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- portfolio theory
- Finding the Efficient Set
- Financial management - Risk and return
- Capital Asset Prices A Theory of Market Equilibrium under Conditions of Risk.pdf
- A Review of Capital Asset Pricing Models
- The Harry Markowitz Model
- Has Diversification Stopped Working? Gevers Wealth Management LLC - January 2015 ca
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- Correlational Research
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- Portfolio Theory
- OUTPUT.doc
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Outline

Principles of Diversification Simple Diversification Diversification across industries Markowitz Diversification Portfolio Analysis with Markowitz Model Expected return and risk in Markowitz model Significance of correlation coefficient in portfolio analysis Efficient frontier Portfolio Analysis with Negative weights Portfolio Analysis with Riskless Asset

Principles of Diversification

Why do people invest?

Investment positions are undertaken with the goal of earning some expected return. Investors seek to minimize inefficient deviations from the expected rate of return

Diversification is essential to the creation of an efficient investment, because it can reduce the variability of returns around the expected return. A single asset or portfolio of assets is considered to be efficient if no other asset or portfolio of assets offers higher expected return with the same (or lower) risk, or lower risk with the same (or higher) expected return.

It reduces risk to an undiversifiable level. It eliminates only company-specific risk.

Simple diversificationrandomly selected stocks, equally weighted investments Diversification across industriesinvesting in stock across different industries such transportation, utilities, energy, consumer electronics, airlines, computer hardware, computer software, etc.

Markowitz Diversification

Combining assets that are less than perfectly positively correlated in order to reduce portfolio risk without sacrificing portfolio returns. It is more analytical than simple diversification and considers assets correlations. The lower the correlation among assets, the more will be risk reduction through Markowitz diversification Example of Markotwitzs Diversification The emphasis in Markowitzs Diversification is on portfolio expected return and portfolio risk

A weighted average of the expected returns of individual securities in the portfolio. The weights are the proportions of total investment in each security n E(Rp) = wi x E(Ri) i=1 Where n is the number of securities in the portfolio Example:

Portfolio Risk

Measured by portfolio standard deviation Not a simple weighted average of the standard deviations of individual securities in the portfolio. Why? How to compute portfolio standard deviation?

Significance of Covariance

An absolute measure of the degree of association between the returns for a pair of securities. The extent to which and the direction in which two variables co-vary over time Example:

Why Correlation?

What is correlation? Perfect positive correlation

The returns have a perfect direct linear relationship Knowing what the return on one security will do allows an investor to forecast perfectly what the other will do

Perfect inverse linear relationship

Zero correlation

No relationship between the returns on two securities

Combining securities with perfect positive correlation or high positive correlation does not reduce risk in the portfolio Combining two securities with zero correlation reduces the risk of the portfolio. However, portfolio risk cannot be eliminated Combining two securities with perfect negative correlation could eliminate risk altogether

Portfolio Analysis

Job of a portfolio manager is to use these risk and return statistics in choosing/combining assets in such a way that will result in minimum risk at a given level of return, also called efficient portfolios Select investment weights in such a manner that it results in a portfolio that has minimum risk at a desired level of return, i.e., efficient portfolios As we change desired level of return, our efficient combination of securities in the portfolio will change Therefore, we can get more than one efficient portfolio at different risk-return combinations The concept of Efficient Frontier

Efficient Frontier

Is the locus of points in risk-return space having the maximum return at each risk level or the least possible risk at each level of desired return Presents a set of portfolios that have the the maximum return for every given level of risk or the minimum risk for a given level of return As an investor you will target a point along the efficient frontier based on your utility function and your attitude towards risk. Can a portfolio on the efficient frontier dominate any other portfolio on the efficient frontier? Examples

The slope of the efficient frontier curve decreases steadily as we move upward (from left to right) on the efficient frontier What does this decline in slope means?

Adding equal increments of risk gives you diminishing increments of expected return

An individual investors utility curves specify the trade-offs investor is willing to make between expected return and risk In conjunction with the efficient frontier, these utility curves determine which particular portfolio on the efficient frontier best suits an individual investor.

Can two investors will choose the same portfolio from the efficient set?

Only if their utility curves are identical

One which has the highest utility for a given investor given by the tangency between the efficient frontier and the curve with highest possible utility

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