HUMAN DEVELOPMENT

Ray Ann B. Cagampang, PhL., M.A.

BASIC CONCEPTS
• Developmental Psychology – the branch of psychology that explores physical, emotional, cognitive • Growth – refers to quantitative changes
– (increase in size and structure)

• Development – refers to qualitative changes
– A progressive series of orderly,

BASIC CONCEPTS
• Maturation – natural growth or change that unfolds in a fixed sequence according to one’s hereditary endowment

BASIC CONCEPTS
• Learning – development that comes from exercise and effort

MANAGER TEST
• Are you a manager? The following short test consists of four short questions which test your intelligence and the result tells you, whether you are truly a manager or a child. • The questions are easy (the answers may be not):

MANAGER TEST

• 1. How do you put a giraffe into a re • Correct Answer: Open the refrigerator, put the giraffe in, • This question tests whether you are doin

MANAGER TEST

• 2. How do you put an elephant into a

• Correct Answer: Open the refrigerator, take out the giraf • This tests your ability to think through th

MANAGER TEST
• 3. The Lion King is hosting an animal conference, all the animals attend except one. Which animal does not attend? • Correct Answer: The elephant. • The elephant is in the refrigerator. This tests your memory.

MANAGER TEST

• 4. There is a river you must cross. But it i

• Correct Answer: You swim across. All the crocodiles are attending the anima

• This tests whether you learn quickly from your mistakes. Ac • But many preschoolers got several correct answers. Anders

MATURATION PRICIPLES
1) Learning depends upon the biological basis being present as well as the opportunity to practice 2) Chronological age and maturational age although related are not synonymous 3) Although overall maturational development is forward and continuous, plateaus and regression in the child’s

MATURATION PRICIPLES
1) The more biologically mature a child is, the easier for him to learn a given task 2) The child usually gives signals indicating maturational readiness for a given task 3) The child’s maturational development progresses from general to specific behavior 4) Training given after the

STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT
STAGE PRENATAL PERIOD INFANCY PERIOD TODDLER PERIOD PRESCHOOL PERIOD MIDDLE CHILDHOOD ADOLESCENCE YOUNG ADULTHOOD MIDDLE ADULTHOOD LATE ADULTHOOD APPROXIMATE AGES CONCEPTION TO BIRTH BIRTH TO 1 YR 2 – 3 YRS 3 – 6 YRS 6 – 12 YRS 12 – 18 YRS 18 – 40 YRS 40 – 65 YRS 65 YRS AND OLDER

PRENATAL DEVELOPMENT
• Fertilization – the union of a sperm and an ovum • Zygote – a new cell formed from a sperm and an ovum

PRENATAL DEVELOPMENT
• Germinal Stage – the stage of prenatal development that spans the period from fertilization to implantation • Uterus – the female reproductive organ in which the fertilized ovum becomes implanted and develop to term

PRENATAL DEVELOPMENT

• •

Implantation is when the fertilized egg reaches the uterus and begins a period of rapid growth. Implantation occurs 3-5 days after conception.

PRENATAL DEVELOPMENT
• Embryonic Stage – stage of prenatal development from implantation through about the eight week of pregnancy during which the major organ systems begin to form • Embryo – the developing organism from the 14th day after fertilization until the end of the second month after conception

PRENATAL DEVELOPMENT
• Neural Tube – the area in the embryo from which the nervous system develops • Amniotic sac – the uterine sac that contains the fetus • Placenta – the organ that provides for the exchange of nutrients and waste materials between mother and fetus

PRENATAL DEVELOPMENT

PRENATAL DEVELOPMENT
• Fetal Stage – the stage of prenatal development in which the fetus develops, beginning around the 9th week of pregnancy and lasting until the birth of the child • Fetus – The developing organism from the third month after conception until birth

• Teratogen – an environmental influence or agent that may harm the developing embryo or fetus
• • • • • • Maternal Nutrition Vitamin Deficiency Maternal Health Drugs X-rays Maternal Emotions

FACTORS AFFECTING PRENATAL DEVELOPMENT

• Alcohol

FACTORS AFFECTING PRENATAL DEVELOPMENT

• Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) – a syndrome caused by maternal use of alcohol during pregnancy in which the child shows developmental delays and facial deformities

• Smoking
• Lead to miscarriage, premature birth, SIDS, reduced attention span, lower IQ

FAS

• Neonate – a newly-born individual especially in its first month of life • Reflex – an unlearned, automatic response to a particular stimulus

INFANCY AND CHILDHOOD DEVELOPMENT

INFANT REFLEXES
• Rooting Reflex – the reflexive turning of the newborn’s head in the direction of a touch on its cheek

INFANT REFLEXES
• Eyeblink reflex – the reflexive blinking of the eyes that protects the newborn from bright light and foreign objects • Sucking reflex – rhythmic sucking in response to stimulation of the tongue or mouth

INFANT REFLEXES
• Moro reflex – elicited by a sudden noise or loss of support, in which the infant extends its arms, arches its back, and brings its arms toward each other as though attempting to grab hold of someone.

INFANT REFLEXES
• Palmar Grasp Reflex – the reflexive curling of the infant’s fingers around an object that touches its palm. • Babinski reflex – the reflexive fanning out and curling of the infant’s toes and inward twisting of its foot upon stroking the sole of the foot.

SENSORY AND PERCEPTUAL ABILITY
• Infants have a 20/400 vision at birth which corrects to about 20/20 by age five

Newborn

At Two Months

At Six Months

SENSORY AND PERCEPTUAL ABILITY
• Depth perception develops by around 6 months • Visual Cliff Apparatus – consists of a glass panel covering what appears to be a sudden drop-off

SENSORY AND PERCEPTUAL ABILITY
• Particularly sensitive to sounds falling within the frequency of the human voice • 5 to 6 days of age, infants can detect their mother’s odor • Newborns show preference for sweetness • Babbling becomes prevalent around the 5th month
– A verbal practice that lays the foundation

COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT
• Jean Piaget - a Swiss philosopher and
psychologist, well known for his work studying children, his theory of cognitive development and for his epistemological view called " genetic epistemology."

LEAP FROG TEST

PIAGET’S COGNITIVE THEORY
• Schema – a mental framework for understanding or acting on the environment • Adaptation – the process of adjustment that enables people to function more effectively in meeting the demands they face in the environment
• Assimilation – the process of incorporating new objects or

PIAGET’S COGNITIVE THEORY
• Sensorimotor Stage
• The first stage of cognitive development when the infant’s mental activity is confined to sensory perception and motor skills • Birth to Two Years • Object Permanence – the recognition that objects continue to exist even if they have disappeared from sight

PIAGET’S COGNITIVE THEORY
• Preoperational Stage
• the second stage of cognitive development, during which children begin to use symbols to represent things that are not present • 2 – 7 years • Symbolic representation – a term referring to the use of words to represent objects and describe experiences • Egocentrism – the tendency to see

PIAGET’S COGNITIVE THEORY
• Animistic thinking – the child’s belief that inanimate objects have living quality • Conservation – the ability to recognize that the important properties of a substance remains constant despite changes in shape, length or position
• Irreversibility – the inability to reverse the direction of a sequence of events to their starting point • Centration – the tendency to focus on

PIAGET’S COGNITIVE THEORY

PIAGET’S COGNITIVE THEORY
• Concrete Operational Stage
• The third stage of cognitive development, during which children’s thinking is no longer dominated by visual appearances • 7 – 11 • Becomes less egocentric • Conservation is developed • Can perform simple logical operations but only when tried to concrete example.

PIAGET’S COGNITIVE THEORY
• If A is greater than B and B is greater than C, is A greater than C?

PIAGET’S COGNITIVE THEORY

Children will probably see a group of playing dolphins. But adults see usually something else. It's called Message of Love from the Dolphins (by Sandro Del-Prete).

PIAGET’S COGNITIVE THEORY
• Formal Operational Stage
• The fourth stage in cognitive development when abstract thinking first appears • Begins at 11 or 12 • Ability to think logically about abstract ideas • Generate hypotheses • Think deductively • Yet not all children, nor all adults,

PIAGET’S COGNITIVE THEORY
• She-goat, Wolf and Cabbage
– A farmer is returning from market, where he bought a she-goat, a wolf and cabbage. On the way home he must cross a river. His boat is little, allowing him to take only one of the three things. He can't keep the she-goat and the cabbage together (because the she-goat would eat it), nor the she-goat with the wolf (because the she-goat would be eaten). How shall the farmer get everything on the other side (without any harm)?

PIAGET’S COGNITIVE THEORY

solution Take the she-goat to the other side. Go back, take cabbage, unload it on the other side where you load the she-goat, go back and unload it. Take the wolf to the other side where you unload it. Go back for the she-goat.

PIAGET’S COGNITIVE THEORY
• The Man in the Elevator
• A man lives on the tenth floor of a building. Every morning he takes the elevator down to the lobby and leaves the building. In the evening, he gets into the elevator, and, if there is someone else in the elevator - or if it was raining that day - he goes back to his floor directly. Otherwise, he goes to the seventh floor and walks up three flights of stairs to his apartment. Can you explain why?

PIAGET’S COGNITIVE THEORY
• The man is of short stature. He can't reach the upper elevator buttons, but he can ask people to push them for him. He can also push them with his umbrella.

PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT
• Erik Homburger Erikson (June 15, 1902 – May 12, 1994) was a German-American developmental psychologist and psychoanalyst known for his theory on social development of human beings.

• Trust versus Mistrust

ERIKSON’S PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT

• Developing a basic sense of trust in the caregiver and the environment • Birth to 1 yr

• Autonomy versus Shame and Doubt
• Children learn to exercise will, to make choices and to control themselves, or they become uncertain and doubt that they can do things by themselves

• Initiative versus Guilt

ERIKSON’S PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT

• Children learn to initiate activities and enjoy their accomplishments, acquiring direction and purpose. Or, if not allowed, they feel guilty for their attempts at independence. • 3 – 6 yrs

• Industry versus Inferiority

ERIKSON’S PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT

• Children develop a sense of industry and curiosity and are eager to learn – or they feel inferior and lose interest in the tasks before them • 6 – puberty (12) yrs

FOUNDATIONS OF SOCIAL BEHAVIOR
• Imitation – child becomes a part of the social group by imitating others • Shyness – child can distinguish between familiar people and stranger • Dependency – the more the child is cared for by one person, the more dependent he becomes on that person

PARENTING STYLES

FOUNDATIONS OF SOCIAL BEHAVIOR
• Acceptance of Authority – child learns to conform to the request of those who are in authority • Rivalry – depends on the associations with other children • Attention Seeking – child tries to get the attention of adults by crying, grabbing or hitting them and doing forbidden things.

FOUNDATIONS OF SOCIAL BEHAVIOR
• Social Cooperation – child tends to participate in group activities or gatherings • Resistant Behavior – unless the child is given opportunities to be dependent, resistant behavior will lead to negativism.

PARENTING STYLES
• Authoritarian Parents – firm, punitive, and unsympathetic parents who value obedience from the child and authority for themselves • Authoritative Parents – parents who reason with the child, encourage give and take, and are firm but understanding (democratic)

PARENTING STYLES

PARENTING STYLES

PARENTING STYLES

ADOLESCENCE
• Adolescence – the period of life beginning at puberty and ending with early childhood • Puberty – the stage of development at which individuals become physiologically capable of reproducing

ADOLESCENCE
• Secondary Sex Characteristics – physical characteristics that differentiate males and females but not directly involve • Primary Sex Characteristics – physical characteristics, such as the gonads, that differentiate males and females and play a direct role in reproduction • Menarche – the first

ADOLESCENCE

ADOLESCENCE
• Cognitive Development
• Imaginary Audience – the common belief among adolescents that their feelings and experiences cannot possibly be understood • Personal Fable – the common belief among adolescents that their feelings and experiences cannot possibly be understood by others and that they are personally

ADOLESCENCE

KOHLBERG’S STAGES OF MORAL REASONING
• Lawrence Kohlberg (October 25,
1927 – January 19, 1987) was an American psychologist, who served as a professor at the University of Chicago, as well as Harvard University. Known for his research in moral education, reasoning, and development, he developed stages of moral development.

KOHLBERG’S STAGES OF MORAL REASONING
• In Europe, a woman was near death from a special kind of cancer. There was one drug that the doctors thought might save her. It was a form of radium that a druggist in the same town had recently discovered. The drug was expensive to make, but the druggist was charging ten times what the drug cost him to make. He paid $200 for the radium and charged $2,000 for a small dose of the drug. The sick woman's husband, Heinz, went to everyone he knew to borrow the money, but he could only get together about $ 1,000 which is half of what it cost. He told the druggist that his wife was dying and asked him to sell it cheaper or let him pay later. But the druggist said: "No, I discovered the drug and I'm going to make money from it." So Heinz got desperate and broke into the

KOHLBERG’S STAGES OF MORAL REASONING
• Preconventional Level
– Moral reasoning is based on the consequences of behavior

• Stage 1 : obedience and punishment orientation
• Good behavior is that which avoids punishment by external authority

• Stage 2 : instrumental purpose intention
• A behavior is good when it serves the

KOHLBERG’S STAGES OF MORAL REASONING
• Conventional Level
– Moral reasoning is based on conformity with conventional rules

• Stage 3 : “Good boy-good girl”
• Conformity with rules to impress others

• Stage 4 : Authority or Law-andOrder Orientation
• Obeying rules and laws because they needed to maintain social order

KOHLBERG’S STAGES OF MORAL REASONING
• Postconventional Level
– Moral reasoning is based on one’s personal moral standards or principles

• Stage 5 : Social Contract Orientation
• Viewing rules and laws as based on mutual agreement in the service of the common good

• Stage 6 : Universal Ethical Principle Orientation
• Adopting an internal moral code based on universal values that takes

KOHLBERG’S STAGES OF MORAL REASONING

ADOLESCENCE
• Hotel Bill
• Three people check into a hotel. They pay $30 to the manager and go to their room. The manager finds out that the room rate is $25 and gives $5 to the bellboy to return. On the way to the room the bellboy reasons that $5 would be difficult to share among three people so he pockets $2 and gives $1 to each person. Now each person paid $10 and got back $1. So they paid $9 each, totalling $27. The bellboy has $2, totalling $29.

ADOLESCENCE
• Identity crisis – in Erickson’s theory, a stressful period of serious soul-searching and selfexamination of issues relating to personal values and one’s direction in life • Ego Identity – in Erickson’s theory, the attainment of a psychological sense of knowing oneself and one’s direction in

ADOLESCENCE
• Role Diffusion – in Erickson’s model, a lack of direction or aimlessness with respect to one’s role in life or public identity • Peer Relationships – “fitting in” or belonging comes to a play an even greater role in determining their self-esteem and emotional adjustment

ADOLESCENT FRIENDSHIP
• Equality
• Friendship requires equality. • It's easy to be friends with individuals whom we're told are our equals.

• Confusing Friends and Lovers
• Sometimes a man or a woman refers to the woman or man she's having a sexual relationship with as her "friend." • This communicates lack of commitment.

ADOLESCENT LOVE
• Anima and Animus
• You feel passionate love when you meet an individual who reflects the hidden, contrasexual elements of your personality.

• Projection
• You project additional personality elements onto the person. You imagine your future life together.
• Fear of intimacy • Unrequited love

FIRST DATE QUIZ
• What is your First Date IQ? Take this quiz and find out if you're a certifiable dating genius or you need to brush up before becoming a huge success in the dating world ...

FIRST DATE QUIZ
• 1. You finally got a date with that person you've hoped to go out with. What would you choose to do on your perfect first date: a)  Candlelight dinner for two b)  Lunch or cup of coffee c)  Secluded lookout above the city d)  Rock concert e)  Movie

FIRST DATE QUIZ
• 2. You pick up your date at their house. He or she answers the door. The first words out of your mouth are: a)  "Oh. You're here." b)  "You look great! I love that shirt." c)  "Damnnnn, you look sexy!" d)  "Um, are you going to wear that?"

FIRST DATE QUIZ
• 3. Ok, let's say you chose a movie. Which of the following movies would you choose (assuming they were released at the same time): a)  Seed of Chucky b)  Motorcycle Diaries (or any foreign language film with subtitles) c)  Spongebob Squarepants the Movie

FIRST DATE QUIZ
• 4. A 'lull' in the conversation occurs during your date. You: a)  Say nothing. It will take care of itself. b)  Go to the bathroom. c)  Tell a joke. d)  Move in for the first kiss. e)  Pretend your cell phone's ringing

FIRST DATE QUIZ
• 5. The bill arrives for coffee or lunch or dessert. You:
a)  Grab the bill and absolutely INSIST on paying it b)  Pretend the bill isn't there c)  Pick it up, reach for your wallet and say "Dutch, right?" (meaning split the bill) d)  Reach for it, but agree to go 'Dutch' if your date offers to pay e)  Put your pet roach on a plate, call the waiter and insist that you won't pay

FIRST DATE QUIZ
• 6. The dinner, movie, coffe, lunch is over, the bill is paid. You:
a)  Ask your date if they want to take a walk (weather providing) b)  Ask your date if they want a piece of gum. c)  Ask your date, "Your place, or mine?" d)  Say "I've had a nice time." e)  Say, "I really had fun, maybe we can come back and try the hot fudge brownie

FIRST DATE QUIZ
• 7. As you're walking out of the restaurant or movie or store, you and your date both see a $50 bill next to the cashier. You pick it up and:
a) Say to your date, "Coffee's on me!" b) Stuff it in your pocket, without saying a word. c) Tell your date "I saw it first!", and jump on it! d) Hand it to the cashier, telling them "someone must have dropped this." e) Race out the door as you promise to split it with your date.

FIRST DATE QUIZ
• • 1. What to do on the perfect first date: a)  Candlelight dinner for two 0 points Sorry, but not the best first date choice. A difficult setting for feeling comfortable and getting better acquainted. b)  Lunch or cup of coffee 5 points Great idea. Without getting overly flashy or romantic, you're providing the opportunity to get to know each other. There will be lots of time to talk, get to know each other's likes and dislikes, etc. Both people can feel comfortable in a low pressure situation that promotes conversation. c)  Secluded lookout above the city 0 points Sorry, but definitely not a first, second or third date choice. You're likely to appear to be coming on too strong, or your date might not be comfortable being alone in a secluded place with someone they don't know well yet. d)  Rock concert 1 point Sorry, but again, definitely not the best first date choice. Too expensive, too little opportunity to communicate. e)  Movie 3 points Good choice, but not the best - a movie is a good neutral date location, but doesn't provide much of an opportunity for conversation. If you're going to do the movie route, then be sure to grab that cup of coffee afterwards.

FIRST DATE QUIZ
• 2. The first words out of your mouth are: a)  "Oh. You're here." 0 points Heh, oops, you might as well end it now, smooth talker. b)  "You look great! I love that shirt." 5 points Perfect. A simple "you look great" is always good, but complimenting a specific piece of clothing or feature adds sincerity. c)  "Damnnnn, you look sexy!" 0 points No, please no. d)  "Um, are you going to wear that?" 1 point Appropriate only if they are in a swimsuit and you�re going snow skiing� e)  "What's up?" 1 point Not great - but better than a blank stare.

FIRST DATE QUIZ
• 3. The perfect movie for your perfect first date: a)  Seed of Chucky 0 points Um, a horror movie for a first date? Noooo .... b)  Motorcycle Diaries (or any foreign language film with subtitles) 2 points Not bad, but you may come off as trying too hard to impress with a foreign language film. They can be great, but save it for a future date. c)  Spongebob Squarepants - the Movie 1 point Cute, unless you wear your Spongebob t-shirt and baseball cap, and bring your Spogebob cup for soda. If that's the case, -5 points d)  Ocean's Eleven (or Twelve) 5 points Good neutral movies are the best here. Avoid the chick flick or the hacker slasher, even thrillers can be too much for some people. There are usually many movies out there that appeal to both sexes. e)  Farenheit 911 1 point Only if you met at an Anti-Bush rally. (Best to leave the old standard subject matter taboos alone no sex, religion, or politics)

FIRST DATE QUIZ
• 4. The 'conversation-lull-during-the-date' solution on your date: a)  Say nothing. It'll take care of itself 1 point It might take care of itself, but short lulls can lead to long lulls, which can be date killers. Try to restart the conversation. b)  Go to the bathroom 1 points Yes, this escape provides the terminally desperate with time to think of something to talk about, but if you can think on your feet, all the better. Don't risk the chance of your date thinking you're uncomfortable with him or her. c)  Tell a joke 3 point Not bad, if it's a cute, appropriate joke. Avoid the tasteless (dirty or racy, or racist). A clever, short joke can restart things. Follow up with a topic of conversation. d)  Move in for the first kiss 0 points Don't even think about it. If you do it - it'll be a kiss of death to your potential relationship. e)  Pretend your cell phone's ringing 1 point If you're totally at a loss for words. You can check it, as if it vibrated. Maybe you'll get a brilliant flash for a conversation topic - or smarter yet - you'll remember one of the topics that you planned AHEAD OF TIME to bring up on your the date!!!

FIRST DATE QUIZ
• 5. The bill arrives for coffee or lunch or dessert. a)  Grab the bill and absolutely INSIST on paying it 1 point Nice gesture, but too pushy. You don't want your date to feel like they owe you something. If they want to pay for half, or absolutely insist on paying it all, let them, but say you'll get it next time. b)  Pretend the bill isn't there. 0 points No one likes a cheapskate. Your date noticed the bill arriving, and you should have, too. c)  Pick it up, reach for your wallet, and say "Dutch, right?" (meaning split the bill) 0 points Don't assume they want to pay for half. Again, you may come off as being cheap. d)  Reach for it, but agree to go 'Dutch' if your date offers to pay. 4 points Good. It's classy to offer to pay but graciously accept their contribution. e)  Put your pet roach on a plate, call the waiter and insist that you won't pay 0 points Are you kidding? (This is a great way to get rid of a date...)

FIRST DATE QUIZ
• • 6. The dinner, movie, coffe, lunch is over, the bill is paid. You: a)  Ask your date if they want to take a walk (weather providing) 2 point Not a bad choice, but if it's a first date, a late night walk might still not be the best choice, unless you've known the person for a long time. b)  Ask your date if they want a piece of gum. 1 point Nice, but may be taken the wrong way. They might think you're implying that they �need' it. c)  Ask your date, "your place, or mine?" 0 points You're a sleezebag on wheels. This approach usually only works in the movies, and if it were to work on your date, they're probably not boyfriend / girlfriend material. d)  Say "I've had a nice time." 0 points This non-commital statement will drive your date crazy whiel they wonder if you ever want to see them again. e)  Say, "I really had fun, maybe we can come back and try the hot fudge brownie sometime." 5 points This tells your date that you did have a good time, you enjoyed being with them

FIRST DATE QUIZ
• • 7. You and your date both see a $50 bill next to the cashier ... a)  Say to your date, "Coffee is on me!" 1 point Funny, but not very honest. Cheap, too! At least offer to take them bowling. b)  Pick it up, and stuff it in your pocket, without saying a word. 0 points Again, not the honest approach, and your date will know that you're not trustworthy... c)  Tell your date "I saw it first!" and jump on it! 0 points You're once again a certified sleezebag on wheels. d)  Pick it up and hand it to the cashier, telling them "someone must have dropped this." 5 points Good idea. You may even get to keep the money if no one claims it and the cashier is honest. Either way, you�re character will shine through for your date. e)  Pick it up and promise to split it with your date. 0 points If your date agrees, you deserve each other.

FIRST DATE QUIZ
• DATE IQ • • • • 0-10 11-19 20-29 30-32 below average; needs help average; good high; keep it up you’re a genius

ADULTHOOD
• Early adulthood – encompasses the twenties and thirties • Middle Adulthood – spans from ages forty to sixty-five • Late Adulthood – spans from sixty-five and older

• Fluid intelligence – a form of intelligence associated with the ability to think abstractly and flexibly in solving problems (inductive reasoning, spatial orientation) • Crystallized intelligence – a form of intelligence associated with the ability to use accumulated knowledge (numerical ability,

PHYSICAL AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT

• •

IQ TEST Intelligence Test Instructions: Write each of your answers down, it makes a difference! You will be allowed 5 minutes to complete the test. Write your answers in the spaces provided. Are you ready ? What is the time?
1) Some months have 30 days,some months have 31 days. How many months have 28 days? ____________________ 2) If a doctor gives you 3 pills and tells you to take one pill every half hour, how long would it be before all the pills had been taken? ____________________ 3) I went to bed at eight o'clock in the evening and wound up my clock and set the alarm to sound at nine o'clock in the morning. How many hours sleep would I get before being awoken by the alarm? ____________________ 4) Divide 30 sticks by half and add ten. What do you get?____________________ 5) A farmer had 17 sheep. All but 9 died. How many live sheep

PHYSICAL AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT

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• •

PHYSICAL AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT 6) If you had only one match and entered a COLD and DARK room,
where there was an oil heater, an oil lamp and a candle, which would you light first? ____________________ 7) A man builds a house with four sides of rectangular construction, each side having a southern exposure. A big bear comes along. What color is the bear? ____________________ 8) Take 2 apples from 3 apples. What do you have? ___________________ 9) How many animals of each species did Moses take with him in the Ark? ____________________ 10) If you drove a bus with 43 people on board from Chicago and stopped at Pittsburg to pick up 7 more people and drop off 5 passengers and at Cleveland to drop off 8 passengers and pick up 4 more and eventually arrive at Philadelphia 20 hours later, what's the name of the driver? ____________________

• •

Answers: 1) 12. Every month has at least 28 days. 2) 1 hour. If you take a pill at 1 o'clock,then another at 1.30 and the last at 2 o'clock,they will be taken in 1 hour. 3) 1 hour. It is a wind up alarm clock which cannot discriminate between a.m. and p.m. 4) 70. Dividing by half is the same as multiplying by 2. 5) 9 live sheep. 6) The match. 7) White. If all walls face south, the house must be on the North Pole. 8) 2 apples. I HAVE 3 APPLES, YOU TAKE 2, WHAT DO YOU HAVE? 9) None. It was Noah, not Moses.

PHYSICAL AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT

• Fish Move just 3 matches so that the fish swims the other direction.

PHYSICAL AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT

• Decline in memory functioning • From late 20s, start losing lean body tissue and more lean tissue turns to fat • With the loss of muscle tissue, comes a gradual loss of muscle strength • Menopause – the time of life when menstruation ends

PHYSICAL AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT

• THE BRAIN TEST:

PHYSICAL AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT

It's that time of year to take our annual test. Exercise of the brain is as important as exercise of the muscles. As we grow older, it's important that we keep mentally alert. The saying; "If you don't use it, you will lose it" also applies to the brain, so...

• 1. What do you put in a toaster? • Answer: "bread." If you said "toast," then give up now and go do something else. • 2. Say "silk" five times!. Now spell "silk." What do cows drink? • Answer: Cows drink water. If you said "milk," please do not attempt the next question.

PHYSICAL AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT

• 3. If a red house is made from red bricks and a blue house is made from blue bricks and a pink house is made from pink bricks and a black house is made from black bricks, what is a greenhouse made from? • Answer: Greenhouses are made from glass

PHYSICAL AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT

PHYSICAL AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENTflying at 4. It's twenty years ago, and a plane is
20,000 feet over Germany. If you will recall, Germany at the time was politically divided into West Germany and East Germany.) Anyway, during the flight, TWO of the engines fail. The pilot, realizing that the last remaining engine is also failing, decides on a crash landing procedure. Unfortunately the engine fails before he has time and the plane fatally crashes smack in the middle of "no man's land" between East Germany and West Germany Where would you bury the survivors? East Germany or West Germany or in "no man's land"?

PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT
• Emerging Adulthood – the period of psychosocial development, roughly spinning ages eighteen to twenty-five, during which the person makes the transition from adolescence to adulthood. • Midlife Crisis – a state of psychological crisis, often occurring during middle adulthood, in which people

LATE ADULTHOOD
• Dementia – a condition involving a major deterioration of mental abilities involved in memory, reasoning, and judgment • Alzheimer’s Disease – an irreversible brain disease with a progressive course toward inevitable deterioration of mental functioning

LATE ADULTHOOD
• Key Characteristics for Successful Aging:
• Selective Optimization and Compensation – ability to optimize one’s time and available resources to compensate shortcomings • Optimism – maintaining an optimistic frame of mind • Self-Challenge – seeking new challenges

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