Lecture: Fungi


Strange but True: The Largest Organism on Earth Is a Fungus

      

….a relative out west that occupies some 2,384 acres (965 hectares) of soil in Oregon's Blue Mountains. Put another way, this humongous fungus would encompass 1,665 football fields, or nearly four square miles (10 square kilometers) of turf. HIDDEN GIANT: A small outcropping of honey mushrooms on the surface hide the largest known organism on Earth, a fungus infesting the woods of eastern Oregon. Image: USDA FOREST SERVICE, PACIFIC NORTHWEST RESEARCH STATION


Impacts, Issues: Food, Forests, and Fungi
 Lichen

– a vegetative body in which a fungus and one or more photosynthetic organisms live together in mutual dependency (mutualism) products and remains enrich nutrient-poor soil

 Metabolic

Impacts, Issues: Food, Forests, and Fungi
 Lichens

are sensitive to pollution and are on the decline as useful indicators of deteriorating environmental conditions

 Act

Food, Forests, and Fungi

Fig. 24-1a, p.390

Food, Forests, and Fungi

Fig. 24-1b, p.390

Food, Forests, and Fungi
Reindeer mainly eat lichens in winter, especially reindeer moss.


 Combination

of fungus and photosynthetic organism(s) are symbionts is a mutualism

 Organisms

 Relationship

Ecological Roles of Lichens

Survive in hostile habitats and colonize new habitats

Absorb mineral ions from substrates

Cyanobacteria-containing lichens can fix nitrogen

Convert atmospheric nitrogen to a form plants can use

Early Warning Systems
 Lichens

are very sensitive to deteriorating environmental conditions toxins but cannot get rid of them

 Absorb  Can

serve as environmental indicators

 “Fungus-root”  Mutualism

between a fungus and a tree

root  Fungus gets sugars from plant  Plant gets minerals from fungus  Many plants do not grow well without mycorrhizae

Photo Micrograph

“Ectomycorrhizas. This group of mycorrhiza occurs mainly on roots of woody plants and only occasionally on herbaceous and graminaceous perennial plants. Some temperate tree species like beech, oak, spruce and pine cannot survive without ectomycorrhiza” http://soil-environment.blogspot.com /2010/08/role-of-mycorrhiza -in-mineral-nutrition.html

Truffle Hunting in Tuscany http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GOJEv4JblHw
http://slowfoodwaltz.blogspot.com/2009/01/ wonderful-world-of-truffles-why-truffle.html **In Italy, a truffle dog is taught to retrieve a ball, then Gorgonzola cheese. Then the cheese is hidden and the dog has to sniff it out. It then get's rewarded for doing so. Finally, a small truffle is substituted for the cheese- you get the picture.

For sale: http://www.blackstargourmet.com/Winter-Black-French-Truffles-B Truffle Farming in the U.S.: http://www.uky.edu/Ag/NewCrops/introsheets/

Fungi as Decomposers
 Break

down organic compounds in their surroundings out extracellular digestion and absorption benefit because some carbon and nutrients are released

 Carry

 Plants

A Variety of Roles
 Pathogens
 Spoilers  Used

of food supplies

to manufacture

Antibiotics Cheeses

Fungi Are Heterotrophs
 Cannot

carry out photosynthesis  Must acquire organic molecules from the environment  Most are saprobes
Get nutrients from nonliving organic matter  Some are parasites  Extract nutrients from a living host

The Mycelium
 Most

fungi produce a multicellular

feeding structure called a mycelium
 It

consists of branching tubular

cells called hyphae
 Cell

walls contain chitin

The Mycelium

one cell (part of one hypha of the mycelium)


Extracellular Digestion
 Mycelium  Tips

grows into food source

of hyphae secrete digestive enzymes break down organic material into

 Enzymes

simple forms that can be absorbed by hyphae

Fungal Life Cycle
 No

motile stage and sexual spores produced

 Asexual  Spores  In

germinate after dispersal

multicelled species, spores give rise to

a new mycelium

Fungal Classification
 Fungi

known from 900 mya  56,000 known species  Three major lineages:
  

Zygomycota Ascomycota (sac fungi) Basidiomycota (club fungi)

 Imperfect

fungi are those not yet


Fungal Classification
zygomycetes sac fungi club fungi

chytrids microsporidians


amoeboid ancestors

Fig. 24-2, p.392

Fungal Classification

Fig. 24-3a, p.392

Fungal Classification

Fig. 24-3b, p.392

Diversity of Club Fungi
 25,000

species  Mushrooms  Shelf fungi  Coral fungi  Stinkhorns  Puffballs

Diversity of Club Fungi

Fig. 24-3c, p.392

Diversity of Club Fungi

Fig. 24-3d, p.392

Diversity of Club Fungi

Fig. 24-3e, p.392

Fungal Spores
 Made

up of one or a few cells  Can resist dehydration  Remain dormant until environmental conditions favor germination  Produced asexually or sexually  Fungal classification is based on type of sexual spores

Fungal Spores

Fig. 24-4a, p.393

Blood Samples Show Deadly Frog Fungus at Work in the Wild
“High levels of an aquatic,

chytrid fungus called Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) disrupt fluid and electrolyte
balance in wild frogs, the scientists say, severely depleting the frogs' sodium and potassium levels and causing cardiac arrest and death.” http://www.nsf.gov/news/news_summ.jsp?cntn_id=123871

skin surface

Fungal Spores

Fig. 24-4b, p.393

Types of Sexual Spores
 Club

fungi make basidiospores on the surface of a club-shaped cell (basidium) fungi produce ascospores inside a parent cell called an ascus hyphae fuse to produce a thick-walled zygospore

 Sac

 Zygomycete

Imperfect Fungi
 Species

have never been observed to form sexual spores do make asexual spores

 Many

 Predatory

fungus Arthrobtrys dactyloides captures prey in nooselike hyphae

Imperfect Fungi
roundworm part of a hypha that formed a nooselike ring around the worm

Fig. 24-5, p.393

A Zygomycete Life Cycle - 1
 Rhizopus

stolinifer can reproduce sexually or asexually reproduction occurs, then hyphae of mating strains meet point of contact, hyphae form gametangia

 Sexual

 At

A Zygomycete Life Cycle - 2

Gametangia tips fuse; form zygosporangium
Nuclei inside zygosporangium fuse to produce a diploid zygospore Zygospore may remain dormant Meiosis of zygote nuclei produces haploid spores

 

Life Cycle of Rhizopus
zygospore (2n)

nuclear fusion

Diploid Stage Haploid Stage

meiosis spores (n)

germinating zygospore young zygospore a zygospore b spore sac

gametangia fusing

spores (n)

mycelium develops from germinated spore

contact between hyphae of two mating strains



Fig. 24-6a, p.394

Club Fungus Life Cycle - 1
 Hyphal

cells of two mating strains meet fuses to form dikaryotic structure (basidiocarp) forms

 Cytoplasm

 Reproductive

Club Fungus Life Cycle - 2
  

Spore-bearing structures form on basidiocarp Nuclei fuse to produce a zygote Zygote undergoes meiosis to produce haploid spores Spores give rise to haploid mycelia

Club Fungus Life Cycle
nuclear fusion Diploid Stage Haploid Stage meiosis

clubshaped structures with two nuclei (n + n) gills
cap stalk

Spores (n) form

Spores released Germination, mycelium forms

“dikaryotic” (n + n) mycelium

cytoplasmic fusion
Fig. 24-7, p. 407

Sac Fungi (Ascomycota)
 Most

diverse group (30,000 species)  Produce asexual spores called conidia  Produce sexual ascospores in sac-shaped cells call asci  Multicelled species form reproductive structures called ascocarps that enclose the asci

diploid (2n) hyphal cell nuclear fusion Diploid Stage Haploid Stage meiosis in ascus

cytoplasmic fusion

asexual spores
hyphae of mating strain A hyphae of mating strain a asexual spores

two A + two a ascospores (n) mitosis

four A + four a ascospores dispersal, germination

Fig. 24-8, p.396

Example of Sac Fungus

Sarcoscypha coccinia, scarlet cup fungus

Ascospores on the inner cup surface

Fig. 24-8, p.396

Example of Sac Fungus

Fig. 24-9b, p.396


Example of Sac Fungus

Fig. 24-9c, p.396

“Penicillium is a genus of ascomycetous fungi of major importance in the natural environment as well as food and drug production. Members of the genus produce penicillin, a molecule that is used as an antibiotic, which kills or stops the growth of certain kinds of bacteria inside the body.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Penicillium

Example of Sac Fungus

Fig. 24-9d, p.396

Saccharomyces cerevisiae
True yeast Fermentation Sugar  Carbon dioxide and Ethanol Used as a model organism in the study of cell biology

In the US, corn is the major feedstock ethanol production.

Fungal Foes
 Most

fungi are vital decomposers and plant symbionts proportion are plant pathogens

 Small  Tiny

minority adversely affect human health

Plant Pathogens

Ascomycetes are responsible for

Chestnut blight

Dutch elm disease
Apple scab

Basiomycetes cause smuts of cereal grains

Fig. 24-10b, p.397

Human Pathogens & Toxins

Ascomycetes cause  Histoplasmosis  Valley fever  Candida (“yeast”) infections  Ringworm  Athlete’s foot  Ergotism  Eating some basidiomycetes can be fatal

 Respiratory

disease  Caused by inhalation of spores of Ajellomyces capsulatus  Spores are found in soil, especially where there are bird or bat droppings  Can be fatal in people with weakened immune systems

“Histoplasmosis is a fungal infection caused by inhaling dust from spore-infected bird droppings. The acute form is treated with antifungal medication.”


Claviceps purpurea
 Ascomycete  Produces

that parasitizes cereal grains


Some have been used medically

Ingestion causes ergotism

Hallucinations, vomiting, diarrhea

Ergotism and the Salem Witch Trials
“Human poisoning due to the consumption of rye bread made from ergotinfected grain was common in Europe in the Middle Ages. The epidemic was known as Saint Anthony's fire,[10] or ignis sacer, and some historical events, such as the Great Fear in France during the Revolution have been linked to ergot poisoning.[18] Linnda R. Caporael posited in 1976 that the hysterical symptoms of young women that had spurred the Salem witch trials had been the result of consuming ergot-tainted rye.”  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ergot
 

Link to details of Linda R. Caporael’s hypothesis: http://customers.hbci.com/~wenonah/history/ergot.htm

Lichen: A Composite Organism
 Fungal

mycobiont plus a photosynthetic photobiont
component usually is ascomycete is cyanobacteria or green

 Fungal

 Photobiont

 Fungus

composes bulk of the structure


Fig. 24-11a, p.398


Fig. 24-11b, p.398


Fig. 24-11c, p.398

Lichen Cross Section
dispersal fragment (cells of fungus and of photosynthetic species)

outer layer of fungal cells photosynthetic species inner layer of loosely woven hyphae outer layer of fungal cells

Fig. 24-11d, p.398

 Mutualistic

fungus and tree roots

Ectomycorrhizae  Hyphae form net around roots  Common in temperate forests  Endomycorrhizae  Fungus actually enters root cell  Form in 80% of vascular plants  Zygomyetes are the fungal partners


Fig. 24-12a, p.399

small, young tree root

hyphal strands

Fig. 24-12b, p.399


Fig. 24-12c, p.399

Fungi in Decline?
 Numbers

and kinds of mushrooms are

declining  Decline correlates with rising air pollution  If the fungal symbionts of trees and other plants are killed, ecosystems will be disrupted

Fig. 24-13, p.401

“Fungal Shotgun
“Pilobolus, known the “Fungal Shotgun”, is a rapidly growing fungus, which inhabits dung. It can fully develop within a week of spore germination. It is a member of the lower fungi and produces a sac-like structure called a sporangium, which contains the spores. This particular sporangium has a lens like vesicle with a light sensitive “retina” at its base. The fungus is positively phototropic causing the sporangium to be aimed towards any light source. Pressure builds up inside the structure, which supports the sporangium until it is more than 100 pounds per square inch. This causes the vesicle to explode propelling the sporangial head in excess of 2 meters. There is mucilaginous substance on the sporangium, which allows it to stick to whatever it lands on.”

The Fastest Living Thing on Earth


The Dance Troup

Fig. 24-14, p.401

Fly agaric (Amanita muscaria)

Fig. 24-15 p.401

Fig. 24-15b, p.401

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