# Rotation of Rigid Bodies

Angular Motion
Angular Motion Definitions

Rotational kinematics: describes rotational motion.

Rigid body: idealized model of a body which has a perfectly definite
and unchanging shape and size.
Rigid Bodies
A rigid body is one where all the
particles maintain their
relative position
As the body rotates
Each particle moves
Relative positions don’t change
Bowling Green
Sydney
Cities on the earth are always moving
But they don’t get closer together
Angular Motion Definitions

First, let’s discuss the rotation of rigid body about a fixed axis.

Fixed axes: axes which is at rest in some inertial frame of
reference and does not change direction relative to that frame.

We will usually select the origin of our x-y plane to be in the same as
the plane that the rotating object occupies and the origin O
corresponded to the location of the axis of rotation.

Then, if we pick a point on the rotating object and draw a line from
this point to the origin it will make an angle θ with the x-axis. This
angle is called the angular position.

The angular displacement will be defined as a change in angular
position, ∆θ = θ
2
- θ
1
, during a time interval ∆t = t
2
- t
1
.

Both angular position and angular displacement will most commonly
and degrees use the conversion:

1 revolution = 2 π radians = 360 degrees
Angular Motion Definitions

One radian is the angle subtended at
the center of a circle by an arc with a
length equal to the radius of this circle.
θ θ r s
r
s
· · ,
r s rad · : 1

Angle θ is subtended by an arc with a
length S equal on a circle of the radius r.

Angle in radians is the ratio of two lengths, so it is a pure number (NO dimensions).
Angular Motion Definitions

The average angular velocity ω
av-z
is the angular displacement per
unit time
t t t
z av

·

·

θ θ θ
ω
1 2
1 2
dt
d
t
t
z
θ θ
ω ·

·
→ ∆ 0
lim

The instantaneous angular velocity ω
z
is the limit of ω
av-z
when ∆t
approaches zero. This is derivative of angular position with respect to time.

At any instant, every part of a rotating rigid body has the same angular
velocity. The angular velocity is positive if the body is rotating in the
direction of increasing θ and negative if it is rotating in the direction of
decreasing θ .

Another common unit for angular velocity is revolutions per minute (rpm).
Angular Motion Definitions

Angular velocity is a vector quantity.

The direction of angular velocity is defined
using the right-hand rule.

To use this rule, curl the fingers of your right
hand in the direction of rotation. Your right
thumb then points in the direction of the
angular velocity.
Angular Motion Definitions

The average angular acceleration α
av-z
is change in angular velocity
per unit time.
t t t
z z z
z av

·

·

ω ω ω
α
1 2
1 2
dt
d
t
z z
t
z
ω ω
α ·

·
→ ∆ 0
lim

The instantaneous angular acceleration α
z
is the limit of α
av-z
when ∆t
approaches zero. This is also the derivative of angular velocity with
respect to time and the second derivative of angular position with respect
to time.
2
2
dt
d
dt
d
dt
d
z
θ θ
α · ·

Angular acceleration is typically expressed in radians
2
).
Angular Motion Definitions
Just as was the case for linear motion:

the object will be "speeding up" if
the angular acceleration is in the
same direction as the angular
velocity, and

the object will be "slowing down"
if the angular acceleration is in the
opposite direction of the angular
velocity.
Angular Motion Definitions
Graph of ω
z
and α
z
versus time for a rotating object

During which time intervals is the rotation "speeding up"?

During which time intervals is the rotation "slowing down"?
Angular Motion Definitions
Graph of ω
z
and α
z
versus time for a rotating object

During which time intervals is the rotation "speeding up"?

During which time intervals is the rotation "slowing down"?
Speeding up
ω
z
>0 and
α
z
>0
Slowing down
ω
z
>0 and
α
z
<0
Speeding up
ω
z
<0 and
α
z
<0
Constant Angular Acceleration

For the special case of constant angular acceleration the equations
which relate angular displacement, angular velocity, angular acceleration
and time have the same form as the kinematic equations for constant
linear acceleration.

These equations can be obtained from the familiar ones by replacing x
with θ, v
x
with ω
z
, and a
x
with α
z
.
.
0
0

·
t
z z
z
ω ω
α
2
0 z z
z av
ω ω
ω
+
·

t
1
=0, angular acceleration is constant and
equal to average value for any interval:
t
z z z
α ω ω + ·
0
Constant angular acceleration ONLY
0
0

·

t
z av
θ θ
ω
t
z z
) (
2
1
0 0
ω ω θ θ + · −
Constant angular
acceleration ONLY
Constant Angular Acceleration

To obtain relation between θ and t that doesn’t contain ω
z
:
t
z z
) (
2
1
0 0
ω ω θ θ + · −
Constant angular
acceleration ONLY
t
z z z
α ω ω + ·
0
2
0 0
2
1
t t
z z
α ω θ θ + + ·
t
z z z
α ω ω + ·
0
2
0 0
2
1
t t
z z
α ω θ θ + + ·
) ( 2
0
2
0
2
θ θ α ω ω − + ·
z z z
Constant angular
acceleration ONLY

To obtain relation between θ and ω
z
that doesn’t contain t:
Constant Angular Acceleration
Kinematics: Rotational vs
Linear
Relating Linear and Angular Kinematics

Consider a point P on a rotating object that is a distance r away from the
axis of rotation. As the object turns through an angle θ the point covers a
distance given by s = rθ

In the above expression the angle θ must be in radians

If this expression is differentiated with
respect to time then the left hand side will
become the linear speed of particle

This speed corresponds to the velocity of
the point P which is tangential to the
circular arc traced out by the point. When
differentiating the right hand side, we
notice that r is constant and the rate of
change of angular position is the angular
velocity. This gives:
dt
d
r
dt
ds θ
·
ω r v ·
Relation between linear
and angular speed
Relating Linear and Angular Kinematics

Differentiating once again gives a relationship between the tangential
acceleration of the point, a
tan
, and the angular acceleration of the
rotation object:
α
ω
r
dt
d
r
dt
dv
a · · ·
tan
Tangential acceleration of a
point on a rotating body

Finally, recall that any object that is
undergoing circular motion
experiences an inwardly directed
speed squared divided by the radius.
If we replace v=rω we have:
r
r
v
a
1
1
ω · ·
Centripetal acceleration of
a point on a rotating body
Relating Linear and Angular Kinematics
α
ω
r
dt
d
r
dt
dv
a · · ·
tan

These equations apply to any particle
that has the same tangential velocity as
a point in a rotating rigid body
o
Rope wound around a circular cylinder
unwraps without stretching or slipping, its
speed and acceleration at any instant are
equal to the speed and tangential acceleration
of the point at which it is tangent to the
cylinder
o
Bicycle chains and sprockets, belts, pulleys, …
ω r v · θ r s ·
Rotational Inertia (Moment of Inertia)

The rotational inertia of an object is a measure of the resistance of
the object to changes in its rotational motion

For a system of particles of masses m
i
at distances r
i
from an axis
passing through a point P the rotational inertia of the system about
the axis is given by:

· + + ·
i
i i
r m r m r m I
2 2
2 2
2
1 1
...
Definition of
moment of inertia

SI unit of moment of inertia is the kg⋅ m
2

For a solid object the rotational inertia is found by evaluating an integral
as we will see later

In a rigid body the distances r
i
are constant, and I is independent of
how the body is rotating around a given axis. The rotational inertia of
some common shapes about some of their symmetry axes is given in
Rotational Inertia (Moment of Inertia)
Rotational Kinetic Energy

The rotational kinetic energy of a solid object rotating about an axis for
which its rotational inertia is I with angular velocity ω is expressed as
2
2
1
ω I K ·
Rotational kinetic energy of a rigid body

Notice the similarity between this formula and the formula for the kinetic
energy of a point mass m moving with speed v

This kinetic energy is the sum of kinetic energies of the individual
particles that make up the rigid body

ω is in rad/s (NOT in rev or degrees per second ! K will be in Joules)

The greater is the moment of inertia, the greater the kinetic energy of a
rigid body rotating with a given angular speed
Rotational Kinetic Energy
1
1
1
ω I K ·

Greater a body’s moment of inertia, the harder it is to start the
body rotating if it’s at rest and the harder it is to stop its rotation if
Rotational Kinetic Energy
Moments of inertia for different rotation axes

One-piece machine part consists of three heavy connectors linked by light
molded struts.
A. What is the moment of inertia of this body about an axis through point A, ⊥ to
the plane of the slide?
B. What is the moment of inertia of this body about an axis coinciding the rod
BC?
C. If the body rotates about an axis through A ⊥ to the plane of the slide with
angular speed 4.0 rad/s, what is its kinetic energy?
Rotational Energy. Problems
Problem-Solving Strategy

IDENTIFY the relevant concepts: You can use work–energy
relations and conservation of energy to find relations involving position and
motion of a rigid body rotating around a fixed axis. As we saw before, the
energy method is usually not helpful for problems that involve elapsed time.
Later we will see how to approach rotational problems of this kind.

SET UP the problem using the following steps:
1. First decide what the initial and final states (the positions and velocities) of
the system are. Use the subscript 1 for the initial state and the subscript 2
for the final state. It helps to draw sketches showing the initial and final
states.
2. Define your coordinate system, particularly the level at which y=0. You will
use it to compute gravitational potential energies. Equations assume that
the positive direction for y is upward; use this choice consistently.
3. Identify all non-gravitational forces that do work. A free-body diagram is
always helpful. If some of the quantities you need are unknown, represent
them by algebraic symbols.
Rotational Energy. Problems
Problem-Solving Strategy

SET UP, continued:

List the unknown and known quantities, including the coordinates and
velocities at each point. Decide which unknowns are your target variables.

Many problems involve a rope or cable wrapped around a rotating rigid
body, which functions as a pulley.

In these situations, remember that the point on the pulley that contacts the
rope has the same linear speed as the rope, provided the rope doesn’t slip
on the pulley.

You can then take advantage of Equations which relate the linear speed and
tangential acceleration of a point on a rigid body to the angular velocity and
angular acceleration of the body.
Rotational Energy. Problems
Problem-Solving Strategy

EXECUTE the solution:

Write expressions for the initial and final kinetic and potential energies (K
1
,
K
2
, U
1
and U
2
) and the non-conservative work W
other
(if any).

The new feature is rotational kinetic energy, which is expressed in terms of
the body’s moment of inertia I for the given axis and its angular speed ω
instead of its mass m and speed v.

Substitute these expressions into K
1
+ U
1
+W
other
=K
2
+U
2
(if nonconservative
work is done) or K
1
+ U
1
=K
2
+U
2
(if only conservative work is done) and solve
for the target variable(s).

It’s helpful to draw bar graphs showing the initial and final values of K, U,
and E=K+U.

Parallel Axis Theorem
Parallel-Axis Theorem

To find the rotational inertia of an object about an axis that is
different from one listed in Table 9.2 in your textbook you may be
able to use the parallel axis theorem.

This theorem gives the rotational inertia of an object of mass M
about an axis, P, that is parallel to and a distance d away from an
axis that passes through the object's center of mass.
2
Md I I
cm p
+ ·
Parallel-Axis Theorem
Parallel-Axis Theorem

Consider two axes, both parallel to z-axis, one through the center of
mass and the other through a point P.

Mass element m
i
has coordinates (x
i
, y
i
) with respect to an axis of
rotation through the center of mass and ⊥ to the plane of the slide. The
mass element has coordinates (x
i
-a, y
i
-b) with respect to the parallel
axis through point P.

Let’s take origin at the CM of the body:

x
cm
= y
cm
= z
cm
=0

The axis through the CM passes through this
thin slice at point O, and parallel axis passes
through point P with coordinates (a, b). Then
the distance of this axis from axis through CM
is d: d
2
=a
2
+b
2

Moment of inertia I
cm

+ ·
i
i i i cm
y x m I ) (
1 1
Parallel-Axis Theorem

Moment of inertia I
cm

− + − ·
i
i i i P
b y a x m I )] ) ( ) [(
2 2

These expressions don’t involve the coordinates z
i
measured ⊥ to the
slices. Let’s extend the sums to include all particles in all slices. I
p
then
becomes the moment of inertia of the entire body for an axis through P:
∑ ∑ ∑ ∑
+ + − − + ·
i i i
i i i
i
i i i i i P
m b a y m b x m a y x m I ) ( 2 2 ) (
2 2 2 2
cm
I 0 ·
cm
x
2
d
M 0 ·
cm
y
2
Md I I
cm P
+ ·
Parallel-Axis Theorem. Example

A part of a mechanical linkage has a mass of 3.6 kg. We measure its
moment of inertia about an axis 0.15 m from its center of mass to be
I
p
=0.132 kg·m
2
.

What is the moment of inertia I
cm
about a parallel axis through the
center of mass?
1 1 1
1
111 . 1 ) 11 . 1 )( 1 . 1 ( 1 1 1 . 1 m kg m kg m kg
Md I I
p cm
⋅ · − ⋅ ·
· − ·

Result show that I
cm
is less than I
p
. This is as it should be: the moment
of inertia for an axis through the center of mass is lower than for any
other parallel axis.
Inertia Calculations
Inertia Calculations

For a continuous distribution of mass the sum of the masses times the
square of the distances to the axis of rotation which defines the moment
of inertia become an integral.

If the object is divided into small mass elements dm in such a manner
that all of the points in a particular mass element are the same
perpendicular distance r from the axis of rotation then the moment of
inertia is given by
.

· dm r I
2

To evaluate the integral, you need to represent r and dm in terms of the
same integration variable. 1-D object, slender rod: use coordinate x
along the length and relate dm to an increment dx. 3-D object: express
dm in terms of element of volume dV and density ρ.

· · dV V r I
dV
dm
) ( ,
2
ρ ρ

· · dV r I const
2
ρ ρ
dz dy dx dV ·

Limits of integral are determined by the shape and
dimensions of the body
Inertia Calculations
Uniform thin rod, axis ⊥ to length

Slender uniform rod with mass M and
length L.

Compute its moment of inertia about an
axis through O, at an arbitrary distance h
from the end.
L
dx
M
dm
·

Choose as an element of mass a short section of rod with length dx at a
distance x from O. The ratio of the mass dm of this element to the total
mass M is equal to the ratio of its length dx to the total length L:
dx
L
M
dm ·
) 1 1 (
1
1
1
1 1
1
1 1
h Lh L M
x
L
M
dx x
L
M
dm x
h L
h
h L
h
+ − ·
1
]
1

¸

,
_

¸
¸
· ·

∫ ∫

Evaluate this general expression about an axis through the left
end; the right end; through the center. Compare with Table 9.2.
Inertia Calculations

Hollow or solid cylinder, rotating about
axis of symmetry

Hollow, uniform cylinder with length L, inner radius
R
1
2
. Compute its moment of inertia
) 1 ( rLdr dV dm π ρ ρ · ·

Choose as a volume element a thin cylindrical shell of
radius r, thickness dr, and length L. All parts of this
element are at very nearly the same distance from
the axis. The volume of this element:
· − · · ·
∫ ∫ ∫
) (
1
1
1 ) 1 (
1
1
1
1
1 1 1
1
1
1
1
R R
L
dr r L rLdr r dm r
R
R
R
R
πρ
πρ π ρ
) )( (
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
R R R R
L
+ − ·
πρ
) (
1
1
1
1
R R L V − · π ) (
1
1
1
1
1
1
R R M I + ·
Inertia Calculations

Hollow or solid cylinder, rotating about axis
of symmetry

If cylinder is solid, R
1
=0, R
2
=R:

If cylinder has a very thin wall, R
1
and R
2
are very
nearly equal:

Note: moment of inertia of a cylinder about an axis of
symmetry depends on its mass and radii, but not on
its length!
) (
1
1
1
1
1
1
R R M I + ·
1
1
1
MR I ·
1
MR I ·
Inertia Calculations

Uniform sphere, axis through center

Uniform sphere with radius R. the axis is through
its center. Find the moment of inertia about the
axis is through the center of this sphere.

Divide sphere into thin disks of thickness dx,
whose moment of inertia we already know. The
radius r of the disk is
1 1
x R r − ·

The volume is

The mass is

The moment of inertia for the disk of radius r and mass dm is
dx x R dx r dV ) (
1 1 1
− · · π π
dx x R dx r dV dm ) (
1 1 1
− · · · πρ π ρ
( ) dx x R dx x R x R dm r dI
1 1 1 1 1
1
1 1 1
) (
1
] ) ( [
1
1
1
1
− · − − · ·
πρ
πρ
Inertia Calculations

Uniform sphere, axis through center

Integrating from x=0 to x=R gives the moment
of inertia of the right hemisphere.

From symmetry, the total I for the entire sphere
is just twice this:

− ·
R
dx x R I
1
1 1 1
) (
1
) 1 (
πρ
1
1 1
1
R I
πρ
·
Volume of the sphere
The mass M of the sphere
1
1
1
R
V
π
·
1
1
1
R V M
πρ
ρ · ·
1
1
1
MR I ·

Note: moment of inertia of a solid sphere is less than the
moment of inertia of a solid cylinder of the same mass and
radius! (Reason is that more of the sphere’s mass is located
close to the axis)