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To get all there is out of living, we must employ our time wisely, never being in too much of a hurry to stop and sip life, but never losing our sense of the enormous value of a minute.
Robert Updegraff

 Human and animals have abundant bacterial flora that are usually a general balance exists between man (host) and his environment . The out come of this interaction can range from no demonstratable effect to death. The host parasite interaction is influenced by host factors as well as infecting microorganisms . .

 The lodgment and multiplication of organisms in the tissue of host constitutes infection . .

 Reservoir.  Portal of exit.  Susceptible host.  Mode of transmission.  Portal of entry. .An infection occurs as a result of cyclic process consisting of six components .  Infectious agent .



The organism must find a portal of entry to a host or it may die. . It is the point at which organism enter a host .

mounted by host defenses . . Micro organism can continue to exist only in a source that is acceptable and only if they overcome resistance .

 Integrity and number of body’s white blood cells.  pH levels of gastro-intestinal and genitourinary tracts.Integrity on skin and mucus membrane .  .  Age. sex and hereditary factors which influence susceptibility immunity fatigue and stress level .

An organism may be transmitted from its reservoir by various means or routes . Organisms can enter the body by way of contact route either direct or indirectly. .



.Medical asepsis refers to all practices used to protect the patients and his environment from the transmission of disease producing organism (prevention of cross infection).

Rinsing with water assists in washing the dirt again. The following steps should be considered when cleaning the articles:  Rinse the articles first with cold water to remove the organic material . .An article is considered to be clean when it is free from pathogenic organisms. Soap has an emulsifying action and reduces surface tension which facilitates the removal of dirt.  Wash the articles in hot water and soap.

Brush which help to remove dirt from the grooves and corners. Use an Abrasive such as a stiff brittle brush and a paste or powder to wash the articles.  Dry them with the towel there is less chance for the bacteria and dirt to lodge on to the cleansed article when it is dry.  Rinse the article with clean water. .  Disinfect or sterilize if infected.

The soap will emulsify the fat and lower the surface tension of water. facilitates the removal of microorganisms n dirt and oils. Hand washing involves both mechanical and chemical action. Careful washing of the hands reduces the number of bacteria’s . The running water and friction used in cleaning are the mechanical action for cleaning . .The infection can be transferred from person to person through contaminated hands.

. Cut short nails a long nail will give route to the dirt and micro organisms.

Rinse the soap before it is returned to the container. Make sure the interdigital spaces are well cleansed by washing each fingers separately.  Wash hands thoroughly.hence the water should flow from the area of less contaminated(Elbow) to the area of more contaminated(Hands). Always hold the hands below the elbow level because hands are considered to be more contaminated than the elbows . Use brush to dislodge the dirt under the nail buds.  .Remove the jewellery of all type open the tap and wet hands and fore arms .  Apply soap or detergent .

The water flows from elbow to the hands . Discard the towel.  Dry the arms and hands.  Repeat the procedure (application of soap and rinsing with water) to ensure thorough cleanliness. staring at the elbow and working towards the hands.  .  Turn off the water using a paper towel because the hand is contaminated.Rinse hands by keeping the hands well below the elbow level.

Gloves are used in the medical asepsis to protect the nurse from the pathogens. . Gloves may be worn by the nurses to protect the patients with poor resistance. They serve as a barrier when the nurse handles articles contaminated by feces or wound discharges.

The isolation gowns should be used only once and then discarded.The isolation gown should be made with long sleeves . . long skirt and high neck to cover the clothing of the wearer .


Masks should be worn only once and then discarded to ensure effective filtering of micro organisms. Masks that become wet are less effective and should be worn not more than 1-2 hours at a time . Masks are generally used to prevent the spread of micro organisms to and from patients. through the respiratory tract.


 Protective eye wear such as goggles or a face shield must be available whenever there is a risk of contaminating the mucous membrane of eye. .

     Practice good hand hygiene . Avoid having patients cough. Avoid raising dust . dusting. Move equipments away from you when brushing. . or scrubbing. Use a specifically treated clothes or a damped cloth. sneeze and breath directly on others . Do not shake linen. Keep away the soiled items and equipments touching the clothing .

.  before and after direct contact with patients. an alcohol based rub can be used.Hand washing is also required before and after using the rest rooms if the hands are not visibly soiled .

If moving from a contamination body site to a clean body site to a clean body site to a clear body site during the patient care. .   If Before and after using gloves. peripheral vascular catheter or invasive devices. Before inserting urinary catheter.

Effective hand washing requires at 15sec scrub with plane soap or warm water. After contact with objects located in the patients environment. Hands that are visibly soiled needs a longer scrub. . Although health care personal know the importance of good hand hygiene most studies that report that compliance with this simple preventive measures is difficult to achieve.

Disinfection destroys all pathogenic organisms except spores. the nurses sometimes supplies that are safe for the patient use. Severe processes are used to destroy micro organisms. Health agencies usually maintain a central supply unit where most re-usable equipment is cleaned in the home and in some small health agencies. . Most health agencies provides patient care items that are sterile then purchased and disposed after use.Cleansing . disinfection and sterilization helps to break the cycle of infection and prevent disease.

sent to a central cleaning area and sterilized or disinfected. . Used equipment may be disposed off after use or if re-usable . bagged according to the agency policy.

contaminated surface. . A sterile object or field out of the range of vision or an object held below the persons waist is contaminated. 3. The edges of sterile field or container are considered to be contaminated. Only sterile object may be placed on a sterile field. 5. When a sterile surface comes in contact with a wet. the sterile object or field becomes contaminated by capillary action. 4.1. Fluid flows in the direction of gravity. A sterile object remain sterile only when touched by another sterile object. 7. 2. A sterile object or field becomes contaminated by prolonged exposure to air. 6.

.  Instruct clients to place contaminated dressing and other disposable material containing infection body fluids in plastic bags. Instruct client about cleaning equipments using soap and water and disinfecting with an appropriate disinfectant. place needles in metal container such as soda cans and take the openings shut.  Demonstrate proper hand hygiene explaining that it should be done before and after the treatments and infected body fluids are contacted .  Instruct the clients about the signs and symptoms of wound infection.

 Hence we being Health care professionals should know regarding the universal precautions as we are the ones who play a vital role in causing and preventing the transmission of infection to the clients. So following these measures will help us to provide holistic care to the clients. .