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Pierre Cannon Sumon Nandy Amy Nandy

December 18, 2009

Problem Statement, Mission
 Problem Statement:  A clean, renewable energy source that provides baseload power without impacting the environment, regardless of seasonal weather conditions, does not exist for supplying power to African nations.  Mission:  To develop a feasible architecture and business strategy for an Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion system deployed off the African coast.

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OTEC African Deployment

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Project Team Role
 Sponsor : Lockheed Martin

 Team Role: Research Contractor
 Sponsor Focus Areas Tasks:  Feasibility study for possible OTEC site off African continent  Investigation of planning activities required for OTEC deployment  Development of location specific requirements for area  Business/Financial plan for profitability in 30 years

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OTEC African Deployment

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OTEC Description
 Oceanic Thermal Energy Conversion  OTEC utilizes the ocean’s 20ºC

natural thermal gradient between the warm surface water and the cold deep sea water to drive a Rankine Cycle  OTEC utilizes the world’s largest solar radiation collector - the ocean. The ocean contains enough energy power all of the world’s electrical needs.

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OTEC African Deployment

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Fluid pump pressurizes and pushes working fluid to evaporator 1. Heat extraction from cold-water sink to condense the working fluid in the condenser. Heat addition from the hotwater source used to evaporate the working fluid within the heat exchanger (Evaporator) OTEC African Deployment 5 .5. 4. Expanding vapor drive the turbine. Power input to pumps to start process 3. and electricity is created by a generator Cycle begins again Return to step 2 2.

OTEC Project Development Process 12/18/2009 OTEC African Deployment 6 .

Work Products House of Quality Cost Model System Description Document Business / Marketing Approach Risk Management Strategy Technology S-Curves Project Schedule CPN Simulation Model System Functionality Sequence Model System Architecture Views (SV-) 7 12/18/2009 OTEC African Deployment .

Scalable Capacity Local Community •Citizens •Local Gov’t OTEC System Special Interest Groups •Environmental •African Sustainable Energy Design Team Related Engineering Characteristics •Lockheed Martin •Oil Industry 1. High Efficiency Components •GMU SEOR Faculty •HydroPower 2.Stakeholder Needs Analysis Prioritized Stakeholder Needs 1. Utilize Commercial Components •Partners / Subcontractors 3. Replaces Non-renewable sources 4. Subsystems powered by Interfaces system power output •Ocean Environment 4. Modular design for power producing •Electric Company systems •Financing Group Competitors Engineering Characteristics Evaluated using House of Quality 12/18/2009 OTEC African Deployment 8 . Adaptable to Future Markets 5. Competitive Energy Cost 2. Minimal Time to Market 3.

1)  Habitation on Offshore Installation (ABS Pub. P45. IEEE 45 INT 1-2)  Workforce Safety:  Job Hazard Analysis (OSHA 3071)  Workplace First Aid (OSHA 3317)  Hazardous Waste Operations (OSHA 3172)  Occupational Health & Safety (OSHA 29-CFR 1910.1.5)  Designing & Construction of Floating Platforms (API RP 2FB)  Underwater Cabling:  Design & Construction (IEC 60092-350. USCG 46 CFR)  Luminaries (UL 1598A)  Electrical Installations on Shipboard (IEEE P45.3B)  Sheathing (IEC 60092-351. NAVY OPNAV 11310. 105) 12/18/2009 OTEC African Deployment 9 .Regulations & Standards  Platform Safety:  Maritime Safety (DOT. -359)  Installation & Test (IEC 60092-350. -352.

Heat Exchangers & Power Cabling)  Institution of Preferred Supplier Qualification System    Process/Product control plan to ensure quality components & participation in the auditing of their processes Suppliers will be empowered . Turbine.push high standards of quality to 2nd tier suppliers since their company reputation is at stake Standards Based Procurement . Generator.end products delivered to the OTEC system have higher reliability  Integrated Logistics Support  Maintainability support for equipment  Support team to handle any questions/issues during program execution. with trained staff to deal with all situational needs 12/18/2009 OTEC African Deployment 10 .ensure that even the 2nd tier vendors push for quality .Other Considerations  Supplier Qualification  Several key components to be sourced (Water Pump.

Trade Study Research 12/18/2009 OTEC African Deployment 11 .

Sponsor Requirements  Location shall be located off the African coast  Humanitarian efforts strengthen US ties with African nations  Sponsor has not conducted in-depth research in this area  Africa is becoming a hot topic in Renewable Resources  Locations shall provide:  At least 20° C temperature difference between surface water and 1000 m deep water  Economic Stability  Political stability (reduces program risk)  Established power infrastructure to I/F with OTEC  Little or no coastal pirating crime 12/18/2009 OTEC African Deployment 12 .

yet 75% of Political instability & poor infrastructure plague the continent 12/18/2009 landmass uninhabited  Highest birthrate of any continent with population expected to reach 2B by 2050  Fastest growing region on earth – facing most serious problems of food and water  High potential for commercial OTEC plant off western coast OTEC African Deployment 13 .Africa Continent Overview  Over 500M people.

Well established port city. 20. 3 $9.0 0. 3 1.5 2 Dar es Salaam.0 Company. High Illegal Drug Trade 1 $13.8% annual 1 Drug Trafficking 2 growth Trade. Not ideal Not possible Sea Stability Final (Pirating) 100% 10% Criteria Val Score Pirating in Niger Delta Region 1 Lagos.2 billion 2.0 1500 1. Established Captial City of Dakar 2 Varying.0 3. 1. 2 Yes.0 Yes 2 Yes.75 3 Darkar.0 Yes. (TANESCO).15 12/18/2009 OTEC African Deployment 14 .4 billion 2. Democratic.9% annual 1 growth No.S. 2 No. 2 $336. 3 1.0 1100 Yes. relations 3 $13.9 billion Medium.7 billion Medium.5% annual 1 growth No. No. Democratic GDP (2008 est. Primary Electricidade de 1. High 6.1% annual 1 Drug Trafficking 2 growth Trade.3% 3 3 annual growth 1 2.0 1.0 700 3. Mozambique 19.0 1000 Yes. 2 Yes.0 14 deg C @ 0. 1.Possible OTEC Locations Rank Criteria Weight Location Max ΔT @ 1000 m (°C) 20% Criteria Val Min Depth for ΔT=20° (m) 15% Criteria Val Established Power Distribution System (Y/N) 15% Criteria Val Installation Facilities Available (Y/N) 15% Criteria Val Political Stability 15% Criteria Val Yes. Good U. 0 Yes. 2 No. 0 Yes.) 10% Criteria Val 3 2 1 0 Exceeds Requirements Meets Requirement May work.4 5 Walvis Bay.0 1500m 0 Possible Yes.2 billion 5. Tanzania Electric Supply 2. High 7.0 Mozambique (EDM).5 Tanzania 2. Namibia 13.0 1. Nigeria 22. Very Fragmented. Senegal 18. Democratic.5 4 Maputo. Democratic 3 $20.

Technical Case  Operational Concept  Scope and Context  Architecture Evaluation  Functional Decomposition  Architecture Development  DoDAF Diagrams  Executable Architecture 12/18/2009 OTEC African Deployment 15 .

Operational Concept System Boundary Warm Seawater is External Input Control System Power Plant Power to Power Plant is System Output Cold Seawater is External Input 12/18/2009 OTEC African Deployment 16 .

OTEC System P-Diagram (Noise Factors) •Temperature •Sea state •Weather •Corrosion (Input Signals) •Water •Startup Power OTEC System (Output Functions) •Power •Water Controls •Water Pump •Fluid Pump •OTEC CPU •Turbine •Generator •Heat Exchangers •Pipes •Working fluid OTEC African Deployment 17 .

Architecture Evaluation Closed Cycle OTEC is the Most Feasible and Mature Approach 12/18/2009 OTEC African Deployment 18 .

Functional Decomposition Provide Power to Customers (Stakeholder) Personal Generator Power Plant Power Distribution (Stakeholder) Oil Company Hydroelectric Power System Boundary Operate OTEC System Generate Power Monitor Health Control OTEC System Pump Working Fluid Pump Water Condense Working Fluid Evaporate Working Fluid Drive Turbine Spin Generator Start OTEC System Run OTEC CPU Control System Stop OTEC System Monitor Generator Power Monitor Fluid Pressure Monitor Evaporator temperature Monitor Pump Power Monitor Turbine Speed Monitor Condenser temperature 12/18/2009 OTEC African Deployment 19 .

External Systems/Context Diagrams Context Diagram Regulations Performance Rules Authorization Standards Water Startup Power Status Water Operate OTEC System A0 Power Provide Power to Power Grid Consumer Power EXTERNAL 12/18/2009 OTEC African Deployment 20 .

OTEC IDEF0 12/18/2009 OTEC African Deployment 21 .

A. SV-10 CPN Tools 12/18/2009 OTEC African Deployment 22 . SV-4. Levis. SV-9 Market Analysis Architecture Behavior OV-6C. Wagenhals. SYST 621 OV-1. SV-5a Business Strategy SV-8. OV-4.Architecture Development The Six Stage Process: Structured Analysis L. OV-5 System Functional Mapping SV-3.

DoDAF Diagrams  Utilized CORE v5 to develop DoDAF views  Developed applicable DoDAF diagrams for an interoperable architecture 12/18/2009 OTEC African Deployment 23 .

OTEC System Requirements 12/18/2009 OTEC African Deployment 24 .

Executable Architecture  Leads to significant new insights into the design and operation of the OTEC system  The structure CPN model is directly related to the functionality represented in the architecture Video Simulation 12/18/2009 OTEC African Deployment 25 .

Executable Architecture Results  The executable CPN model provided additional input into the logical flow of the system  System Control function benefited the most from the model  How to can the system be adjusted to maintain optimum performance  How can the system be stopped in the event of an error  Led to additional requirements to perform control functionality 12/18/2009 OTEC African Deployment 26 .

Carbon Free Fuels  Renewable sources $100.00 $20.00 $60. Limited Resources and Political Instability in Major Supplying Countries 12/18/2009 OTEC African Deployment 27 $- .00 $80.00 $40.00 $30. Oil Industry Driving Change due to Rapidly Rising Costs.00  Renewable Market Trends 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 20052006200720082009 Data Source: OPEC  Renewable energy market will grow at 431% in the next 10 years  Oil predictions at 26% and natural gas at 46%.00 $50.00 $10.00 $70.Market Analysis Average OPEC Basket Price (USD)  World Energy Goals  Increase efficiency  Decrease dependence on foreign oil  Clean.00 $90.

Investment Strategy Alternative Investment Strategies Deployment Internal Third Party Shared Responsibility Contract Type IR&D License Agreement Power Purchase Agreement Risk High Low Med Profit High Low Med Market Introduction HI Pilot OTEC Plant Commercial OTEC Plant Establish Investment Partner Sign PPA     First commercial plant in areas with high $/kWh Investor may have funds up-front or financing agreement Installation timing may impact subsystem technology choices Utilize Patent process. and legal teaming agreements 12/18/2009 OTEC African Deployment 28 . proprietary markings.

Cost and Performance Impact  Impact Scores are on a scale of ‘0’ (No Impact) to ‘10’ (Extremely High Impact) OTEC Program Risk R15 Status ID Category Description Mitigation Strategy Creation Date Cost Impact Overall Probability Techical Schedule Imporance (%) Perform studies to determine the correct location for the OTEC Platform OTEC platform. Probability. sizing of heat 9/1/2009 Costs exchangers. & Overall Risk Importance – calculated as the sum of Schedule.Program Risks  16 Risks identified in Risk Register OTEC Program Risk Register  Each risk has a Risk Mitigation Strategy. Status. cold water pipe. and other major subsystem components OTEC African Deployment Managing R15 Cost 10 1 3 14 75 12/18/2009 29 . pumps.

99% Uptime.00 $1.00 $1. 30 year Financing at 8%  Power Co.00 $$(500.000.00 $3.00 $500.000.000.Affordability Calculations  Assumptions  100 MW Capacity.00 $3.500.00) 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 Best Case ($M) Expected Value ($M) Worst Case ($M) Net Present Value is $1. and Investor require 25% of income for internal costs  Sponsor sale price for system affordability: $307M Cash Flow Analysis  Discrete Chance Nodes  Sales Income Growth  O&M Cost Growth  Fixed Expenses  $307M Investment Cumulative Present Value Expected Value ($M) $4.00 $2.500.500.7B in 30 years 12/18/2009 OTEC African Deployment 30 .000.00 $2.

Growth Potential  Electricity Capacity Expansion  Additional OTEC systems could be installed  Current system could be upgraded to include more power modules  Clean Water System  Use the power created to create clean water  Install an “Open-Cycle” system to create both at once  Alternative Technology Solutions  Geo-OTEC to power Oil Platforms  Renewable Fuels – Ammonia as a Carbon Carrier  Agriculture – Ammonia as a fertilizer 12/18/2009 OTEC African Deployment 31 .

Consider university research 12/18/2009 OTEC African Deployment 32 . shorter CWP  Recommend Africa installation after OTEC is ‘proven’ at large scale  Alternative technology approaches increase possible installation area to include colder water regions  Way Forward Recommendations  Meet early and often with environmental policy teams regarding licensing and permits to ensure compliance and a clear path ahead  Begin talks with Nigerian government to express interest in developing OTEC near Lagos. consider:  Sell directly to city to remove “middle-man”  Platform cost savings: less-robust design. Establish a partnership with power distributor  Verify ocean temperatures & geography.Summary and Conclusions  Consider methods to reduce system cost.

Zaidi  Faculty Reviewers 12/18/2009 OTEC African Deployment 33 . Ted Johnson  Kiffin Bryan  GMU SEOR Faculty  Dr. Thomas Speller  Dr. Abbas K.Thank You  Lockheed Martin Corporation  Dr.

water) 0.55 0.69 High System Efficiency 0.12 0.12 34 12/18/2009 Column Sum OTEC African Deployment Goals Score (Indexed) Relevant Stakeholders Design Team: GMU SEOR Faculty Design Team: LM Partners /Subs Community: Local Government Interfaces: Ocean Environment Design Team: Lockheed Martin Interfaces: Financing Company Spec. Grps: Sustainable Energy Interfaces: Electric Company Community: Local Citizens Competitors: Oil Industry Relative Weight Rank Stakeholder Goals 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 1.47 0. Grps: Environmental Goals Score Row Sum .95 0.00 0.00 0.24 0. Int.31 Minimize System Capital Cost 5 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 2 3 5 55 4 2 3 3 1 3 5 4 5 5 2 5 5 47 5 5 5 5 5 4 3 5 2 1 5 0 0 45 5 4 4 2 4 2 5 5 3 3 1 3 1 42 5 5 4 5 4 3 1 5 2 1 4 0 0 39 5 4 5 4 5 5 3 3 2 0 0 0 0 36 1 2 5 3 1 5 2 1 3 1 0 0 0 24 5 5 5 4 4 0 3 0 2 0 0 0 0 28 5 5 2 4 4 0 3 0 2 0 0 0 0 25 0 3 0 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 1 3 2 22 0 1 2 0 2 5 0 0 2 1 0 0 0 13 2 1 1 2 2 1 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 12 42 42 41 39 39 34 32 30 29 18 15 14 13 29 27 26 24 23 17 17 16 13 6 4 4 3 1.40 0.44 0.45 0.Stakeholder Value Mapping Stakeholder Goals Analysis 1 2 3 4 5 6 Rank Relative Weight 7 8 9 10 11 12 1.98 Replaces Non-renewable Energy Sources 0.76 Energy Capacity (MW) meets local needs 0.93 Adaptable to Future Markets (fuels. Int.92 0.76 0.00 Lower Cost of Electricy ($/kWh) 1.82 0.65 0.71 High System Availability 0.81 Little/No Environmental Impact 0.58 0.51 0.22 Competitors: Hydro Power Industry Spec.85 0.83 0.43 At least 30 yrs System Lifetime 0.59 0.93 Scalable capacity to meet increased Demands 0.20 0.00 Minimal time to Market 0.71 0.33 Minimize Operations & Maintenance Cost 0.15 0.81 0.36 Jobs Created Locally 0.

Quality Analysis House of Quality Θ Ο ▲ ++ + ▬ ▼ Strong Relationship Weak Relationship 9 3 1 Moderate Relationshp Strong Positive Correlation Positive Correlation Negative Correlation Strong Negative Correlation Legend 12/18/2009 OTEC African Deployment 35 .

reviewed. Reconcile budgeted cost of work performed against acutal cost of work performed on weekly basis. Piracy has been an issue for some Oil Refinaries in the Niger Delta. Establish working dialog with community groups to understand issues factor these needs into development of the system. Participants include stakeholders including: partners. and other major subsystem components Leverage expertise of partners and involve stakeholders OTEC African Deployment 9/1/2009 Managing R15 Cost Managing R16 Technical 12/18/2009 . Crew are to follow the documented procedure and OSHA regulations to ensure ammonia spills are handled as mandated in regulations. customer. Work with Utility provider to ensure proper infastructure is in place prior to Power Purchase Contract is finalized and signed. Provide training material to the customer for final approval for comments prior to finalthat delivery. Ensure Interface Control firm Documents(ICDs) are stated submitted. pumps. the most feasible location can be selected. and agreed upon prior to Work to develop and agreed upon and derived requirements with customer. and internal team. Impact Creation Overall Probability Date Cost Tech Sch Importance (%) 9/1/2009 9/1/2009 9/1/2009 9/1/2009 9/1/2009 9/1/2009 9/1/2009 9/1/2009 9/1/2009 9/1/2009 9/1/2009 9/1/2009 6 5 4 2 3 2 1 3 1 6 3 3 3 1 10 9/1/2009 1 10 10 5 1 5 2 1 4 3 2 1 1 2 4 1 6 0 7 4 2 3 1 3 2 1 1 3 1 1 1 3 2 16 22 13 5 11 5 5 9 5 9 7 5 6 6 14 9 36 R01 Schedule 50 30 30 10 10 5 10 5 10 5 10 20 10 10 75 20 Managing R02 Technical Managing R03 Technical Active Plan Active Active Active R04 Technical R05 Technical R06 Cost R07 Technical R08 Technical Managing R09 Technical Managing R10 Technical Managing R11 Active Schedule/ Cost R12 Technical Managing R13 Technical Plan R14 Technical Size marine cable to handle 15% higher voltage rating that the expected peak power 9/1/2009 distrobution. IPT will serve to discuss andTraining communicate all requirements changes with team. tugs. Provide detailed requirements to local utillity provider in development phase such thatconcerns proper eqiupment may be located Work with local early environmental groups to understand and particular ecosystems in area of platform. cold water pipe. Keep open communication with customer and partners ensureInterface all parties are awaregroup of anywith schedule changes or delays. Work with NOAA toand fully understand the ocean bathemetry and average monthy temperature at depth. status will be Ensure that and Technology manuals are budgeted and Project reviewed againt logisitics team for accurracy. Perform market and early prototyping analysis. and similar marine construction crafts. Establish Engineering Change review board and engineering change proposals as a vehicle documenting upscope activities. Work with Nigerian Government to select an apporaprete fanufactoring facility. Leverage subcontractor research performend by the Lockheed Martin customer and select subcontractors with a history exemplory performance and ethics. Perform studies to determine the correct location for the OTEC platform. Work with local maintenance environmental groups to understand where Develop a strict schedule and procedurethe for particurlar the workingenvironment fluid subsystem. sizing of heat exchangers. Monitor activities and only work to to Create afor Requirements Integrated Project Team (IPT) with customer. Work with subcontracs team to identify commercially avaible ships.Risk Register Status Active ID Category Description Aggressive Schedule Incompatible Technologies Requirements Creep Meeting Requirements Training of Personnel Stability of Utility Provider Environmental Impacts Suitable platform location (Best / Selection of subcontractors Selection of major componets Suitable onshore manufacturing System security Underwater marine cable Working Fluid Leaks OTEC Platform Costs Unfamiliar Design Elements Mitigation Strategy Proactively track activities. By understanding enviornmental factors. The OTEC system will best practices to insure crew members are safe during there time on the platform. Leverage expertise of partners and involve stakeholders early in process. Schedule to monthly IPT working partners and suppliers toMaster understand technology interfacing requirements and interface protocols. dry docks.

System Functions to Component Mapping Pump Power Sensor X X Central Computer Cold Water Pipe Pressure Sensor System Components Hot Water Pipe Power Sensor ThermostatC ThermostatE System Functions Control OTEC System Start OTEC System Run OTEC CPU Control System Stop OTEC System Generate Power Pump Working Fluids Pump Water Evaporate Working Fluid Drive Turbine Spin Generator Condense Working Fluid Monitor Health Monitor Turbine Speed Monitor Generator Power Monitor Condenser Temperature Monitor Evaporator Temperature Monitor Fluid Pressure Monitor Pump Power X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X OTEC African Deployment X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X Water Pump X X Tachometer Fluid Pump Evaporator Condenser Generator Turbine .

Project Plan  WBS Developed based on Project Guidance  Tasks organized and linked in MS Project 12/18/2009 OTEC African Deployment 38 .

Wagenhals. Levis. A.Architecture Development L. SYST 621 Lecture 8 12/18/2009 OTEC African Deployment 39 .

Technology S-Curves  Key technology Focus Areas  Cold Water Pipe  Turbine Technology Cold Water Pipe Steel Fiber Glass Carbon Fiber Thermosetting Polymer Turbine Technology Standard Steel Blades Two Pressure Non-Heating Cycles Multiple Pressure ReHeating Cycles Multiple Pressure ReHeating w/Nano Coatings Advanced Steam Bottling MARKET PENTRATION Metal Matrix Composites TODAY 1993 12/18/2009 TODAY 2015 1970 2020 40 OTEC African Deployment .

CPN Model 12/18/2009 OTEC African Deployment 41 .

gmu.CPN Simulation Video http://mason.edu/~amccull1/files/OTEC_CPN_Simulation.wmv 12/18/2009 OTEC African Deployment 42 .