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Amylase

a Biochemistry Report Click to edit Master subtitle style

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Amylase

Alpha-1-4 Glucan-4-Glucohydrolase It is an important enzyme in the physiologic digestion of starch. Catalyzes the breakdown of starch and glycogen Smallest enzyme in size. Filtered by the renal glomerulus and also appears in the urine. It is the earliest pancreatic marker. Normal serum contains both salivary and pancreatic AMS. Normal Amylase Creatinine Ratio: 1%-4%

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Amylase
Two kinds of Amylase (AMS): Salivary Amylase Pancreatic Amylase Isoenzymes: S-Type (Ptyalin) P-Type (Amylopsin)

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Sources of Amylase
Amylase can be found in the: Acinar Cells of the pancreas and the salivary gland. It can also be found on adipose tissue, fallopian tubes, small intestine and skeletal muscles, albeit few.

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Diagnostic Significance:

Increased AMS blood levels are accompanied by increased urinary excretions. In renal failure, increased blood levels are accompanied by decreased urine concentration. Salivary gland inflammation or Parotitis due to mumps can also release AMS into the circulation.

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Acute Pancreatitis

Acute pancreatitis is sudden swelling and inflammation of the pancreas. In it, Amylase levels rise 2-12 hours after onset of attack, peak at 24 hours, and normalize within 3-5 days. Amylase in urine remains elevated for up to 7 days. Amylase-Creatinine Ratio: > 4%, up to 15%

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Macroamylasemia

Macroamylasemia is the presence of an abnormal substance called macroamylase in the blood. Amylase + Immunoglobulin
(too large to be filtered across the glomerulus)

Because of its size, macroamylase is filtered very slowly from the blood by the kidneys.

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Methods of Determination

Samples with high activity of amylase should be diluted with NaCl to prevent inactivation. Many endogenous inhibitors of amylase, such as wheat germ, are present in the serum.

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Processes
1. .

Saccharogenic measures the amount of reducing sugar produced by the hydrolysis of starch in the usual glucose methods.

2. .

Amyloclastic measures amylase activity by following the decreases in substrate concentration. (degradation of starch)

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Processes
3.

Chromogenic measures amylase activity by the increase in color intensity of the soluble dye-substrate solution produced in the reaction. Coupled Enzyme measures amylase activity by a continuous-monitoring technique.

4.

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Abnormalities
Abnormalities associated with increased Amylase production:

Acute Pancreatitis Ectopic Pregnancy Peptic Ulcers Alcoholism Mumps

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