# Chapter 14

Lot-by-Lot Acceptance Sampling for Attributes

Introduction to Statistical Quality Control, 4th Edition

14-1. The Acceptance-Sampling Problem
• Acceptance sampling is concerned with inspection and decision making regarding products. • Three aspects of sampling are important: 1. Involves random sampling of an entire “lot” 2. Accept and Reject Lots (does not achieve quality improvement) “Lot sentencing” 3. Audit tool
Introduction to Statistical Quality Control, 4th Edition

100% inspection 3.14-1. Acceptance sampling Introduction to Statistical Quality Control. Accept with no inspection 2. The Acceptance-Sampling Problem • Three approaches to lot sentencing: 1. 4th Edition .

The Acceptance-Sampling Problem Why Acceptance Sampling and Not 100% Inspection? • Testing is destructive • Cost of 100% inspection is high • 100% inspection is not feasible (require too much time) • If vendor has excellent quality history Introduction to Statistical Quality Control.14-1. 4th Edition .

rejecting “good” lots. The Acceptance-Sampling Problem 14-1. • Less information generated • Requires planning and documentation Introduction to Statistical Quality Control.1 Advantages and Disadvantages of Sampling Advantages • Less expensive • Reduced damage • Reduces the amount of inspection error Disadvantages • Risk of accepting “bad” lots.14-1. 4th Edition .

Sequential-sampling Introduction to Statistical Quality Control.2 Types of Sampling Plans • There are variables sampling plans and attribute sampling plans (this chapter concentrates on attributes) 1. Double-sampling plan 3. Multiple-sampling plan 4. Single sampling plan 2. The Acceptance-Sampling Problem 14-1.14-1. 4th Edition .

3 Lot Formation • Considerations before inspection: – – – Lots should be homogeneous Larger lots more preferable than smaller lots Lots should be conformable to the materialshandling systems used in both the vendor and consumer facilities. 4th Edition .14-1. The Acceptance-Sampling Problem 14-1. Introduction to Statistical Quality Control.

If any judgment methods are used to select the sample.14-1. Introduction to Statistical Quality Control. • • Random samples are not used. bias can be introduced. the statistical basis of the acceptancesampling procedure is lost. The Acceptance-Sampling Problem 14-1. 4th Edition .4 Random Sampling • The units selected for inspection should be chosen at random.

reject the lot. n. Single-Sampling Plans For Attributes 14-2. Introduction to Statistical Quality Control. Say there are N total items in a lot.1 Definition of a Single-Sampling Plan • A single sampling plan is defined by sample size. 4th Edition • • • • • .thus a single-sampling plan.14-2. Choose n of the items at random. N = lot size n = sample size c = acceptance number d = observed number of defectives The acceptance or rejection of the lot is based on the results from a single sample . and the acceptance number c. If at least c of the items are unacceptable.

14-2. The OC curve shows the probability that a lot submitted with a certain fraction defective will be either accepted or rejected. Introduction to Statistical Quality Control. The OC curve plots the probability of accepting the lot versus the lot fraction defective.2 The OC Curve • The operating-characteristic (OC) curve measures the performance of an acceptance-sampling plan. Single-Sampling Plans For Attributes 14-2. 4th Edition • • .

3 Designing a Single-Sampling Plan with a Specified OC Curve • • • Let the probability of acceptance be 1 . for lots with fraction defective p1.14-2. 4th Edition . Let the probability of acceptance be  for lots with fraction defective p2. Single-Sampling Plans For Attributes 14-2. Introduction to Statistical Quality Control. Assume binomial sampling (with type-B OC curves) is appropriate.

14-2. 4th Edition .3 Designing a Single-Sampling Plan with a Specified OC Curve • The sample size n and acceptance number c are the solution to c n! d 1    p1 (1  p1 ) n d d  0 d!( n  d )! c n! n d   pd ( 1  p ) 2 2 d  0 d!( n  d )! Introduction to Statistical Quality Control. Single-Sampling Plans For Attributes 14-2.

4th Edition . Introduction to Statistical Quality Control. respectively.06  = 0.01  = 0.05 p2 = 0.14-2.10 N = 1000 • Using computer software or a graphical approach (using an appropriate binomial nomograph) it can be shown that the necessary values of n and c are 85 and 2. Single-Sampling Plans For Attributes Example • – – – – – Consider constructing a sampling plan for which p1 = 0.

1 Description of the Standard • Developed during World War II • MIL STD 105E is the most widely used acceptance-sampling system for attributes • Gone through four revisions since 1950.14-4.4 ISO 2859) 14-4. Military Standard 105E (ANSI/ASQC Z1. • MIL STD 105E is a collection of sampling schemes making it an acceptance-sampling system Introduction to Statistical Quality Control. 4th Edition .

4 ISO 2859) 14-4. 4th Edition . Reduced inspection Introduction to Statistical Quality Control. Double 3. Military Standard 105E (ANSI/ASQC Z1. Tightened inspection 3. Single 2.14-4. Multiple • Provisions for each type of sampling plan include 1. Normal inspection 2.1 Description of the Standard • Three types of sampling are provided for: 1.

major defects. • Different AQLs may be designated for different types of defects. • Tables for the standard provide are used to determine the appropriate sampling scheme. Introduction to Statistical Quality Control. • Defects include critical defects. and minor defects.1 Description of the Standard • The acceptable quality level (AQL) is a primary focal point of the standard • The AQL is generally specified in the contract or by the authority responsible for sampling. Military Standard 105E (ANSI/ASQC Z1.14-4. 4th Edition .4 ISO 2859) 14-4.

14-4.4 ISO 2859) 14-4.1 Description of the Standard • Switching Rules – Normal to tightened – Tightened to normal – Normal to reduced – Reduced to normal – Discontinuance of inspection Introduction to Statistical Quality Control. 4th Edition . Military Standard 105E (ANSI/ASQC Z1.

Military Standard 105E (ANSI/ASQC Z1. Introduction to Statistical Quality Control. double.2 Procedure 1.4 ISO 2859) 14-4. Choose the inspection level 3. Enter the appropriate table to find the type of plan to be used. Determine the appropriate type of sampling plan to use (single. Determine the corresponding normal and reduced inspection plans to be used when required. 4th Edition .14-4. 7. multiple) 6. Choose the AQL 2. Determine the lot size 4. Find the appropriate sample size code letter from Table 14-4 5.

• From Table 14-5 for single-sampling plans under normal inspection. Say we wanted to generate normal single-sampling plans. 4th Edition . (and general inspection level II) Table 14-4 indicates the appropriate sample size code letter is K. Military Standard 105E (ANSI/ASQC Z1. • For lots of size 2000. Introduction to Statistical Quality Control. c = 2. the normal inspection plan is n = 125. The AQL is 0.14-4.4 ISO 2859) Example • Suppose a product is submitted in lots of size N = 2000.65%.

4. Switching rules from normal to tightened and from tightened to normal are subject to some criticism. 5.4 ISO 2859) 14-4. A common abuse of the standard is failure to use the switching rules at all. The sample sizes are related to the lot sizes. Introduction to Statistical Quality Control. MIL STD 105E is AQL-oriented 2. The sample sizes selected for use in MIL STD 105E are limited 3.14-4.3 Discussion • There are several points about the standard that should be emphasized: 1. 4th Edition . Military Standard 105E (ANSI/ASQC Z1.

• Differences include: 1. and “percent nonconforming” is used. Switching rules were changed slightly to provide an option for reduced inspection without the use of limit numbers Several tables that show measures of scheme performance were introduced A section was added describing proper use of individual sampling plans when extracted from the system. Introduction to Statistical Quality Control.3 Discussion • ANSI/ASQC Z1. Terminology “nonconformity”.4 ISO 2859) 14-4. A figure illustrating switching rules was added. 5. 4th Edition .4 or ISO 2859 is the civilian standard counterpart of MIL STD 105E. 3.14-4. Military Standard 105E (ANSI/ASQC Z1. 2. “nonconformance”. 4.