Prof. Dr: Nazih Noaman bayomi

Presentation Outline
Introduction Types Compressor System References

Compressors used to increase the pressure of a gas (compressible fluid)  Examples – Increase the pressure for instrument air systems (to get control valves to operate), transport gases such as hydrogen, nitrogen, fuel gas, etc. in a chemical plant

2 Types of Compressors  Positive Displacement (PD) : Operate by trapping a specific volume of gas and forcing it into a smaller volume – 2 Basic Designs for PD Compressors » Rotary » Reciprocating  Centrifugal : Operate by accelerating the gas and converting the energy to pressure – 2 Basic Designs for Centrifugal Compressors » Centrifugal » Axial .

and vanes into smaller volumes. screws.Positive Displacement Compressors: Rotary Design Rotary compressors (get their name from the rotating motion of the transfer element) compress gases with lobes.  4 Primary Types of Rotary Compressors: – Rotary Screw – Sliding Vane – Lobe – Liquid Ring  .

This forces the gases to become trapped in the central cavity. The 2 rotors are attached to a drive shaft and drive that provide energy to operate the compressor.Rotary Screw Compressors      Commonly used in industry. Have an inlet suction line and outlet discharge port. the right rotor rotates counterclockwise. . causing the teeth to mesh. As the left rotor turns clockwise. It operates with 2 helical rotors that rotate toward each other.

Rotary Screw Compressor .

Sliding Vane Compressors    Uses a slightly off-center rotor with sliding vanes to compress gas. As the volume decreases. Inlet gas flows into the vanes when they are fully extended and form the largest pocket. . the pressure increases until maximum compression is achieved. Then the gas is discharged out the compressor. the gases are compressed. As the vanes turn toward the discharge port.

Sliding Vane Compressor .

Lobe Compressors     Characterized by 2 kidney-bean shaped impellers used to trap and transfer gases. A few thousands of an inch clearing exists between the casing and lobes. The 2 impellers move in opposite directions on parallel mounted shafts as the lobes sweep across the suction port. . The lobes do not touch each other. Compressed gases are released into the discharge line.

 .Lobe Compressors Designed to have constant volume discharge pressures and constant speed drivers.  Lobe Compressors can be used as compressors or vacuum pumps.

Lobe Compressor .

Make up water or seal liquid is added to the compressor during operation. . An air pocket is formed in the center of the casing. a small % of the liquid escapes out the discharge port. The liquid helps cool the compressed gases.Liquid Ring Compressors    It has one moving transfer element and a casing that is filled with water or seal liquid. the fluid is centrifugally forced to the outer wall of the elliptical casing. As the liquid ring compressor rotates. As the rotor turns.

.Liquid Ring Compressors  Used to compress hazardous and toxic gases as well as hot gases.

Positive Displacement Reciprocating Compressors Most common type of compressors.  .  The back and forth motion incorporated by a reciprocating compressor pulls gas in on the suction (or intake) stroke and discharges it on the other.  Work by trapping and compressing specific volumes of gas between a piston and a cylinder wall.  Spring-loaded suction and discharge valves open/close automatically as the piston moves up and down in the cylinder chamber.

Positive Displacement Reciprocating Compressors  Basic Parts of are: – – – – – – – – Piston Connecting Rod Crankshaft Diver Piston Rings Suction Line Discharge Line Spring -Loaded Suction and Discharge Valves .

One shown only has one cylinder. .Positive Displacement:Reciprocating Compressors  Can have 1 to 4 cylinders.

.Mulitstage Compressors  Discharge from Stage 1 is suction for Stage 2.

 Deliver much higher flow rates than positive displacement compressors.  Usually operate at speeds > 3.  .000 rpm.Centrifugal Compressors Centrifugal compressors accelerates the velocity of the gases (increases kinetic energy) which is then converted into pressure as the gas flow leaves the volute and enters the discharge pipe.

Centrifugal Compressors  2 Types of Centrifugal Compressors – Single. high discharge pressures .Stage : Take the discharge of one stage and pass it to the suction of another stage » Use for high gas flow rates. low discharge pressures – Multi.Stage : Compress the gas once » Use for high gas flow rates.

Diffuser Plates. Casing – Suction Vane Tips = Part of the impeller vane that comes into contact with gas first. Seals. Shaft. Suction Eyes.Centrifugal Compressors  Basic Components – Impellers. Volutes. Vanes. Discharge lines. – Discharge Vane Tips = Part of the impeller vane that comes into contact with gas last .

Centrifugal Compressor .

Centrifugal Compressor: Axial Design      Composed of a rotor that has rows of fanlike blades. In industry. Gas flow is moves along the shaft. Rotating blades attached to a shaft push gases over stationary blades called stators. Stator blades are attached to the casing. . axial compressors are used alot high flows and pressures are needed.

kinetic energy is converted into pressure. Axial compressors are usually limited to 16 stages (due to temperature/material limitations) Pound for pound. axial compressors are lighter. and smaller than centrifugal compressors. Multi-Stage axial compressors can generate very high flow rates and discharge pressures.Centrifugal Compressor: Axial Design      As the gas velocity is increased by the rotating blades. the stator blades slow it down. Gas velocity increases as it moves from stage to stage until it reaches the discharge. more efficient. . As the gas slows.

Axial Compressor .

.Typical Compressor System Other equipment needed in a process system.

. Compressors are very noisy. Silencers are mounted on the inlet and outlet of a compressor to „reduce‟ the noise.Typical Compressor System   Safety valves and pressure relief valves used to remove excess pressure that could damage equipment and people. Exxon had one for a refinery light ends stream nicknamed “Old Snort” by the technicians.

Typical Compressor System   Demister removes moisture (liquid) from the gas stream. Silica gel and molecular sieves (3A mole sieve) often used. The clean gases goes out the top of the demister. The liquid falls to the bottom of the demister and is removed. Dryer sometimes used on the compressor discharge line to remove any liquids (moisture). .

Typical Compressor Start Up Procedures Check valve line up on the compressor and associated equipment.  Check compressor oil levels and bearing cooling water systems.  Turn on the compressor.  Be sure all the compressor controls are set correctly.  .  Monitor equipment and process until conditions „steady‟ out.

 Thank You for Your Attention .

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