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Advanced Wine Course

Table of Contents 目录
I II III IV V VI Detailed wine regions Advanced Wine Service Vintage Food and wine matching Food & Wine in Balance Traditional Approach Wine management Tasting & Tasting Techniques
I II III IV 主要葡萄酒产区 高级葡萄酒侍酒 年份 食物和葡萄酒的搭配 -食物和葡萄酒的平衡

-传统搭配 V VI 葡萄酒管理 品尝葡萄酒及品酒技巧

I Main Wine Regions I 主要葡萄酒产区

I Main Wine Countries 主要葡萄酒产酒国

New World新世界
(Southern hemisphere + USA)

Old World旧世界
(European Countries)

南半球+美国

欧洲国家

USA美国 4*


• •

Australia澳大利亚6*
Chile智利 Argentina 阿根廷5*

• France法国 1*
• Italy意大利 2*


New Zealand新西兰
South Africa南非

• Spain西班牙3*
*Top six producers in volume 产量前六名国家

B French Wines 法国葡萄酒 • Mother country for fine wines 优质葡萄酒的故乡 • One of the highest levels of consumption: per capita: 55 liters 人均葡萄酒消费较高,55升/人 • AOC terroir AOC产区的自然条件 • Complete vineyards 酒庄众多 • The barrel is a French invention 葡萄酒桶由高卢人发明 .

French Wine Regions 法国葡萄酒产区 French vineyard: 法国葡萄园 900 000 hectares / 公顷 Main wine regions:主要葡萄酒产区 Bordeaux:波尔多 Burgundy:勃根蒂 Champagne:香槟 .

Bordeaux Wine Regions 波尔多产区 Main appellations: 主要产区 Medoc:美铎高地 Graves:格莱乌 Sauternes:苏丹 Saint-Emilion:圣爱美浓 Pomerol庞马洛 .

Chateau Haut-Brion. Right bank for Merlot 左岸:更适合种植加本力苏维翁,右岸更适合梅洛 • 1855 official listing of the best wines. 61 crus classes in 5 categories. 官方列出最佳葡萄酒:包括5大类、61种头等苑葡萄酒 • 5 first growths: Chateau Lafite Rothschild.Bordeaux Wines 波尔多葡萄酒 • Left bank: more suitable for Cabernet Sauvignon. Chateau Latour. Chateau Mouton Rothschild .all on the left bank 五大酒庄:莎都拉菲城堡,拉图城堡,玛歌法定产区,布里翁高 地古堡、木桐罗希尔古堡-都位于左岸 • Right bank: Top appellations are Saint-Emilion and Pomerol 右岸:最高产区是圣爱美浓和庞马洛法定产区 . Chateau Margaux.

Red wines are made out of Pinot Noir 红葡萄酒由黑皮诺葡萄制成 .Burgundy Wines 勃根蒂葡萄酒 • Some of the greatest wines in the world ranked according to the micro-climates 世界上一些最好的葡萄酒的等级划分是根据微气候的 • Small and family owned estates 较小的家族酒庄 • 669 AC, 30000 hectares / 公顷 Grand Cru 头等苑 Premier Cru 特级 669个法定产区, Regional AOC 优质 • Precise hierarchy as pyramid: 精确的金字塔等级划分 .White wines of Chardonnay 白葡萄酒由莎当妮制成 .

Champagne 香槟地区 • The best sparkling wine in the world 世界上最好的汽泡酒产区 • In the north of France on a chalky rock 法国北部的石灰岩区域 • 3 Grape varieties: Pinot Noir. Pinot Meunier and Chardonnay 3种葡萄品种:黑皮诺,皮诺莫妮亚,莎当妮 • Invention of the secondary fermentation in the bottle method 创造了瓶中二次发酵法 .

French wines Classification 法国葡萄酒等级 France法国 .

Appellation Controlée System 法定产区系统 Appelation d’Origine Controlee System: /法定产区系统 Informs about the provenance of the wine but also about a relative quality due to control on these factors: 可以反映葡萄酒的起源,还有因以下一些规定决定的品质: •Production zone 产区 •Authorized grape varieties 指定葡萄品种 •Minimal content in alcohol 最低酒精含量 •Viticulture and viniculture techniques •葡萄栽培法和葡萄酒酿造技术 •Yield limit 产量限制 .

AOC: A quest for quality AOC 品质的追求 District Medoc 美择高地 Commune Margaux玛歌 BORDEAUX Commune Pauillac 普伊勒 Region Bordeaux 波尔多 The smaller the appellation. due to stricter regulations. 根据严格的规则,产区越小,质量越高 . the better the quality.

F Australian Wine Regions 澳大利亚葡萄酒产区 Australian vineyard regions 澳大利亚葡萄园 150 000 hectares \ 公顷 Main wine regions 主要葡萄酒产区 South Australia / 南澳洲 Western Australia / 西澳洲 New South Wales /新南威尔士 Victoria/维多利亚 .

聚焦于葡萄制造技术,注重葡萄酒的果香味 和葡萄品种 • Shiraz is the famous variety of Australia 设拉子是澳洲著名的葡萄品种 .Good grape growing conditions • 澳大利亚得益于充足的阳光与持续的气候条 件,非常适宜葡萄的生长 • State of the art wine making techniques.Australian Wines 澳大利亚葡萄酒 • Australia benefits from lots of sun exposure and consistent climates. . fruit driven and varietal focused.

this is the land of the Shiraz 得益于温暖的气候条件,这里最适宜设拉子的生长 . McLaren Vale. Eden Valley. Coonawarra. South Australian is a phylloxera free state 约占澳大利亚全国葡萄酒产量50%,南澳洲无葡萄根瘤虫的困扰。 • The most famous winery regions of Australia: Barossa Valley.South Australia 南澳大利亚 • Producing 50% of Australia‟s total. 澳大利亚最著名的葡萄酒生产地区是:布诺萨山谷、安迪拉斯山、伊 甸谷、库鲁瓦、科莱尔谷、麦克拉润谷 • Thanks to the warm weather. Adelaide Hills. Clare Valley.

玛格丽特河地区拥有优越的葡萄种植条件.Western Australia 西澳大利亚 • Largest state of Australia 这是澳大利亚最大的州 • Contrasting climate. 气候对比鲜明,因此所有葡萄都种植于南部 • The Margaret River possesses a favorable viticulture condition which mirrors Bordeaux‟s climate. 与波尔多接近 • Very good results for Semillon & Chardonnay. therefore all vines are located in the south. Cabernet Sauvignon also outstanding 出产非常棒的赛美戎和莎当妮,加本力苏维翁也非常出色 .

Shiraz and Cabernet Sauvignon设拉子和加本力苏维翁 .New South Wales 新南威尔士地区 • Hunter valley Region. 160 km north of Sydney 亨特山谷地区,悉尼以北160公里 • Region of small wineries 小酒庄的聚集地 • Renowned for its 以以下几款葡萄酿制的葡萄酒闻名 .Chardonnay and Semillon 莎当妮和赛美戎 .

Victoria 维多利亚地区 • Most southern region. it has a cooler climate 澳洲南部地区,拥有凉爽的气候 • Typical strengths of the varieties are well respected 典型的力量型葡萄品种很受推崇 • Mostly famous for its white and sparkling,and also cool climate shiraz 以白葡萄酒和汽泡酒和优雅的设拉子闻名 .

II Advanced Wine Service II 高级葡萄酒侍酒 .

在这里,莎当妮和白苏维翁占据超过总栽种量的 50% • Produces very good Pinot Noir 出产优质的黑皮诺 • Key regions: Marlborough.New Zealand 新西兰 • Rather cool climate. Hawkes Bay… 主要产区:马博罗,尼尔森,奥克兰,鹰湾 . Nelson. more suitable for white wines, but good red wines from the North 相对凉爽的气候,更适于白葡萄酒的生产。 北岛也有很好的红葡萄酒。 • Chardonnay and Sauvignon blanc represent more than 50 % of the vineyards. Auckland.

葡萄酒侍酒温度 醒酒 汽泡酒如何侍酒 葡萄酒的年份 Wine Service Temperature Decantation How to serve Sparkling wine Wine Vintage .

Not so long ago the room temperature used to be a few degrees less 餐厅中常见的两个错误: -白葡萄酒侍酒温度过低。凉并不等于冰。 -红葡萄酒在错误的室温饮用。任何葡萄酒的饮用温度都不应超过18-19度。 以前的室温比现在相对低几度。 . Cool is not cold! -The red wines are served at the wrong room temperature. No wine should be served above 18-19 degrees.Wine Service Temperature 葡萄酒的侍酒温度 • Correct temperature is critical in wine appreciation. at the right temperature the wine is always better • 合适的温度在品酒过程中很重要,葡萄酒在适当的温度时饮用口感会更好。 • 2 common mistakes made at the restaurant: -The white wines are served too chilled.

Temperature Tips 关于温度的一些小诀窍
Whites wines
• Never leave the wines in the fridge too long • Never use the freezer • Never put ice cubes into the wine 白葡萄酒 • 不要把葡萄酒在冰箱中放置太长时间 • 不要放置在结冻箱中 • 不要在葡萄酒中加冰块

Temperature Tips 关于温度的一些小诀窍
Red wines • Never bring the wine to excessive room temperature • Never put the wine close to a heat source 红葡萄酒 • 不要让葡萄酒温度超过室温 • 不要把葡萄酒放近热源

Temperature Tips 关于温度的一些小诀窍

For all wines:

- Do not shake them; handle them with care
- Slowly bring the wine to the right temperature • 对所有的酒 - 不要摇晃,小心拿放 - 将葡萄酒逐渐调节到适当的温度。 • Bear in mind that in the glasses the wine quickly takes on a few more degrees.

• 葡萄酒倒入杯中,温度会很快变化几度。
• Wine can be kept cool by using an ice bucket • 葡萄酒可用冰桶冷却

Wine Service Temperature Chart
25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3

Average temperature of the restaurants and housings

Full-bodied fine red wines, Bordeaux stlye Delicate fine wine, Burgundy style Young and full bodied red wines Full-bodied fine dry white wines Ideal cellar temperature Young and light red wines Rose wines, primeur wines Most of the light dry white wines and the champagne Sweet wines

葡萄酒侍酒温度表 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 餐厅和住家的平均温度 酒体饱满的优质红葡萄酒,波尔多型 较精致的优质葡萄酒,勃根蒂型 年轻、酒体饱满的红葡萄酒 酒体饱满、口感较干的白葡萄酒 酒窖的理想温度 年轻、清淡的红葡萄酒 桃红酒、较一般的葡萄酒 大多数清淡、口感较干的白葡萄酒和香槟 甜酒 .

Decantation 醒酒 2 reasons for decantation:醒酒的两个原因 .Separate an old wine from any deposit in the bottle 将陈年的葡萄酒与其中的杂质分离。 .Enable a „closed‟ young wine to breathe 让年轻气味未完全发散的葡萄酒“呼吸”。 .

Decanting Sequence 醒酒步骤 • Do not shake the wine • Light the candle • Carefully open the bottle • Place the cork on a plate • Taste the wine • Rinse the decanter with the wine •不要摇晃葡萄酒 •点燃蜡烛 •小心开瓶 •把瓶塞放在盘子上 •品尝葡萄酒 •用葡萄酒润洗醒酒 器 .

the candle is placed below the shoulder of the bottle.Decanting Sequence 醒酒步骤 •Pour the wine gently. the wine has to slide on the sides of the decanter. creating transparency. •Lift the bottle (stop pouring) when you reach the line of deposit •Extinguish the candle without blowing on it to avoid the bad smell • 轻柔的倒酒;葡萄酒应沿 着醒酒器的边缘流下。 • 在倒酒过程中,蜡烛被放 置在瓶边,以便看清瓶底 的沉淀。 • 至沉淀处,即停止倾倒 • 熄灭蜡烛。不要吹,以免 造成不好的气味 . •During the process. so as to see any deposits.

45度倾斜拿酒。 • Do not point it at anyone 不要将瓶口对着任何人 • Grasp the cork firmly and twist the bottle to open 紧紧抓住瓶塞,转动瓶子开瓶。 • Avoid a loud bang 不要让开瓶声很响 • Pour twice to avoid heavy mousse 分两次倾倒,以免泡沫太多。 • While serving. hold the bottle by the bottom with your thumb 在倒酒时,用大拇指插入瓶底凹处,拿住酒瓶。 .How to Serve Sparkling Wines 气泡酒侍酒 • Hold the bottle at an angle of 45 degrees.

very dry. • 菲诺:清新、有杏仁味。用作开胃酒或和开胃小吃共 食。 • Amontillados: Old Finos with more body. Pedro Ximenez. aftertaste of nut.5 young. Serve as aperitif.How to serve a Sherry 雪利酒的侍酒 • 3 Grape varieties: Palomino.5 • 阿莫提兰都:较陈年的菲诺,酒体较饱满,口感干。 余味中有坚果味。与白肉和浓奶酪搭配。 酒精度% 饮用温度 7-8 13-14 . or with tapas. Serve with white meat and strong cheeses 17. Muscatel • 3个葡萄品种:帕罗米诺、配卓西门内、穆斯卡特 Alcohol% Serve at *C • Finos: light and fresh with almond flavors to be drunk 15.

Serve with game and red meat • 欧洛若若:酒体最饱满、色泽深、丰富的坚果味。 18 • Cream: Sweetened Olororos. Best with bakery items • 克莱姆(奶油型):加甜的欧洛若若。与烘烤食物搭 配极佳。 Alcohol% Serve at *C 饮用温度 15-16 . rich nutty 酒精度% flavor.How to serve a Sherry 雪利酒的侍酒 • Olororos: the most full-bodied. intense color.

How to serve a Port 钵酒的侍酒 • Ruby port (Young wine) 红宝石钵酒(较年轻) • Tawny port (Old port) 茶色钵酒(老年份钵酒) • Late bottled vintage port (LVB) 晚装型钵酒 • Vintage port 年份钵酒 Served at room temperature 室温侍酒 .

How to serve a Port 钵酒的侍酒 • Handle the vintage Port gently because of the deposit. serve a sweeter port 老年份的钵酒应注意橡木塞比较易碎 -开胃酒:口感较干的白钵酒客用作开胃酒 -就餐中:可饮用相对较干的红钵酒 Served at room -甜酒:较甜的钵酒 temperature 室温侍酒 .For dessert. decant it a few hours before serving.During the meal. serve a drier red port .For aperitifs. 年份钵酒中有沉淀,应小心拿放。在饮用前几小时进行醒酒。 • Pay attention to the fragile cork of an old vintage port . serve a white dry port .

III Vintage 年份 .

. Wines that fail to reach minimum standard. 极佳的年份:非常理想的成长环境让葡萄充分成 熟并充分反映出当地的自然环境。 “Difficult” vintage: Due to bad weather. Thanks to improved wine making and viticulture. bad viticulture etc. there are fewer “bad” vintages.Vintage Quality 年份与品质 Great vintage:Outstanding growing season producing full ripeness and typicality for the region. “一般” 年份:不好的气候条件、光照、栽培问 题等造成。葡萄酒未达到最低标准。因为酿造和 栽培技术的提高,“坏” 年份现在很少了。 .. lack of sunlight.

can be drunk earlier. do not generalize 年份变化没有相对规律 .Vintage Value 年份与葡萄酒 Great vintage: 极佳的年份 High prices but long wait to reach maturity 价格昂贵,陈年时间较长 “Difficult” vintage: “一般” 年份: Underestimated. 向客户建议为相应的场合、相应的价位选择合适的葡萄酒 Vintages are different. at more affordable prices 品质预计较差,能较早饮用,价 格较低 Trade tip/销售小建议: Explain to the client that they can enjoy the wine at the right time for the right price.

IV Food and Wine Pairing 食物与葡萄酒的搭配 .

Food and Wine in Balance食物与葡萄酒的平衡搭配 .

Food and Wine in Balance 葡萄酒与食物的平衡 The principles of Wine and Food in Balance provide the platform for creating great tasting food that is delicious with you or your customer‟s favorite wine. • 让每一款与食物搭配的美酒尽显它的本色。 . • 单独品尝食物、再将美食与葡萄酒共享。比较其中口味浓淡和香 气的不同。 • Allow any wine served with the dish to taste true to its intended taste. Any dish that is properly balanced will : 葡萄酒与食物的搭配使您或您的客人用心爱的美酒让食物的口味更加 升华。 • Taste intense and flavorful whether it is being served with wine or not.

lime. ham. dry wine reductions BALANCE Sweet Taste in Food Sugar. . poultry. lemon. sauces and stocks Drier (less sweet) Less fruity More acidic More bitter and tannic  A note about spicy seasonings . bacon. most fruit and fruit juices. Umami Taste in Food tomatoes. olives. seafood.Five Tastes MAKES WINE MILDER Salty Taste in Food Salt. olive brine SALT Less dry (sweeter) Fruitier Less bitter and tannic Sour Taste in Food SOUR Vinegars. green vegetables. Spicy food will exaggerate the tannins and bitterness of a wine. onions. . . fish sauce. honey SWEET MAKES WINE STRONGER SAVORY/UMAMI Meats. Salt and sour additions to the food will counteract this effect on the wine. soy sauce.

五种味道 食物中的咸味 食盐、酱油、鱼酱、 橄榄、盐橄榄 咸味 让葡萄酒相对柔和 甜度增加 果味更重 苦味及单宁味减弱 酸味 食物中的酸味 醋、酸橙、柠檬。 减弱葡萄酒的干涩度 平衡 食物中的甜味 糖、大多数水果及果 汁、蜂蜜 食物中的香味 甜味 让葡萄酒相对强劲 甜度减少(口感更干) 果味简淡 酸度增加 苦味及单宁味增强 香味 肉类、海鲜、家禽、 番茄、洋葱、绿色蔬 菜、火腿、培根、酱 汁及枝干  对辣味菜肴的小提示: 辣味会加强葡萄酒中的单宁和苦味。 加入咸味、酸味会减弱它 对葡萄酒的这种影响。 .

in most instances. even the food you are eating in a restaurant can be simply adjusted at the table if your wine does not meet your taste expectations.there is no need to make any further adjustments to the dish for different wines! 如果菜肴的口味已达到平衡,任何葡萄酒与之相配都是可口的-没有必要 为不同的葡萄酒来改变菜肴的口味! The principles can be applied to any dish that you are cooking and. 对正在制作的菜肴、甚至您已在餐厅享用的菜肴如果与葡萄酒未达到理想 的口感,都可以根据一定的原则在餐桌上进行简单的调整。 . any wine will be delicious with it .Keep in mind that once the dish is properly balanced.

Traditional Approach 传统搭配 Food and Wine Pairing 食物与葡萄酒的搭配 .

Food and Wine Pairing 食物与葡萄酒的搭配 The success of food and wine matching is achieved when the feeling generated by their combination reach a perfect balance. 菜肴的质感如何? 清淡、干爽或厚重。 • One has to take the sauce into account. difficult to obtain individually. 还需要考虑酱汁的味道。 . 葡萄酒与食物的成功搭配在于它们能共同为口感带来极佳的平衡感。详细搭配方式需要考虑很多 因素。 Questions to be asked/问题: • • • Is the dish tasty. very tasty? 菜肴可口吗?非常可口吗? What are the intensity of the flavors? 菜肴口味重吗? What is the main dominating flavor? 主要味道是什么? What is the texture of the dish? Light and dry or heavy.

fat wine 奶油汁的菜肴适于搭配丰满的葡萄酒 • A mushroom sauce goes well with oaky wines 菌类酱汁的菜肴与橡木味重的葡萄酒搭配极佳 .Food and Wine Pairing 食物与葡萄酒的搭配 Experience shows that : 实践积累的搭配经验: • A brown sauce goes with a red wine 褐色酱汁的菜肴与红酒搭配 • A sauce based with lemon juice better matched with a crisp dry white. 以柠檬汁为主的菜肴最好和干爽的白葡萄酒搭配 • A creamy sauce need a rich.

Food and Wine Pairing 食物与葡萄酒的搭配 Experience shows that : 实践积累的搭配经验: • Bloody red meat demands a robust full-bodied wine 鲜肉应与酒体饱满、口感强劲的葡萄酒搭配 • Salty dishes enhance the bitterness of the tannic red wines 咸味重的菜肴会加强红葡萄酒中单宁的苦涩感 • Roasted white meat are well matched with a red wine 烤白肉与红酒搭配极佳 • Shell-fish and sea-food suit a white wine 贝类及其他海鲜适合与白葡萄酒搭配 .

Food and Wine Pairing 食物与葡萄酒的搭配 • The rule of the „terroir‟: A regional dish is served with a wine of the same region “自然条件相同” 法则:当地的菜肴与当地的葡 萄酒搭配 • The rule of non competition of aromas: The dish and the wine shall enhance each others‟ flavors and not compete. “口味不冲突”法则:食物与葡萄酒应有能强调 互相味道的功用。而不是互相冲突。 .

季节 .Food and Wine Pairing 食物与葡萄酒的搭配 • Other factors can influence the success of food and wine matching: .一天中所处的时间段 • If the dish embodies a particular wine during cooking. serve the same wine 如果菜肴中含有一种特定的葡萄酒,也应用相 同的葡萄酒来搭配。 .The time of the day 其他会影响食物与葡萄酒搭配的因素: .The season .

Vertical VS Horizontal Matching 纵向搭配与平行搭配 • Horizontal matching: Choose a wine to match every single dish 平行搭配:为每一道菜肴选择相应的葡萄酒搭配 • Vertical matching: Different wines should be served in a logical sequence 一般搭配:不同的葡萄酒按一定规律侍酒。 • Golden rule: The next wine should not make you regret the previous wine 黄金法则:后一款葡萄酒优于前一款葡萄酒。 .

Vertical Wine Balance 纵向搭配 • The white wines are served before the red wines • 白葡萄酒先饮,红葡萄酒后饮。 • The young wines are served before the aged wines • 年轻的葡萄酒先饮,陈年葡萄酒后饮。 • The dry wines are served before the sweet wines • 口感较干的葡萄酒先饮,口感较甜的葡萄酒后饮。 .

Vertical Wine Balance 纵向搭配 • The less alcoholic wines are served before the more alcoholic wines • 酒精度较低的葡萄酒先饮,较高的后饮。 • The fresher wines are served before the room temperature wines • 温度较低的葡萄酒先饮,室温葡萄酒后饮。 • Avoid more than three different types of wine on a same meal. • 避免用三种以上不同的葡萄酒搭配同一道菜肴。 .

Example 1 例一 A grilled fish seasoned with aromatic herbs and some lemon juice would be perfectly matched with a Sauvignon blanc which has a high acidity and a crisp lime aromatic taste. 配以芳草和柠檬汁的烤鱼与白苏维翁搭配效果极佳。白苏维翁酸 度较高。爽口有些酸橙味。 .

oven cooked with a mushroom creamy sauce would be better matched with a Chardonnay giving its creamy texture & a stronger oaky flavor 配以菌类和奶油汁的煮鱼与莎当妮搭配则更相宜。莎当妮有 奶油般的滑润口感和较浓的橡木味。 .Example 1 例一 The very same fish.

Pinot noir. Sangiovese. Grilled meat are well matched with wines from Gamay. 烤肉(禽类、小牛肉、猪肉) 最好与较柔和(单宁较少)、果 味浓郁的红葡萄酒搭配。烤肉与用甘美、黑皮诺、桑吉奥维斯葡 萄酿造的葡萄酒搭配效果极佳。 . veal.Example 2 例二 A grilled meat (poultry. pork) would be best served with a red wine with a supple texture (with few tannins) and whose main flavors come from the fruit.

Syrah.Example 2 例二 Roasted lamb or game would destroy the delicacy of the above wine. Nebbiolo. 烤羊肉或野味会影响以上品种葡萄酒的口味。应选择较强劲的有 胡椒或辛辣味的葡萄酒-如设拉子、加本利苏维翁、内比奥罗葡萄 酒。 . Cabernet Sauvignon. So select a wine with more sophisticated texture and peppery or spicy flavors .ie.

Gewürztraminer or Riesling are a good pairing.Wine killer 葡萄酒杀手 • How about very strong sauces like mustard or curry? 味道比较浓烈的酱汁,如芥末或咖喱会破坏葡萄酒的口 味吗? • Do not match with a muscular wine. a light aromatic wine will suit . 不要把他们与口味较浓的葡萄酒搭配;较清单的葡萄酒 更适合搭配-格乌兹莱妮或薏丝琳是极好的选择。 .

葡萄酒的敌人:避免与食醋或苦味菜肴(如萝卜、黄 瓜、菊苣)搭配。它们会影响葡萄酒的口味。 .Wine killer 葡萄酒杀手 The enemies of wines: avoid vinegar and bitter vegetables like radish. cucumber and endive which alter the taste of the wine.

V Wine Management 葡萄酒的管理 .

sometimes depreciation .Stock Management 库存管理 Low Stocks • Small immobilizations • Low stocking cost • Low risk of depreciation • • • • Big Stocks Discounted quantity prices Lower ordering rate Lower risk of out of stock Bigger range of wine Pros • Cons • • • Higher price per unit Higher ordering rate Risk of out of stock Small range of wines • Predictions are difficult • High stocking costs • High immobilizations of.

Stock Management 库存管理 低库存 • 变现较易 • 占用资金少 • 贬值风险小 • • • • 高库存 • • • • 享有大订单折扣 订货次数少 缺货风险低 葡萄酒品种较多 优点 缺点 单品成本较高 订货次数多 缺货风险高 葡萄酒品种较少 • 预算比较难 • 占用资金多 • 变现较难;有时会贬值 .

The fast moving wines should have easy access .Old vintages and precious wines should be “Hidden away” • Stock the wines in a logical order: by region.Stock Management 库存管理 • Lay out: . by type… • 放置:-销得快的葡萄酒应放在易于取用的地方 -老年份及贵重葡萄酒应“藏” 在安全的地方 葡萄酒应按规律分组摆放:根据产地、品种…… .

detailed record of each wine in stock • Maximum and minimum stock level according to sales record 流动: • 注意葡萄酒的成熟期。(例:陈年‘X‟年后) • 检查运输、预定、一般库存管理,详细记录库存中的每一款酒。 • 根据销售量决定最大、最小库存量。 Stock Valorization: Average price method. FIFO 物价稳定措施:平均价格方式,后进现出,现进现出 .Stock Management 库存管理 Rotation: • Look out for the peak of the wine (ie after aging „x‟ years) • Check the delivery. book keeping. LIFO. regular inventory control.

光线:较暗。强光会破坏葡萄酒(特别是白葡萄酒 和香槟)的品质。 • Humidity level should be high. 70-75% • Temperature must remain stable at around 10 to 14C 温度:稳定在10-14度左右。 . particularly whites and champagnes.How to Manage a Wine Cellar 酒窖管理 • Bottles should be laid down in a well ventilated space where there are no bad smells 葡萄酒应平放在通风良好、无异味的环境中 • Darkness: Bright light can damage wines. between 70 and 75% 湿度:较高.

S materials. .Make sure the staff are qualified. . sales incentives and trainings 包含内容: -根据店面的类型、资金量和储酒室条件挑选葡萄酒 -提高员工素质 -决定您的定价方案,并与员工达成一致意见 -促销物品、开瓶费的使用。对员工进行培训 .O.Beverage Commercial Strategy 饮料创利润计划 • Target: increase the turn over of the account 目标:提高店面营业额 • Means: .Implement P. account and your cellar conditions .Define your price strategy and involve all the staff so as to be more coherent.Choose the wine according to the type of clientele.

sell more with a smaller margin 经济型:增强竞争力,单瓶盈利额缩小, 但销 售量增大 .Set the Wine Price 葡萄酒的定价方案 Financially: allocate a good margin. sell less with a bigger margin 财务型:扩大单品盈利额,量小利厚 or 或 Commercially: remain competitive.

Set the Wine Price 葡萄酒的定价方案 -First method: apply a coefficient but difficult with low and high-end wines 第一种方式:设定一个系数,但对于低端和高端产品不 适用 -Second Method: adapt the margins of your wine according to the selling rate to absorb your costs. 第二种方式:根据销售量调整盈利额,以消化成本的一 种方式 Eg: High margins for low cost wines and low margins for high cost wines 例:低成本产品拥有高盈利, 高成本产品低盈利。 .

The price .害怕喝不完 .价格 .The fear of not finishing the bottle. • 人们不喜欢买整瓶葡萄酒是因为: .“Wine by the glass” Programs “杯卖葡萄酒” 计划 • One way to boost the beverage account 提高饮料销量的一种方法 • People are reluctant to get a full bottle because of .

在菜单上建议葡萄酒。并说明是否包括在价格内。 • Indicate the volume of the glass 说明杯子的容量 • Display at the front door 在入口处陈列葡萄酒 • Advertise with posters 用宣传单进行建议 .Wine by the Glass / Wine of the Month 杯卖葡萄酒/葡萄酒月促销 • Suggest it on the menu. Indicate whether it is included in the price.

sales target.Wine by the Glass / Wine of the Month 杯卖葡萄酒/葡萄酒月促销 • Tent cards on the table: presenting food matches 台卡:列出葡萄酒与事物的搭配 • Cash incentives per bottle. staff training 开瓶费、销售目标、员工培训 • Tasting Set menu: (4 courses + 4 glasses) 品酒菜单(四道菜+4杯酒) • Free wine tastings 葡萄酒免费品尝 .

VI Wine Tasting Techniques 葡萄酒品尝技巧 .

Sight: Analyze the Appearance • 视觉:分析外观 B.A. Taste: Analyze the Palate • 味觉:分析口感 D. Smell: Analyze the Nose • 嗅觉:分析气味 C. Wine Balance • 葡萄酒的平衡 .

You can tell the age of the wine by the intensity or the clarity 透明度:用一张平滑的白纸作背景。您可以通过观察葡萄 酒的色泽深浅和清澈度推测酒的年份。 . A matt or cloudy rim is a very bad sign 边缘:有葡萄酒的边缘光圈应是明亮宜人的。阴暗模糊的 边缘说明酒品质存在问题。 • Transparency examination: use a plain white background.Sight: Analyze of the Appearance 视觉:评价外观 • Rim examination: it has to be glittering.

Sight: Analyze of the Appearance 视觉:评价外观 • White wine: green reflections indicate a young wine. Orange oxidized colors show some evolution 红葡萄酒:紫色的反光说明葡萄酒较年轻。橘色氧化说明葡萄 酒陈年过长。 . yellow golden reflections show some evolution through age 白葡萄酒:如色泽泛绿说明葡萄酒较年轻。浅黄褐色或金黄色 说明葡萄酒已陈年过长。 • Red wine: gets paler in color as it ages 红葡萄酒:色泽越淡,陈年时间越长。 • Red wines: purple reflections indicate young wines. Topaz.

Residual Co2. 挂杯:摇晃酒杯时,酒壁上留下的痕迹。挂杯越重,说明 葡萄酒的酒精度越高或糖度较高。 • Co2 Emission: Sometimes small bubbles may be apparent in what is supposed to be still wine.Appearance 外观 • Legs or Tears: are the traces that are left on the sides of your glasses. when swirled round.) 释放CO2:有时普通的葡萄酒中有细小的汽泡出现,这说明 Co2 的含量比较高。 --可能存在于较年轻的白葡萄酒中 --红酒如有这样情况说明进行了不必要发酵(有酵母味。) . the more tears the more alcohol content or a high level of residual sugar. – May exists in young whites – Faults for the reds due to unwanted fermentation (smells like yeast.

These in no way affect the wine quality. one sometimes comes across tartrates precipitations.Appearance 外观 Deposit of Crystals. 结晶:在白酒中,有时会碰到酒石酸沉淀。这种自然结晶 不会影响酒的品质。 . In white wines.

more intense perception & evaluation of intensity 第二感觉:晃动酒杯,感知更浓烈的香味,分析香味 • Third Nose: break the nose by swirling in the opposite sense. reveals excess of So2 第三感觉:捕捉葡萄酒中是否存在不好的气味,是否有 SO2的味道。 .Smell: Analyze of the Nose 嗅觉:评价酒香 • First Nose: sniff without moving the glass to get the lightest molecules 第一感觉:不晃动酒杯,轻嗅气体,感知细微的香味。 • Second Nose: swirl the glass.

dark. exotic…) 果香 (香橙味,红色浆果、深色浆果,野果,干果,异域水果…) • Vegetal (anise. meat juice…) 动物味 (皮革、野味、肉汁……) .Families of Aromas 香味分类 • Flowers (acacia. dried. dried herbs. mushroom. wild herbs. undergrowth…) 植物 (茴芹、干草、蕨类、菌类、地下植物……) • Balsamic (santal. cinnamon…) 辛辣味 (甘草、香草、桂皮……) • Animal (leather. fern. rose…) 花香 (阿拉伯树胶,茉莉花,玫瑰……) • Fruits (citrus. vanilla. game. bees wax…) 芳香类物质 (檀香、树脂、蜂蜡……) • Spices (liquorice. wild. red. resin. jasmine.

mould…) 坏酒味 (硫磺味、醋味、瓶塞味、霉味……) .Families of Aromas 香味分类 • Empyreumatic (Chocolate. chalk…) 矿石味 (燧石-打火石,石头、白垩-粉笔……) • Iodine 碘酒味 • Pastries (honey. tar…) 熏烤味 (巧克力、烤面包、咖啡、太妃糖、柏油……) • Mineral (flinty. brioche. grilled bread. stone. fresh bread…) 糕点味 (蜂蜜、奶油糕点、新鲜面包……) • Lactic (Fresh butter) 乳类 气味 (新鲜黄油) • Wine faults (sulfurs. cork. toffee. coffee. vinegar.

Nose 嗅觉 • Primary Flavors: from the grape variety. youngish wines 主要味道:来自葡萄品种的天然味道。较年轻的葡萄酒更明显。 • Secondary Flavors: from the fermentation process 第二层味道:来自于葡萄酒的发酵过程。 • Tertiary Flavors: or “ bouquet” results of ageing. more mature aromas 第三层味道:或“芬芳”源自葡萄酒的陈年,更加成熟的香味。 .

氧化:可以看出葡萄酒变成棕褐色。有霉味。 .Wine Faults 识别坏酒 • Corkiness: this can be recognized by a distinctly musty smell. due to tainted cork 坏木塞味:闻这种葡萄酒时会感觉到一股霉味,这是由于木塞受 污染造成的。 • Sulphur dioxide: aggressive smell of sulphur 硫磺氧化:有硫磺味。 • Acetic: this is the smell of vinegar 醋化:有食醋味。 • Oxidation: described as “maderised” visually recognized as a brownish color. Musty smell.

can be closed when young 香味的浓淡可以从侧面反映葡萄酒的质量。优质葡萄酒香味 浓烈。较年轻的葡萄酒香味散发不出来。 •Sugar is not volatile and therefore cannot be detected by the smell 糖分不可蒸发,因此无法用嗅觉感知。 . Fine wines have a more intense smell.Wine Faults 识别坏酒 Tips 小窍门 •Intensity of the wine can indicate the quality of the wine.

flat. wines lacking acidity will be flabby.Taste: Analyze the Palate 味觉:评价口感 • Sweetness: first thing detected 甜味:最先发现的味道 • Acidity: strong acidy makes the mouth water. unappealing 酸味:较浓的酸味能让口腔自然分泌唾液。缺少酸味的葡 萄酒会让人感觉松散、平淡没有吸引力。 • Salty: rather rare in wine 盐分:葡萄酒中含量很少。 .

In contrast to the salivating effect of acid 单宁:有让口腔、舌头干燥的功效。与酸味造成的效果正 好相反。 • Body (or mouth feel) is the impression of a wine‟s weight in the mouth.Taste: Analyze the Palate 味觉:评价口感 • Tannins: have a drying effect on the gums and the tongue. 酒体(或口感)是葡萄酒在口腔中造成的厚薄感。或轻淡 、或厚重。 • Alcohol: warming sensation in the back of your mouth 酒精度:会在口腔后部造成灼热感。 . Light or full-bodied.

over than 10 seconds for a great wine 餐酒一般为两秒左右,优质葡萄酒为十秒左 右。 . 回味或长度:葡萄酒的余香在口腔中停留的 时间长短。 • 2 seconds for a table wine.Tasting Dimensions 味觉的细分 • Finish or length: The period of time the wine‟s flavor lingers on your palate.

Tasting Dimensions 味觉的细分 • Texture: 质感 Creamy 奶油质感 Silky 丝绸质感 Velvety 天鹅绒质感 Chardonnay 莎当妮 Pinot Noir 黑皮诺 Syrah 设拉子 .

Thank you! 谢谢! .