You are on page 1of 63


Presented To: Madam Mrs. Avinash Rana Presented By: Mukta (M.Sc.1st yr)

Solving an equation, feeling hungry, laughing - the neural processes needed for each of these activities occurs in different regions of the brain, that portion of the central nervous system contained within the cranium. About 100 billion neurons & 10-50 trillion neuroglia make up the brain.


Brain has a mass of about 1300 g (almost 3 lb) in adults. Each neuron forms 1000 synapses with other neurons. Total number of synapses are about 1000 trillion, which is larger than the number of stars in the galaxy.

Brain is the center for registering sensations, correlating them with one another and with stored information, making decisions, and taking actions. It is also the center for the intellect, emotions, behavior, and memory.

Brain and spinal cord develop from ectoderm arranged in a tubular structure called neural tube. Anterior part of neural tube expands and constricts to form 3 regions :Prosencephalon (forebrain) Mesencephalon (midbrain) Rhombencephalon (hindbrain)

Mesencephalon gives rise to the midbrain and aqueduct of the midbrain. prosencephalon and rhombencephalon develop into thalamus, hypothalamus, pons, cerebellum & upper part of 4th ventricle.

Forebrain takes up a large portion of the brain; it includes cerebrum, corpus callosum, thalamus, hypothalamus, and the limbic system. The overall functions of forebrain include control of cognitive, sensory, and motor functions; regulation of temperature, eating, sleeping, emotions, and reproductive functioning.

Midbrain is located between the forebrain and the hindbrain. In itself it makes up a part of the brainstem, and connects it to the forebrain. The brainstem in itself makes the connection between spinal cord and forebrain. Primary function of midbrain is to control sensory processes.

Hindbrain is makes up the bottom bit of the brainstem. It is composed of Pons, medulla, reticular formation, and cerebellum. Functions include co-ordination of motor activity, posture, and regulations of blood pressure and breathing.

The adult brain consists of 4 major parts :Brain stem : consists of medulla oblongata, Pons & midbrain. Cerebellum Diencephalon : consists of thalamus, hypothalamus & Epithalamus. Cerebrum : largest part of brain.


The cranium & the cranial meninges surround and protect the brain. Cranial meninges are continuous with spinal meninges, have same basic structure & bear the same names. Duramator (outermost) Arachnoidmater (middle) Piamator (innermost)

Duramater has 3 extensions which separate various parts of brain : i. The falx cerebri (falx=sickle-shaped) it separates two hemispheres of cerebrum. ii. The falx cerebelli : - it separates two hemespheres of cerebellum. iii. The tentorium cerebelli (tent) : itseparates cerebrum from cerebellum .


CSF is a clear, colorless liquid that protects the brain and spinal cord from chemical and physical injuries. It carries oxygen, glucose & other needed chemicals from blood to neurons and neuroglia. It circulates around brain & spinal cord in subarachnoid space.

Total volume of CSF is 80 to 150 ml (35oz) in adults. CSF contains glucose, proteins, lactic acid, urea, cations (Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+), and anions (Cl- and HCO3-). It also contains some WBCs.

Lateral ventricles CSF CSF CSF lateral ventricles choroid plexus

through interventricular foramina

Third ventricle

3rd ventricles choroid plexus

through cerebral aqueduct

Fourth ventricle

4th ventricles choroid plexus

through lateral and median apertures

Subarachnoid space

arterial blood

Arachnoid villi of dural venous sinuses Heart and lungs


It is the part of the brain b/w spinal cord & Diencephalon. It consists of following : Medulla oblongata Pons midbrain

Medulla is a relay station for nerve signals between the brain and the spinal cord. It controls autonomic functions, thus controlling excitement and relaxation. It is continuous with superior part of spinal cord & forms the inferior part of the brain stem. The medulla begins at the foramen magnum and extends to the inferior border of the pons, a distance of about 3 cm (1.2 inches).

Medulla contains all sensory (ascending) and motor (descending) tracts that extend b/w spinal cord & other parts of the brain. Decussation of pyramids occurs just superior to junction of medulla with spinal cord. It contains nuclei associated with 5 pairs of cranial nerves : 8th,9th,10th,11th & 12th.

Cardiac center : controls rate & force of cardiac contraction. Respiratory center : controls rate & depth of respiration. Vasomotor center : controls the diameter of blood vessels. Reflex center : of vomiting, cough, sneezing & swallowing.

Pons (=bridge) lies directly superior to medulla and anterior to cerebellum & is about 2.5 cm (1 inch) long. It consists of both nuclei & tracts . Pons is a bridge that connects part of brain with one another. It contains nuclei associated with 4 pairs of cranial nerves : 5th, 6th, 7th & 8th.

The midbrain is located between the forebrain and the hindbrain. This is the area that contains many nerve - fibre systems that ascend and descend to connect the higher and lower portions of the brain. It extends from pons to diencephalon and is 2.5 cm (1 inch) long.

Like medulla and pons, the midbrain contains both nuclei . The anterior part of the midbrain contains a pair of tracts called cerebral peduncles. These tracts neurons which conduct nerve impulses from the cerebrum to spinal cord, pons, and medulla. It also contains right & left substantia nigra which are large & pigmented.

It is the broad region where white matter & grey matter exhibit a net like arrangement. It extends from the upper part of the spinal cord, throughout the brain stem, and into the lower part of the Diencephalon. Neurons with reticular system have both ascending (sensory) & descending (motor) functions. Example :- regulate muscle tone.

reticular formation is involved in stereotypical actions, such as walking, sleeping, lying down, etc. essential for basic functions of life and is considered to be the phylogenetically the oldest part of the brain (500 million years). Reticular formation also plays an important role in alertness, fatigue, and motivation.

Accounts for 1/10th of brain mass. It is posterior to medulla & Pons and inferior to posterior portion of the cerebrum. A deep groove known as the transverse fissure, along with the tentorium cerebelli, which supports the posterior part of cerebrum.

The shape of the cerebellum resembles a butterfly. The central constricted area is the vermis (=worm), and the lateral wings or lobes are the cerebellar hemisphere. Each hemisphere consists of lobes separated by deep and distinct fissures.

The anterior & posterior lobes govern sub conscious aspects of skeletal muscle movements. The flocculonodular lobe ( wool-like tuft) on the inferior surface contributes to equilibrium. Superficial layer of cerebellum is called the cerebellar cortex having grey matter.

Co-ordination of voluntary muscular movements, posture & balance. Maintenance of the balance & equilibrium of the body. Influence the contraction of skeletal muscle so that balance & posture are maintained. Damage to cerebellum through trauma or disease disrupts muscle co-ordination called ataxia.

It extends from the brain stem to the cerebrum and surrounds the 3rd ventricle; it includes the :1. Thalamus 2. Hypothalamus 3. Epithalamus

It is 3 cm(1.2 in) in length & makes up 80% of the Diencephalon. It consists of paired oval masses of grey matter organized into nuclei with inters-persed tracts of white matter. The thalamus is the major relay station for most sensory impulses that reach the primary sensory areas.

FUNCTIONS :Perception of sensation : painful, thermal, & pressure. Motor functions: transmitting information from the cerebellum and basal ganglia & different areas of the cerebrum. Regulation of autonomic activities. Maintenance of consciousness. Controls emotions, regulation of alertness, learning, memory, awareness & cognition (thinking and knowledge).

It is a small part of the Diencephalon located inferior to the thalamus. It is composed of 4 major regions:The mammillary region The tuberal region The supraoptic region The preoptic region

1. 2. 3. 4.

FUNCTIONS :1. Control of ANS :- regulates the contraction of smooth and cardiac muscles & secretion of many glands. 2. Production of hormones 3. Regulation of emotional and behavioral patterns. 4. Regulation of eating & drinking. 5. Control of body temperature 6. Regulation of circulation rhythms and states of consciousness.

Its a small region superior & posterior to the thalamus. Consists of pineal gland & nuclei. Is Pineal gland is about the size of a small pea & protrudes from 3rd ventricle. Pineal gland secretes hormone melatonin.


Cerebrum :The cerebrum is the called as seat of intelligence. Provides ability to read, write, speak, to make calculations, to compose music, & to remember past. The brain is divided in two hemispheres - left and right. Each of these is coated on the outside with grey matter, or cerebral cortex.

Two hemispheres are linked by the corpus callosum, anterior commissure, posterior commissure, and hippocampal commissure to transfer information b/w the two hemispheres. Cerebral cortex:the most important part of the brain where thoughts, concept integration, and abstract thinking take place.

Lobes of the cerebrum:Frontal lobe. Parietal lobe. Temporal lobe. Occipital lobe.

Functions :- these are involved in

producing perceptions, resulting from sensory organs, in the movements, planning, as well as abstract thought.

Functions of lobes:1. Frontal lobe 1. responsible for judgment, language, memory, motor functions, impulse control, problem solving, sexual behavior, and socialization. 2. It is involved in planning, coordinating, controlling and executing behavior. 3. Human personality is incorporated in the frontal lobe. Any damage results in serious personality disorders.

2. Parietal lobe:Parietal lobe is involved in visuospacial processing. It integrates sensory information from various parts of the body. Much less is known about this lobe compared with the other three.

3. Temporal lobe :It is involved in processing high-level auditory information, or hearing, comprehension, naming, verbal memory and other language functions. Broca's area (named after Paul Broca) is located in the frontal lobe. Wernicke's area (named after Karl Wernicke) is located between temporal and parietal lobes.

4. Occipital lobe:Main function is perception. In case of damage severe vision loss may occur. Occipital lesions can cause visual hallucinations.



It is a ring of structures on the inner border of the cerebrum and floor of Diencephalon encircling the upper part of the brain stem & corpus callosum.

COMPONENTS OF LIMBIC SYSTEM : -The main components include : hypothalamus Hippocampus Amygdala Cingulate gyrus & parahippocampal gyrus Dentate gyrus & Olfactory bulbs Septal nuclei Mammillary body & Fornix

FUNCTIONS :Limbic system is also called as the emotional brain, as it plays important role in a range of emotions like pain, pleasure, affection & anger. Limbic system is also involved in olfaction (smell) and memory. So the limbic system is brain's emotional side & lies in both hemispheres.



1. responsible for regulation of hunger, thirst, pain, pleasure, sexual satisfaction, anger. 2. It also regulates parasympathetic (relaxing) and sympathetic (stimulating) nervous systems, which are both a part of the autonomic nervous system. 3. Two ways in which hypothalamus communicates with the body is by :(1) sending signals to the autonomous nervous system, thus controlling blood pressure, heart rate, breathing, digestion. (2) by stimulating the pituitary gland.

Hippocampus (seahorse) is a portion that extends into the floor of the lateral ventricle. used in converting short-term memory information into long-term. Damage to this area results in loss of the ability to create new long-term memories.

It is composed of several groups of neurons located close to the tail of caudate nucleus. Electrical stimulation of this area cause rage and anger. removal of the area causes indifference towards stimuli as fear, anger and sexual pleasure.

Components contd
Cingulate gyrus
It lies above the corpus callosum in cerebral cortex. (Cingul means :belt).
parahippocampal gyrus
It lies in the temporal lobe below.

Components contd
Dentate gyrus It lies between the hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus. Olfactory bulbs These are flattened bodies of the olfactory pathways that rests on the cribriform plate. Septal nuclie These are located within the Septal area under corpus callosum and Para terminal gyrus.

People with damage to certain limbic system structures forget recent events & cannot commit anything to memory. Damage to Amygdala results in failure in recognizing fearful expressions in others or to express fear in appropriate situation.

REFERENCES : Gerard j. tortora ; Bryan derrickson, principles of anatomy and physiology, 11th edition, john Wiley & sons, inc publication, page no. 474-500. Merry C. Townsend, psychiatry mental health nursing, 5th edition, jaypee publications, page no. 50-55.