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Estrella Speech Communication
The sounds of General American English are classified into three namely:
1. Vowels (11) 2. Diphthongs (3) 3. Consonants (25)
THE ENGLISH VOWELS Vowels are sounds which are produced with the vibration of air in the oral cavity All vowel sounds are voiced oral sounds The relationship of the vowels to one another is shown by the device known as the Vietor Triangle .
vertical axis – from the floor to the roof of the mouth (high. mid. low) . back) b. horizontal axis – from front to back of the mouth (front.VIETOR TRIANGLE – is a vowel triangle which shows the differences among the vowel sounds in English and their relative positions on the tongue - Contains two axes: a. center.
his or her air flow remains unblocked. containing American English vowels. This table. explains that the degree of elevation of a speaker’s tongue determines the sound of the spoken vowel.When a speaker enunciates a vowel. .
cat. ray.VOWEL SOUNDS: 1. weigh.beat. less.sit. seed. live 3.ate. let. /ey/ . face. am. /iy/ . /i/ . bag. give. head. class . land. great 4. pick. tell 5. chief 2. me. /ae/ . key. rid.met. /e/ .
must. sure. /u/ . lost 7. draw. soak 9. touch. /ow/ . talk. chew. /a/ . dawn 8. home. cup . wrote.6.pot. suit 11. good. cop. rule. bush 10. block. blue.hope. would.ball.moon. got. go. / / .luck. /uw/ . /∂ / . gone.look. saw.
. TONGUE AND JAW HEIGHT – refers to the degree of closeness of the lower jaw to the upper or the tongue to the palate 2. TONGUE POSITION OR ADVANCEMENT – refers to the part of the tongue that is most active in the production of vowels. Vowels are described in relation to the highest point of the hump formed.VOWEL SOUND PRODUCTION 1.
LIP POSITION – refers to the amount of rounding or spreading of the lips.3. a. rounded – when the corners are brought forward b. unrounded (spread) – when the corners are pulled back 4. TENSION – refers to the degree to which the muscles of the speech tract are tense or lax during sound production 5. LENGTH – refers to the duration (long or short) the vowel is held in a certain position .
B.Tend to be long because of the time needed to glide forward to another position .Some vowel sounds have diphthongal quality . DIPHTHONGS – are those sounds which combine two vowel sounds and which blend them into one within a syllable .
joy. sigh. buy.time. buoy 3. plow. sigh. coin. soil. might. crown. out .point. /ai/ . ouch. proud. height. ploy. oil. noise. blouse. mouth. voice. pie. annoy. bough. rhyme. howl. aisle. pint. /au/ . / i/ .DIPHTHONG SOUNDS: 1. climb 2. fried. moist. join. sound. brown.now. poise. fly guide.
C. CONSONANTS a consonant is a speech sound used with a vowel or diphthong to constitute a syllable Consonant sounds are those sounds which are produced with the partial or complete obstruction of the air column by some parts of the speech apparatus .
. The table showing American English Consonants indicates the part of the mouth or throat in which each sound is produced. a speaker must constrict his or her air flow at some point in the delivery. mouth or throat. using either the tongue.In order to vocalize a consonant.
CONSONANT SOUND PRODUCTION A. VOICING Voiced sounds are pronounced with the vibration of the vocal cords Voiceless sounds pronounced without the vibration of the vocal cords .
THE CONSONANT SOUNDS OF ENGLISH CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO VOICING: 1. /l/ let. /g/ God. /ng/ bring. /z/ zoo. /d/ den. VOICED /p/ pen. /m/ men. /zh/ vision. /j/ jew. . /dh/ thy. /f/ fine. /k/ cod. /w/ water. /s/ sue. /hw/ what 2. /n/ neck. /t/ ten. /sh/ mission. /v/ vine. /th/ thigh. /h/ hot VOICED /b/ Ben. /r/ right. /ch/ chew. /y/ you.
STOPS – are the passage with a build the closure breath produced by stopping of the breath stream up of pressure behind before releasing the vl /p/ vd & /b/ /t/ & /d/ /k/ & /g/ Bilabial stops Alveolar stops Velar stops . NATURE OR OBSTRUCTION OR MANNER OF ARTICULATION 1.B.
FRICATIVES – are continuants produced when the air stream is not completely stopped but passes through with friction or a hissing sound vl Labiodental fricatives /f/ & Dental fricatives /θ/ & Alveolar fricatives /s/ & Post alveolar fricatives /r/ Palatal fricatives /∫/ & Glottal fricatives /h/ vd /v/ /ð/ /z/ /dz/ .2.
AFFRICATES – are produced when a stop combines with a fricative. Like fricatives.3. NASALS – are produced with the air stream passing through the nose rather than the mouth Bilabial nasal Alveolar nasal Velar nasal /m/ /n/ /ŋ/ . They may be prolonged as long as the speaker wishes. Alveolar affricates /t∫/ & /dz/ 4. they are also continuants.
while the air passes along one or both sides of the tongue Alveolar lateral /l/ 6.wear. LATERAL – is produced when the air stream is stopped in the center by the tip of the tongue against the alveolar ridge.5. view .why /y/ . SEMI-VOWELS – in their production. there is lack of friction and the sounds are vowel-like in their voicing but they function as consonants Bilabial Palatal /w/ . win /wh/ .new.
/b/.C. /m/ & /w/ 2. the the in the BILABIAL – when the lower lip touches the upper lip to produce the consonant sound * /p/. LABIO-DENTAL – when the lower lip comes in contact with the upper front teeth * /f/ & /v/ . POINT OF ARTICULATION – refers to upper parts of the mouth which lowers parts (articulators) come contact with the production of consonant sound 1.
DENTAL – when the approach the upper teeth * /θ/ & /ð/ lower teeth 4.3. ALVEOLAR – when the tip of the tongue is raised close to the toothridge or the back of the upper front teeth * /t/ & /d/ 5. POST ALVEOLAR – when the tip of the tongue is articulated against the back part of the alveolar ridge * /r/ .
PALATAL – when the tongue is arched towards the hard palate * /∫/ 7. GLOTTAL – when friction is produced by the air passing through the glottis * /h/ . VELARS – when the back of the tongue closes against the velum or soft palate * /k/ 8.6.