27 Worly 16.162/27 24 Users 28 Users 16.226/27 16.225/27 16.20.194/27 Soc Classification level 24 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date Created by Krantikumar Sherkhane NSN .20.193/27 16.98/27 30 Users 16.20.20.FLSM (Fixed Length Subnet Mask)  /27 Network Given : 16 .20.20.66/27 16.20.34/27 Dadar 16.20.1/27 12 Users 16.20.20. 20 .20.20.20. 20 . 0 / 24 Turbhe 16.20.129/27 Andheri Vashi 16.20.20.20.20.20.20.20.20.20.20.20.130/27 16.

20.194/27 Soc Classification level 25 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date Created by Krantikumar Sherkhane NSN .20.20.20.5/30 Andheri Vashi 16.20.20.9/30 16.2/30 16.13/30 30 Users 16.20.130/27 16.20.20.225/27 Dadar 16.161/27 Worly 16.193/27 16.129/27 16.20.162/27 24 Users 28 Users 16.20.20.20.20. 20 .VLSM (Variable Length Subnet Mask)  /27 and /30 Network Given : 16 .226/27 16.20.20.20.20.20.20.20.20.20.20.20.1/30 12 Users 16.20. 0 / 24 Turbhe 16. 20 .

10.0 /25 Soc Classification level 26 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date Created by Krantikumar Sherkhane NSN .168.VLSM Example Network Given : 192.

168.10.111 No.Subnet /27 /28 /29 /30 Mask 224 240 248 252 Block 32 16 8 4 Hosts 30 14 6 2 •Network Given was: 192.8 to 192.10.168.168. of IP-Addresses saved : 24 (Highlighted) Soc Classification level 27 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date Created by Krantikumar Sherkhane NSN .10.0 /25 (total 128 hosts) We have utilized 32+32+16+8+4+4+4+4 = 104 hosts 192.

Chapter 4 Layer 2 : SWITCHING Soc Classification level 28 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date Created by Krantikumar Sherkhane NSN .

only to the frame encapsulating the packet. the switching process is faster and less error-prone than routing. Layer-2 switching provides the following: • • • • Hardware-based bridging (MAC) Wire speed Low latency Low cost What makes layer-2 switching so efficient is that there is no modification to the data packet. Since no modification of the data packet is performed. Soc Classification level 29 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date Created by Krantikumar Sherkhane NSN .Layer-2 Switching Layer-2 switching is uses the MAC address from the host’s NIC cards to filter the network.

Soc Classification level 30 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date Created by Krantikumar Sherkhane NSN . Dynamic VLANs have one main advantage over static VLANs: they support plug-and-play movability.VLANs VLANs are use to separate different types of user traffic (commonly separated by job function) and to separate it based on the type of traffic. you must manually assign a port on a switch to a VLAN. With dynamic VLANs. When you are dealing with static VLANs. VLAN Membership Can be static or Dynamic. the switch automatically assigns the port to a VLAN.

1Q. Cisco supports two Ethernet trunking methods: ■ Cisco’s proprietary InterSwitch Link (ISL) protocol for Ethernet ■ IEEE’s 802. commonly referred to as dot1q for Ethernet Soc Classification level 31 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date Created by Krantikumar Sherkhane NSN . Trunks Access-Link Connections : Devices connected to this port will be in the same broadcast domain.VLAN Connections switches support two types of switch ports: 1. Trunk Connections : Trunk connections are capable of carrying traffic for multiple VLANs. Access-links 2.

Trunk links are common between certain types of devices. including switch-to-switch. switch-to-router.. Soc Classification level 32 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date Created by Krantikumar Sherkhane NSN . and switch-to-file server connections.Trunk Connections contd.

which ensures that your network has a consistent VlAN. When you are setting up VTP. Soc Classification level 33 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date Created by Krantikumar Sherkhane NSN .VLAN Trunk Protocol The VLAN Trunk Protocol (VTP) is a proprietary Cisco protocol used to share VLAN configuration information between Cisco switches on trunk connections. VTP allows switches to share and synchronize their VLAN information. you can choose from three different modes for your switch’s configuration: ■ Client ■ Server ■ Transparent AN configuration.

VTP Modes Soc Classification level 34 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date Created by Krantikumar Sherkhane NSN .

.VTP Mode contd. Soc Classification level 35 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date Created by Krantikumar Sherkhane NSN .

252 ! interface Vlan40  create L3 VLAN HRSP description "Gmgt" ip address 10.124.2 255.255.How to create VLAN : vlan 40  create VLAN database name O&m_vlan ! interface Vlan40  create L2 VLAN no ip address noshutdown ! interface Vlan40  create L3 VLAN description "Gmgt" ip address 10.255.2 255.124.77.77.255.124.255.1 standby 40 priority 254 standby 40 preempt ! Soc Classification level 36 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date Created by Krantikumar Sherkhane NSN .192 standby 40 ip 10.77.

Switch Trunk Configuration : interface GigabitEthernet1/1 description "Connected to NG AS6-0 Eth-7 for L2TP" switchport switchport trunk encapsulation dot1q switchport trunk allowed vlan 40.41 switchport mode trunk Access Port Configuration : interface Port-channel7 description " Gi_ext etherchannel " switchport switchport access vlan 40 switchport mode access speed 1000 duplex full Soc Classification level 37 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date Created by Krantikumar Sherkhane NSN .

duplexing. EtherChannel Restrictions: EtherChannel must be configured identically : speed. ■ More bandwidth Each connection can be used simultaneously to send frames. EtherChannels provide these advantages: ■ Redundancy If one connection in the channel fails.EtherChannel Overview : An EtherChannel is a layer 2 solution that allows you to aggregate multiple layer 2 Ethernet-based connections between directly connected devices. In EtherChannels. you can use up to 8 interfaces bundled together: Soc Classification level 38 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date Created by Krantikumar Sherkhane NSN . and VLAN setting. you can use other connections in the channel.

Etherchannel configuration interface Port-channel1 description "6509-1& 6509-2 connectivity" switchport switchport trunk encapsulation dot1q ! interface GigabitEthernet1/14 description ********* Connectivity with 6509-2 ********** switchport switchport trunk encapsulation dot1q channel-group 1 mode on ! interface GigabitEthernet2/9 description ********* Connectivity with 6509-2 ********** switchport switchport trunk encapsulation dot1q channel-group 1 mode on Soc Classification level 39 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date Created by Krantikumar Sherkhane NSN .

Verify that your trunks are operational.Basic Troubleshooting of VLANs and Trunks : 1. ! switch# show vlan Switch # show interface trunk ! Soc Classification level 40 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date Created by Krantikumar Sherkhane NSN . 3. Check your switches’ and routers’ configuration to make sure nothing was added or changed. Check the status of your interface to determine whether it is a physical layer problem. 2.

Forward/filter decisions When a frame is received on an interface. Soc Classification level 41 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date Created by Krantikumar Sherkhane NSN .Switch Functions at Layer 2 There are three distinct functions of layer-2 switching: Address learning Layer-2 switches and bridges remember the source hardware address of each frame received on an interface and enter this information into a MAC database. the switch looks at the destination hardware address and finds the exit interface in the MAC database.

Soc Classification level 42 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date Created by Krantikumar Sherkhane NSN .

Loop in the network because fo Redundant Link : Soc Classification level 43 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date Created by Krantikumar Sherkhane NSN .

STP finds all links in the network and shuts down redundant links Soc Classification level 44 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date Created by Krantikumar Sherkhane NSN . The Spanning-Tree Protocol (STP) is used to stop network loops and allow redundancy. network loops can occur.Spanning-Tree Protocol (STP) : Loop avoidance If multiple connections between switches are created for redundancy.

Listening Listens to BPDUs to make sure no loops occur on the network before passing data frames. Learning Learns MAC addresses and builds a filter table but does not forward frames. All ports are in blocking state by default when the switch is powered up. listens to BPDUs. Soc Classification level 45 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date Created by Krantikumar Sherkhane NSN .Spanning-Tree Port States : The ports on a bridge or switch running the STP can transition through four different states: Blocking Won’t forward frames. Forwarding Sends and receives all data on the bridged port.

STP contd.768) & the MAC address of the device. If two switches have the same priority value. The bridge ID is used to determine the root bridge in the network. then the Device with Lowest MAC address becomes Root Bridge.. Lower Priority value wins. Soc Classification level 46 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date Created by Krantikumar Sherkhane NSN . Selecting the Root Bridge: Switches running STP exchange bridge ID using Protocol called Bridge Protocol Data Units (BPDUs). The bridge ID : Priority (default 32.

. Soc Classification level 47 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date Created by Krantikumar Sherkhane NSN . Root Port is selected on the port with the lowest cost to the root bridge (as determined by a link’s bandwidth).STP contd.

STP eg. Soc Classification level 48 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date Created by Krantikumar Sherkhane NSN .

The active router is the router of choice for routing packets. The address of this HSRP group is referred to as the virtual IP address. It provides a virtual MAC address and an IP address that is shared among a group of routers running HSRP. HSRP Well-Known virtual MAC address is 00-00-0C-07-AC-XX XX :It represents the HSRP Group 07-AC :It is default for HSRP Soc Classification level 49 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date Created by Krantikumar Sherkhane NSN . HSRP is used in a group of routers to select an active router and a standby router. a standby router is a router that takes over the routing duties when an active router fails. or when other preset conditions are met.Hot Standby Router Protocol (HSRP) : The Hot Standby Router Protocol (HSRP) provides high network availability by routing IP traffic from hosts without relying on the availability of any single router.

a default value of 3 seconds is used. When this timer expire the Standby router proposes him as Active router If the Hold-time is not learned and it is not manually configured. Hold-Time: Amount of time that the current Hello message should be considered valid.HSRP : Hello and Hold timers : Devices that are running HSRP send and receive multicast UDP-based hello packets to detect router failure and to designate active and standby routers. a default value of 10 seconds is used. Hello-Time: Period between the Hello messages that the router sends If the Hello-time is not learned from a Hello message from the active router and it is not manually configured. Soc Classification level 50 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date Created by Krantikumar Sherkhane NSN .

When a lower priority active router receives a Coup message or a Hello message from an active.Use of Priority and Preempt in HSRP: The standby preempt command enables the Hot Standby Router Protocol (HSRP) router with the highest priority to immediately become the active router. higher priority router. and then by the IP address. a higher value is of greater priority. the router sends a Coup message. Default priority of any router grouped in HSRP is 100. the router changes to the Speak state and sends a resign message. Soc Classification level 51 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date Created by Krantikumar Sherkhane NSN . In each case. Priority is determined first by the configured priority value. When a higher priority router preempts a lower priority router.

118.255.0.68.0.0.You can configure multiple Hot Standby groups on an interface.68.255.0 0.118.248 no ip unreachables standby 202 ip 10. HSRP configuration example : ! interface Vlan202 description "MPLS Router1" ip address 10. specify a group number for each Hot Standby command you configure for the interface. thereby making fuller use of redundant routers and load sharing. To do so.4 standby 202 priority 254 standby 202 preempt ! ip route 0.68.1 name Default_route_to_MPLS ! Soc Classification level 52 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date Created by Krantikumar Sherkhane NSN .0 10.5 255.0.118.

Soc Classification level 53 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date Created by Krantikumar Sherkhane NSN .

Soc Classification level 54 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date Created by Krantikumar Sherkhane NSN .

Chapter 5 Switch and Routers Basic Administration Soc Classification level 55 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date Created by Krantikumar Sherkhane NSN .

Router#configure terminal Soc Classification level 56 © Nokia Siemens Networks .Logging into the Router : Router> This is called user mode and is mostly used to view statistics. Router>logout Or you could just type logout or exit from the privileged mode prompt to log out. Router>en Router#logout Global configuration Mode: following command is used to enter global configuration mode. Enable: With enable you can enter in privileged mode in which u can view and change the configuration Router> Router>enable Router# logout : At this point you can type logout to exit the console.

Router(config)#int f0/0. The prompt then changes to Router(config-subif)#.CLI Prompts : Interfaces : To make changes to an interface.1 Router(config-subif)# Soc Classification level 57 © Nokia Siemens Networks .? <0-4294967295> FastEthernet interface number Router(config)#int f0/0. we use the interface command from global configuration mode: Router(config)#interface fastethernet 0/0 Router(config-if)# Subinterfaces : Subinterfaces allow you to create virtual interfaces within the router.

Version 12.. Soc Classification level 58 © Nokia Siemens Networks . and the boot images. RELEASE SOFTWARE Copyright (c) 1986-1999 by cisco Systems.0(8). Router#sh version Cisco Internetwork Operating System Software IOS (tm) 2500 Software (C2500-JS-L). Inc. …. the names and sources of configuration files.show version:The command will provide basic configuration for the system hardware as well as the software version.

Editing and Help Features : To find the next command in a string. Router#clock ? set Set the time and date Router#clock set ? hh:mm:ss Current Time Soc Classification level 59 © Nokia Siemens Networks . type the first command and then a question mark.

1 ^ % Invalid input detected at '^' marker. If you receive this error: Router#sh te % Ambiguous command: "sh te" it means you did not enter all the keywords or values required by this command. Also. then you know that the command string is not done 2.Errors : 1. notice that the ^ marks the point where you have entered the command incorrectly. If you are typing commands and receive this: Router#clock set 10:30:10 % Incomplete command. Use the question mark to find the command you need.1. 4. if you receive this error: Router(config)#access-list 110 permit host 1. 3. Router#sh te? Soc Classification level 60 © Nokia Siemens Networks .1.

Router#config t Router(config)#hostname xyz xyz(config)#hostname Atlanta Configuring an IP Address on an Interface Router(config)#int e0 Router(config-if)#ip address 172. likethe hostname.255. only locally significant. Atlanta(config)#int e0 Atlanta(config-if)#description Sales Lan Soc Classification level 61 © Nokia Siemens Networks .2 255. Thisis only locally significant. This is a helpful command because it can be used to keep track of circuit numbers. which means it has no bearing on how the router performs name lookups on the internetwork.0 Router(config-if)#no shut Descriptions: Setting descriptions on an interface is helpful to the administrator and.16. for example.10.255.Hostnames: You can set the hostname of the router with the hostname command.

.0 ! Soc Classification level 62 © Nokia Siemens Networks .Viewing and Saving Configurations : copy run start: This command is use to manually save the file from DRAM to NVRAM. Current configuration: ! version 12.. Router#copy run start Destination filename [startup-config]?return OR Router# Write sh run: Show us the current configuration. Router#sh run Building configuration.

Chapter 6 IP Routing Soc Classification level 63 © Nokia Siemens Networks .

Types of IP Routing • • • Static routing Default routing Dynamic routing Soc Classification level 64 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date Created by Krantikumar Sherkhane NSN .

the router must learn how to get to the remote network with either static routing. If the network is directly connected. the following: • • • • Destination address Neighbor routers from which it can learn about remote networks Possible routes to all remote networks The best route to each remote network The router learns about remote networks from neighbor routers .Routing To be able to route packets. at a minimum.The router then builds a routing table that describes how to find the remote networks. a router must know. Soc Classification level 65 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date Created by Krantikumar Sherkhane NSN . then the router already knows how to get to the network. which means that the administrator must hand-type all network locations into the routing table. If the networks are not attached.

Router’s Routing table : Soc Classification level 66 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date Created by Krantikumar Sherkhane NSN .

Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) : Soc Classification level 67 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date Created by Krantikumar Sherkhane NSN .

Administrative Distances : Soc Classification level 68 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date Created by Krantikumar Sherkhane NSN .

Soc Classification level 69 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date Created by Krantikumar Sherkhane NSN . 3. Dynamic Routing Static routing occurs when you manually add routes in each router’s routing table. The administrator must really understand the internetwork and how each router is connected in order to configure routes correctly. 2. It adds security because the administrator can choose to allow routing access to certain networks only. which means you could possibly buy a cheaper router than you would use if you were using dynamic routing. There is no bandwidth usage between routers. There is no overhead on the router CPU. Disadvantages: 1. It’s not feasible in large networks because maintaining it would be a full-time job in itself. 2. Static Routing B. Benefits : 1. If a network is added to the internetwork. which means you could possibly save money on WAN links. the administrator has to add a route to it on all routers—by hand.Configuring IP Routing in Our Network Routing Types : A. 3.

Command used to define a static route :
ip route [destination_network] [mask] [next-hop_address or exitinterface] [administrative_distance] [permanent]
ip route : The command used to create the static route. destination_network : (WHERE TO GO). The network you’re placing in the routing table. Mask : The subnet mask being used on the network. next-hop_address : The address of the next-hop router that will receive the packet and forward it to the remote network. This is a router interface that’s on a directly connected network. You must be able to ping the router interface before you add the route. Exitinterface : Used in place of the next-hop address if you want, and shows up as a directly connected route. administrative_distance : By default, static routes have an administrative distance of 1 (or even 0 if you use an exit interface instead of a next-hop address). You can change the default value by adding an administrative weight at the end of the command. Permanent : If the interface is shut down or the router can’t communicate to the next-hop router, the route will automatically be discarded from the routing table. Choosing the permanent option keeps the entry in the routing table no matter what happens.
Soc Classification level 70 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date Created by Krantikumar Sherkhane NSN

Default Routing :
Default routing is used to send packets with a remote destination network not in the routing table to the next hop router. You can only use default routing on stub networks, which means that they have only one exit port out of the network.
2501C(Config)#ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 172.16.40.1
2501C#sh ip route Codes: C - connected, S - static, I - IGRP, R - RIP, M – [output cut] - IS-IS level-1, L2 - IS-IS level-2, * - candidate default U - per-user static route, o – ODR Gateway of last resort is 172.16.40.1 to network 0.0.0.0 172.16.0.0/24 is subnetted, 5 subnets C 172.16.50.0 is directly connected, Ethernet0 C 172.16.40.0 is directly connected, Serial0 S* 0.0.0.0/0 [1/0] via 172.16.40.1.0.0 172.16.40.1
Soc Classification level 71 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date Created by Krantikumar Sherkhane NSN

Layer 3 Connectivity Testing :
show interfaces Ping Extended ping Command traceroute

Layer 7 Connectivity Testing :
Using Telnet IOS# telnet name_of_the_destination | destination_IP_address

Soc Classification level 72 © Nokia Siemens Networks

Presentation / Author / Date Created by Krantikumar Sherkhane NSN

which basically means that all routers sharing the same routing table information are in the same AS. but it’ll cost you in terms of router CPU processes and bandwidth on the network links. EGPs are used to communicate between ASes.ting tables on routers. An AS is a collection of networks under a common administrative domain. Two types of routing protocols are used in internetworks: interior gateway protocols (IGPs) and exterior gateway protocols (EGPs). IGPs are used to exchange routing information with routers in the same autonomous system (AS). Soc Classification level 73 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date Created by Krantikumar Sherkhane NSN .Dynamic routing is when protocols are used to find networks and update router A routing protocol defines the set of rules used by a router when it communicates routing information between neighbor routers. This is easier than using static or default routing.

LS = Link State The Link-state routing algorithm passes small event-triggered link-state updates to all other routers after initial flood. CLASSLESS Routing Protocols Classless routing protocols do send the subnet mask with their updates.IGP RIP V2 RIP V1 IGRP EIGRP OSPF ISIS EGP BGP DV DV DV Adv. DV LS LS DV ============================================================================================================================================================================================================================================================= ============================================================================================ DV = Distance Vector The distance-vector routing algorithm passes complete routing table contents to neighboring routers. ============================================================================================================================================================================================================================================================= ============================================================================================ Soc Classification level 74 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date Created by Krantikumar Sherkhane NSN . Variable Length Subnet Masks (VLSMs) are allowed when using classless routing protocols. CLASSFULL Routing Protocols Classful routing protocols do not send subnet mask information with their routing updates. This is called routing by rumor. Thus.

and one is used for the routing table. Soc Classification level 75 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date Created by Krantikumar Sherkhane NSN . Example : OSPF. Hybrid : Uses aspects of distance vector and link state. Linkstate routers know more about the internetwork than any distance-vector routing protocol.Routing Protocols : There are three classes of routing protocols: Distance vector : The distance-vector routing protocols use a distance to a remote network to find the best path. The route with the least number of hops to the network is determined to be the best route. Each time a packet goes through a router. the routers each create three separate tables. The vector is the determination of direction to the remote network. One of these tables keeps track of directly attached neighbors. it’s called a hop. one determines the topology of the entire internetwork. Examples : RIP and IGRP. Link state : Typically called shortest path first. for example. EIGRP.

OSPF Soc Classification level 76 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date Created by Krantikumar Sherkhane NSN .Chapter 7 Open Shortest Path Forwarding .

Then best path is selected from SPF tree and placed in RT. When there is link changes states. Soc Classification level 77 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date Created by Krantikumar Sherkhane NSN . LSDB calculates best path through the n/w by applying Dijkstra’s Algo also know as SPF to build SPF tree. Each routing device takes a copy of LSA and updates is LSDB and forwards LSA. detecting device creates link state advt concerning that link .OSPF : Link state protocol generates routing updates only when there is change in network.

OSPF Overview : • • • • OSPF is very popular in many corporate networks today and has many advantages: It is open standard Protocol. It has an intelligent metric (cost). to provide a loopfree topology. which is the inverse of the bandwidth of an interface. It uses the SPF algorithm. Uses LSA for fast convergence. Soc Classification level 78 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date Created by Krantikumar Sherkhane NSN . developed by Edsger Dijkstra.

OSPF Overview : OSPF implements a two-layer hierarchy: • The backbone • Areas off the backbone Below Network includes a backbone & 3 areas connected to backbone. Soc Classification level 79 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date Created by Krantikumar Sherkhane NSN .

Soc Classification level 80 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date Created by Krantikumar Sherkhane NSN . The default measurement that Cisco uses in calculating the cost metric is: cost = 10^8/(interface bandwidth). OSPF uses cost.Metric Structure : Unlike RIP. Cost is actually the inverse of the bandwidth of a link: The faster the speed of the connection. as a metric. which uses hop count. The most preferred path is the one with the lowest accumulated cost value. the lower the cost.

The router ID is chosen according to one of the following criteria: • The highest IP address on the router’s active loopback interfaces is used (this is a logical interface on a router).OSPF Operation : Router Identities : Each router in an OSPF network needs a unique ID. Soc Classification level 81 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date Created by Krantikumar Sherkhane NSN . but within the entire OSPF network. • If no loopback interface exists with an IP address. This must be unique not just within an area. the highest IP address on its active interfaces is used when the router boots up.

The router ID is used by the router to announce itself to the other OSPF routers in the network. It is highly recommended. the OSPF process will not start and therefore you will not have any OSPF routes in your routing table. If no active interface exists.Router ID contd.. therefore. Soc Classification level 82 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date Created by Krantikumar Sherkhane NSN . that you use a loopback interface because it is always up and thus the router can obtain a router ID and start OSPF.

they maintain these roles even if other routers form adjacencies with them that have higher priorities: an election or re-election will occur only if no DR or BDR exists. the router with the highest router ID is DR if tie.Designated and Backup Designated Routers : In large network there is a DR and a BDR as well as other than DR/BDR routers. When an OSPF router comes up. The DR and BDR priority is changed on an interface-by-interface basis and is configured with the ip ospf priority command within the Interface /Subconfiguration mode. it forms adjacencies with the DR and the BDR The OSPF router with the highest priority becomes the DR. the BDR is promoted to DR and another router is elected as the BDR. Soc Classification level 83 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date Created by Krantikumar Sherkhane NSN . All routers have a priority of 1 (priorities can range from 0 – 255 If the DR fails. called DROTHERs. Once the DR/BDR are elected.

When a neighbor is discovered and an adjacency is formed with the neighbor. a router expects to see hello messages from the neighbor. the two routers are called neighbors and then they sync their LSA. OSPF routers will generate LSA hello messages every 10 Sec . to other neighboring OSPF routers. When this adjacency is built. then the neighbor is declared dead. If a neighbor’s hello is not seen within the dead interval time.Finding Neighbors : An OSPF router learns about its OSPF neighbors and builds its adjacency and topology tables by sharing link state advertisements (LSAs). the router will advertise this information. which defaults to 40 sec. via an LSA message. When this occurs. Soc Classification level 84 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date Created by Krantikumar Sherkhane NSN .

the following must match on each router: • The area number • The hello and dead interval timers on their connected interfaces If these items do not match.Finding Neighbors contd.. Soc Classification level 85 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date Created by Krantikumar Sherkhane NSN . In order for two routers to become neighbors. the routers will not form an adjacency and will ignore each other’s routing information.

(These timers must be same on neighboring routers) Soc Classification level 86 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date Created by Krantikumar Sherkhane NSN . By default it is 10 sec. Dead interval is the time that the router waits to hear from neighbor before declaring it out of service.OSPF Hello packets : Router ID: Highest ip address on the active interface is choosen as R ID R ID breaks tie during DR and BDR selection election process if OSPF priority is same. Hello and Dead interval: Hello interval is the interval at which router send hello packets. 4 times hello interval.

Neighbor : List of adjacent router. It is used to when selecting DR & BDR Highest priority is DR (Rtr ID is the tie breaker) Default OSPF priority is 1 If set 0 cannot be DR & BDR DR and BDR ip address Router not DR & BDR are termed as DROTHER.Hello packets contd.. Area ID Router Priority: 8 bit no. Soc Classification level 87 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date Created by Krantikumar Sherkhane NSN ..

Link state data structure : Neighbor table. Also known as the adjacency database Topology table: Referred as LSDB Contains all routers and their attached link Routing Table: Contains list of best path to destination. Regular area( non backbone) Soc Classification level 88 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date Created by Krantikumar Sherkhane NSN . Link state follows two level of hierarchy 1. Transit area (Backbone area 0) 2.

OSPF Configuration : Router(config)# router ospf process_ID Router(config-router)# network IP_address wildcard_mask area area_# The process_ID is used to differentiate between OSPF processes running on the same router Soc Classification level 89 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date Created by Krantikumar Sherkhane NSN .

Soc Classification level 90 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date Created by Krantikumar Sherkhane NSN .

OSPF Troubleshooting • • • • • • • • show ip protocols show ip route show ip ospf show ip ospf interface show ip ospf neighbor debug ip ospf adj debug ip ospf events debug ip ospf packet Soc Classification level 91 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date Created by Krantikumar Sherkhane NSN .

Chapter 7 Access-List Soc Classification level 92 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date Created by Krantikumar Sherkhane NSN .

Activating an ACL on an interface. you must specify in which direction the traffic should be filtered : ■ Inbound (as the traffic comes into an interface from an external source) ■ Outbound (before the traffic exits an interface to the network) ACLs come in two varieties: numbered and named and standard and extended Soc Classification level 93 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date Created by Krantikumar Sherkhane NSN .Access-list : ACL commands define specifically which traffic is permitted and denied from thee router interface.

whereas Named ACL is assigned a unique name among all named ACLs. Soc Classification level 94 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date Created by Krantikumar Sherkhane NSN .ACL types : ACLs come in two varieties: • numbered and named • standard and extended A numbered ACL is assigned a unique number among all ACLs. ACLs supports two types of filtering: standard and extended.

Soc Classification level 95 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date Created by Krantikumar Sherkhane NSN . ACLs are processed top-down by the IOS. At the end of every ACL is an invisible statement that drops all traffic that doesn’t match any of the preceding statements in the ACL. The IOS will execute one of two actions included with the statement: permit or deny..ACL contd. Implicit Deny Another important aspect of the top-down process is that if the router compares a packet to every statement in the list and does not find a match against the packet contents. the router will drop the packet. This process is referred to as implicit deny.

ACL Configuration :
general syntax. Router(config)# access-list ACL_# permit|deny conditions When dealing with IP addresses in ACL statements, you can use wildcard masks to match on a range of addresses instead of manually entering every IP address that you want to match.

Soc Classification level 96 © Nokia Siemens Networks

Presentation / Author / Date Created by Krantikumar Sherkhane NSN

Activating an ACL :
Router(config)# interface type [slot_#]port_# Router(config-if)# ip access-group ACL_# in|out

At the end of the ip access-group command, you must specify which ACL you are activating and in which direction:

• In As traffic comes into the interface • Out As traffic leaves the interface

Soc Classification level 97 © Nokia Siemens Networks

Presentation / Author / Date Created by Krantikumar Sherkhane NSN

Standard Numbered ACLs :
Router(config)# access-list 1-99|1300-1999 permit|deny source_IP_address [wildcard_mask] [log] Eg: Router(config)# access-list 1 permit 192.168.1.1 Router(config)# access-list 1 deny 192.168.1.2 Router(config)# access-list 1 permit 192.168.1.0 0.0.0.255 Router(config)# access-list 1 deny any ! Router(config)# interface serial 0 Router(config-if)# ip access-group 1 in !

Soc Classification level 98 © Nokia Siemens Networks

Presentation / Author / Date Created by Krantikumar Sherkhane NSN

Extended Numbered ACLs : Router(config)# access-list 100-199|2000-2699 permit|deny IP_protocol source_address source_wildcard_mask [protocol_information] destination_address destination_wildcard_mask [protocol_information] [log] (These IP protocols include the following: ip. igmp. igrp. udp.0.) Eg: Router(config)# access-list 100 permit tcp any 172.255 Router(config)# access-list 100 deny ip any any ! Router(config)# interface ethernet 0 Router(config-if)# ip access-group 100 ! Soc Classification level 99 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date Created by Krantikumar Sherkhane NSN .0.255.16. tcp.0 0. gre. icmp. and ospf. eigrp.

0.17.0 0.255.255 host 176.0.Named ACLs : Router(config)# ip access-list standard ACL_name Router(config-std-acl)# permit|deny source_IP_address [wildcard_mask] Router(config)# ip access-list extended ACL_name Router(config-ext-acl)# permit|deny IP_protocol source_IP_address wildcard_mask [protocol_information] destination_IP_address wildcard_mask [protocol_information] Eg: Router(config)# ip access-list extended do_not_enter Router(config-ext-acl)# permit tcp 172.2 eq telnet ! Router(config)# interface ethernet 0 Router(config-if)# ip access-group do_not_enter in ! Router# show access-lists [ACL_#_or_name] Router# show ip access-list [ACL_#_or_name] Router# show ip interfaces Soc Classification level 100 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date Created by Krantikumar Sherkhane NSN .16.1.

68.ACL Eg. ip access-list extended GTV0-block deny udp any eq 3386 host 58.12.12.75 eq 3386 permit ip any any ! ip access-list extended GTV0-block-in deny udp host 58.75 eq 3386 any eq 3386 permit ip any any ! interface GigabitEthernet8/18 ip access-group GTV0-block out (for packets going from Mum SGSN towards chennai GGSN ) ip access-group GTV0-block-in in (for packets coming from chennai GGSN) exit ! Soc Classification level 101 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date Created by Krantikumar Sherkhane NSN .68.

Chapter 8 RIP and IGRP Soc Classification level 102 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date Created by Krantikumar Sherkhane NSN .

but it has a maximum allowable hop count of 15. It sends the complete routing table out to all active interfaces every 30 seconds.16. RIP works well in small networks. Configuring RIP Routing : 2621A(config)#router rip 2621A(config-router)#network 172. but it is inefficient on large networks with slow WAN links or on networks with a large number of routers installed.Routing Information Protocol (RIP) : Routing Information Protocol (RIP) is a true distancevector routing protocol. meaning that 16 is deemed unreachable.0.0 2621A# Soc Classification level 103 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date Created by Krantikumar Sherkhane NSN . RIP only uses hop count to determine the best way to a remote network.

50.2. R .0 [120/2] via 172. The [120/3] is the administrative distance of the route (120) along with the number of hops to that remote network (3).0 [120/3] via 172.connected. I .16. FastEthernet0/0 R 172.0 [120/2] via 172.0. However. FastEthernet0/0 C 172.16.Verifying the RIP Routing Tables : 2621A#sh ip route Codes: C .40. FastEthernet0/0 In this output.20.16. Soc Classification level 104 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date Created by Krantikumar Sherkhane NSN .16. FastEthernet0/0 R 172.2. FastEthernet0/0 R 172.16.16.10.10.16.2.16. S .RIP.10.10.30. the R means that the networks were added dynamically using the RIP routing protocol. M – [output cut] Gateway of last resort is not set 172.0/24 is subnetted.16. notice that the routing table has the same entries that the routing tables had when you were using static routes.16.0 [120/1] via 172. 5 subnets R 172.2.IGRP.0 is directly connected.10.static.

although they are not used by default. IGRP also uses a different metric from RIP.Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP) : Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP) is a Cisco proprietary distance-vector routing protocol to overcome the problems associated with RIP. and Maximum Transmission Unit (MTU) can also be used. IGRP uses bandwidth and delay of the line by default as a metric for determining the best route to an internetwork. load. Reliability. This is helpful in larger networks and solves the problem of there being only 15 hops maximum possible in a RIP network. Soc Classification level 105 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date Created by Krantikumar Sherkhane NSN . This is called a composite metric. IGRP has a maximum hop count of 255 with a default of 100.

0 [100/158260] via 172. FastEthernet0/0 I 172.10.0. FastEthernet0/0 I 172.2. FastEthernet0/0 I 172.0 [100/158360] via 172.0 [100/160260] via 172.40.16.16.16.10.16.2.16.50.0 [100/160360] via 172. the better the route. The [100/160360] is the administrative distance of IGRP and the composite metric.20.Configuring IGRP Routing : RouterA#config t RouterA(config)#router igrp 10 RouterA(config-router)#network 172.0 Verifying the IGRP Routing Tables : 2621A#sh ip route I 172. FastEthernet0/0 The I means IGRP-injected routes. The lower the composite metric. FastEthernet0/0 C 172.16.10.30.16.10. Soc Classification level 106 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date Created by Krantikumar Sherkhane NSN .2.16.0 is directly connected.16.16.10.2.

Chapter 9 Border Gateway Protocol .BGP Soc Classification level 107 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date Created by Krantikumar Sherkhane NSN .

Soc Classification level 108 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date Created by Krantikumar Sherkhane NSN .

535 .Private use – This is similar to RFC 1918 IP addresses.535 .Overview of autonomous systems • AS .512 through 65. An AS can be a: – Collection of routers running a single IGP (Single company) – Collection of routers running different protocols all belonging to one organization (ISP) In either case.A group of routers that share similar routing policies and operate within a single administrative domain. Between 1 and 65. Soc Classification level 109 109 © Nokia Siemens Networks .Reserved 1 through 64. an organization must present justification of its need before it will be assigned an AS number. 0 . • 65.Reserved • Because of the finite number of available AS numbers.535. the outside world views the entire Autonomous System as a single entity. AS • • • • • • • Numbers Assigned by an Internet registry or a service provider.495 – Assignable for public use 64.

BGP Basics • Function of BGP is to: – Exchange routing information between autonomous systems – Guarantee the selection of a loop free path. • • • Soc Classification level 110 © Nokia Siemens Networks . – TCP connections must also be negotiated between them before updates can be exchanged. or rules (later) Cisco routers maintain a separate routing table to hold BGP routes. • BGP – Does not use technical metrics. BGP updates are carried using TCP on port 179. BGP inherits those reliable. Because BGP requires TCP: – IP connectivity must exist between BGP peers. connection-oriented properties from TCP. – Makes routing decisions based on network policies.

• • Soc Classification level 111 © Nokia Siemens Networks . they exchange all candidate BGP routes. BGP routers keep a table version number – Tracks the version of the BGP routing table received from each peer – Increments whenever the BGP table changes (later). Network reachability information can change when: – A route becomes unreachable – A better path becomes available Withdrawn routes are part of the update message. After this initial exchange.BGP Operation • • • When BGP neighbors first establish a connection. incremental updates are sent as network information changes.

IBGP. BGP will initiate an internal session .Used to establish a neighbor relationship with another BGP router. If the field values are different. BGP will build an external session . If the AS-number configured in the router bgp command is identical to the ASnumber configured in the neighbor statement. The AS-number argument determines whether the neighbor router is an EBGP or an IBGP neighbor.BGP Configuration Router(config-router)#neighbor ip-address remote-as AS-number • • • • Neighbor command .EBGP. Identifies a peer router with which the local router will establish a session. • Soc Classification level 112 © Nokia Siemens Networks .

IBGP vs EBGP
• When BGP runs between autonomous systems, it is called External BGP (eBGP). – Border router - Routers that sit on the boundary of an AS and use eBGP to exchange information. When BGP is running inside an AS, it is referred to as Internal BGP (iBGP). – Transit router - Routes iBGP. ―With very few exceptions, interior BGP (iBGP) – BGP between peers in the same AS – is used only in multihomed scenarios.‖ – Doyle
Taos
192.168.100.0/24 192.168.200.0/24 192.168.1.216/30

AS 100 Aspen
192.168.1.222/30 192.168.1.220/30 192.168.1.221/30

Vail
192.168.1.226/30 192.168.1.224/30 192.168.1.225/30

AS 200
Soc Classification level 113 © Nokia Siemens Networks

EBGP
RTA(config)#router bgp 100 RTA(config-router)#neighbor 10.1.1.1 remote-as 200 • Because the two AS numbers are different, BGP will start an EBGP connection with RTA.

IBGP
RTB(config)#router bgp 200 RTB(config-router)#neighbor 172.16.1.2 remote-as 200 RTB(config-router)#neighbor 172.16.1.2 update-source loopback 0 • The remote-as value (200) is the same routers will attempt to establish an IBGP session.

Soc Classification level 114 © Nokia Siemens Networks

Path Selection procedure
•If the path specifies a next hop that is inaccessible, it will drop the update. •It will prefer the path with the largest weight. •If the weights are same, it will prefer with the largest local preference. •If the local preferences are the same, it will prefer the path that was logicaly originated via ―network‖ or ―Aggregate‖ by sub command or Redistribution through IGP on this router. •If no route was originated, it will prefer that route that has the shortest AS_path.

•If all paths have the same AS-path length, it will prefer the path with the lowest origin type. Ie IGP is lower than EGP.
•If the origin codes are the same, it will prefer the path with the lowest MED attribute.

•If the paths have the same MED, it will prefer the external path over the internal path.
•If the paths are still the same, it will prefer the path through the closest IGP neighbor •If nothing from the above has worked, eventually it will prefer the path with the lowest IP Soc Classification level 115 © Nokia Siemens Networks address.

Soc Classification level 116 © Nokia Siemens Networks 116 .WEIGHT Attribute WLam Weight Local Preference as path med • • • The weight attribute is local to the router on which it is assigned. the weight attribute is 32768 for paths that the router originates and zero for other paths. By default. Routes with a higher weight are preferred when there are multiple routes to the same destination. and it is not propagated in routing updates.

Local Preference WLam Weight Local Preference as path med • Local to an AS – non-transitive local preference set to 100 when heard from neighbouring AS. • Used to influence BGP path selection determines best path for outbound traffic. • Path with highest local preference wins Soc Classification level 117 © Nokia Siemens Networks .

5.1.1.0/16 Soc Classification level 118 © Nokia Siemens Networks .• Configuration of Router B: router bgp 400 neighbor 120.1 remote-as 300 neighbor 120.5.0.1 route-map local-pref in ! route-map local-pref permit 10 match ip address prefix-list MATCH set local-preference 800 ! ip prefix-list MATCH permit 160.10.

0. 119 Soc Classification level 119 © Nokia Siemens Networks . We will add this network to both routers and prepend some AS numbers to make it look like it originated in AS 14 from several AS’s away.AS_PATH WLam Weight Local Preference as path med With all else equal shortest AS_PATH is best • • • 10 11 12 13 AS14 99. Sometimes used by ISPs to prepend their own AS number several times to make a path look less desirable.0/8 10 We want to make it look as if the 99.0/8 in AS 14 network can be reached via ISP1 and ISP2.0.0.0.

• Used to convey the relative preference of entry points determines best path for inbound traffic • Comparable if paths are from same AS bgp always-compared-med allows comparisons of MEDs from different ASes • Path with lowest MED wins • Absence of MED attribute implies MED value of zero (RFC4271) Soc Classification level 120 © Nokia Siemens Networks .Multi-Exit Discriminator WLam Weight Local Preference as path med Inter-AS – non-transitive.

1.5.1.5.1 remote-as 200 neighbor 120.68.Configuration of Router B: router bgp 400 neighbor 120.1 route-map set-med out ! route-map set-med permit 10 match ip address prefix-list MATCH set metric 1000 ! ip prefix-list MATCH permit 120.1.0/24 Soc Classification level 121 © Nokia Siemens Networks .

All BGP messages are unicast to the one neighbor over the TCP connection. BGP peers exchanges several messages to open and confirm connection parameters and to send BGP routing information. • • Soc Classification level 122 © Nokia Siemens Networks .BGP Message Types • Before establishing a BGP peer connection the two neighbors must perform the standard TCP three-way handshake and open a TCP connection to port 179. After the TCP session is established.

If the periodic timer is set to a value of zero (0). BGP Keepalive Message • • • • This message type is sent periodically between peers to maintain connections and verify paths held by the router sending the keepalive. both neighbors send Open messages. no keepalives are sent. This message is used to establish connections with peers.BGP Open Message • • • After the TCP session is established. If a router accepts the parameters specified in its neighbor’s Open message. Each neighbor uses this message to identify itself and to specify its BGP operational parameters. Subsequent Keepalives are sent every 60 seconds by Cisco default or equal to one-third the agreed-upon hold time (180 seconds). Soc Classification level 123 © Nokia Siemens Networks . it responds with a Keepalive.