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BY: ARIF IZZUDIN BIN OTHMAN FATIN FATINI BT M.

DAELAMI FATIN AQILAH BT MOHD SUHAIMI

WHO IS VYGOTSKY?
 Lev Vygotsky was born in Russia in 1896.

 He died at the young age of 37 from

tuberculosis.  Due to his early death, most of his theories were left undeveloped, although some of his writing being translated from Russian.  His work in the last 10 years of his life has become the foundation of much research and theory in cognitive development.

1896-1934

THE OVERVIEWS.. Social Interaction Influences Cognitive Development Biological and Cultural Development do not occur in Isolation Language plays a major role in Cognitive Development .

MAJOR THEMES IN VYGOTSKY’S THEORIES .

” .FIRST MAJOR THEME “Social interaction plays a fundamental role in the process of cognitive development.

Young children are curious and actively involved in their own learning and the discovery and development of new understandings/schema. Seeks to understand the actions or instructions provided by the tutor (often the parent or teacher) then internalizes the information. using it to guide or regulate their own performance. Placed more emphasis on social contributions to the process of development. . Much important learning by the child occurs through social interaction with a skillful tutor.

The father then sits with her and describes or demonstrates some basic strategies and provides a couple of pieces for the child to put together herself and offers encouragement when she does so. Alone. . As the child becomes more competent.EXAMPLES Shaffer (1996) gives the example of a young girl who is given her first jigsaw. she performs poorly in attempting to solve the puzzle. the father allows the child to work more independently.

SECOND MAJOR THEME “The More Knowledgeable Other (MKO)” .

a child's peers or an adult's children may be the individuals with more knowledge or experience. . are now using electronic performance support systems. Electronic tutors have also been used in educational settings to facilitate and guide students through the learning process. or concept. The MKO need not be a person at all. process. with respect to a particular task. Many times.Refers to someone who has a better understanding or a higher ability level than the learner. The key to MKOs is that they must more knowledge about the topic being learned than the learner does. to support employees in their learning process. Some companies.

third MAJOR THEME “The Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD)” .

The concept of the More Knowledgeable Other (MKO) is integrally related to the second important principle of Vygotsky's work. . the Zone of Proximal Development.This is an important concept that relates to the difference between what a child can achieve independently and what a child can achieve with guidance and encouragement from a skilled partner.

ZONE OF PROXIMAL DEVELOPMENT [ZPD] The area where the most sensitive instruction or guidance should be given allowing the child to develop skills they will then use on their own developing higher mental functions. Interaction with peers as an effective way of developing skills and strategies. Suggested that teachers use cooperative learning exercises where less competent children develop with help from more skillful peers .within the zone of proximal development. .

As the ZPD decreases (less gray). the ZCD increases (more white) . What learner can do independently falls within the Zone of Current Development (ZCD). 1978) The ZPD is the “gray” gap between what a learner can accomplish independently (in white) and what a learner cannot do.. even with assistance black) A more capable peer/teachers (MKO) may help learner accomplish task in the ZPD.." (Vygotsky.The zone His theory cantered around the Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD): ". the distance between the actual development level as determined by independent problem solving and the level of potential development as determined through problem solving under adult guidance or in collaboration with more capable peers.

THE FOUR STAGES OF ZPD FIRST STAGE SECOND STAGE THIRD STAGE FOURTH STAGE .

problem solving and positive reinforcement. ASSISTED PERFORMANCE . Q&A.  The assisted child learns through a series of instrumental methods that include lectures.THE FIRST STAGE  Take place when a child is first learning a new subject matter or skills and require help from someone with greater knowledge than his own.

UNASSISTED PERFORMANCE . in which she performs tasks without relying on the person who was assisting her. she moves into the second stage.  She is confident enough to work through the task by herself. even if she makes occasional mistakes.THE second STAGE  As a child gains understanding of the new subject or skill.

FULL INTERNALIZATION .  Any doubts are gone during this stage.  The student may resent the intrusion or advice of the expert now that he has fully developed his own level of expertise. and the student has internalized the skills necessary to perform the task with proficiency.THE third STAGE  A student's knowledge reaches the point where performance is automatic and fully developed.

and major life changes.THE Fourth STAGE DE AUTOMATIZATION  Occurs later in life when the student becomes an adult and loses the ability to perform at a proficient level. gradual erosion of skills due to age.  It is an inevitable occurrence that requires individuals to regress to the beginning of the learning cycle to regain mastery.  Personal crisis. sudden trauma. .

tasks become less difficult. you show him how. What began as an interaction becomes an effortless. so we no longer have to talk to ourselves through them. loops or something like that. almost automatic behavior. usually repeating the story that you taught him. . then you talk him through it. Meaning that the interaction become internalized.EXAMPLE Think of a child learning to tie his shoe first. and eventually… The child is able to guide himself through tying his shoes. With practice. usually with some little memorable story about rabbit ears.

VYGOTSKY & LANGUAGE According to Vygotsky (1962) language plays 2 critical roles in cognitive development: It is the main means by which adults transmit info to children Language itself becomes a very powerful tool of intellectual adaptation .

Later language ability becomes internalized as thought and “inner speech”. . Language is therefore an accelerator to thinking/understanding. Thought is the result of language. for communication purposes.PRIVATE SPEECH Vygotsky sees "private speech" as a means for children to plan activities and strategies and therefore aid their development. Vygotsky believed that language develops from social interactions.

and achievement. success. Private speech is often thought to enhance the developing early literacy skills and help to increase a child's task performance. . self-guidance.WHAT IS PRIVATE SPEECH? Private speech is typically observed in children from about two to seven years old. and self-regulation of behavior. Private speech or "self-talk" is observed speech spoken to oneself for communication.