01 - The TCP/IP and OSI Networking Models

By Muhammad Asghar Khan
Reference: CCENT/CCNA ICND1 Official Exam Certification Guide By Wendell Odom

Agenda
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Networking Model ? TCP/IP Networking Model OSI Reference Networking Model Comparing OSI & TCP/IP Networking Models


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Layering Concepts and Benefits
Layers Interaction Concept Data Encapsulation Terminology

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Networking Model ?
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Networking Model or Networking Architecture refers to an organized set of documents Collectively, these documents define details of how to create a complete network By the late 1980s, the world had many competing vendor-proprietary networking models plus the two competing standardized networking models
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TCP/IP Networking Model OSI Reference Networking Model
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TCP/IP won in the end

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TCP/IP Networking Model
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Initially started by the U.S. Defense Department Researchers at various universities volunteered to help further develop the TCP/IP Networking Model TCP/IP Networking Model defines a large collection of protocols that allow computers to communicate Like other Networking Architectures, TCP/IP classify the various protocols into different categories or layers

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TCP/IP Networking Model

Application Layer

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TCP/IP application layer protocols provide services to the application software (e.g. web browser) running on a computer HTTP is an example of TCP/IP Application Layer protocol The following figure depicts the usage of HTTP protocol

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TCP/IP Networking Model

Transport Layer
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Transport layer defines the level of service and status of the connection used when transporting data It consists of two main protocol options: the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and the User Datagram Protocol (UDP) In layered architecture, each layer provide service to the layer above it

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TCP/IP Networking Model

The following figure depicts the services provided by the TCP to HTTP

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TCP/IP Networking Model

Internet Layer
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It is also responsible for routing of IP datagrams Internet layer of the TCP/IP networking model, primarily defined by the Internet Protocol (IP) IP defines logical addresses, called IP addresses, which allow each IP hosts to have an address with which to communicate IP also defines routing, the process of how a router should forward, or route, packets of data

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TCP/IP Networking Model

The following figure depicts the services provided by the IP to TCP

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TCP/IP Networking Model

Network Access Layer
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This layer defines the protocols and hardware required to deliver data across physical network The term Network Access refers to the fact that this layer defines how to physically connect a host computer to the physical media over which data can be transmitted The functions of Network Access Layer can be broken into two major categories:

Data Link (Encapsulation & Addressing) Physical ( Bit Transmission)
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TCP/IP Networking Model


Ethernet is one of the protocol at the TCP/IP Network Access Layer Ethernet defines the required cabling, addressing, and protocols used to create an Ethernet LAN Network Access Layer also defines protocols used to deliver data across WAN links, such as Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) and Frame Relay

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TCP/IP Networking Model

The following figure depicts the services provided by the Ethernet and PPP to IP

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OSI Reference Networking Model

In late 1970s, the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) reference model was created by the ISO The OSI model was meant to help vendors create interoperable network devices The OSI reference model consists of seven layers Each layer defines a set of typical networking functions OSI as a whole never succeeded in the marketplace So, why to read about OSI? Well, the OSI model now is mainly used as a point of reference for discussing other protocol specifications
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OSI Reference Networking Model

The seven layers are divided into two groups:
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Upper Layers Lower Layers

Upper Layers
Lower Layers
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OSI Reference Networking Model

Summary of the functions defined at each layer of the OSI model
All People Seem To Need Data Processing (Layers 7 to 1)

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OSI Reference Networking Model

Devises and Protocols covered in CCNA exams, and their comparable OSI layers.

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Comparing OSI & TCP/IP Networking Models
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OSI can be used as a standard of comparison to other networking models You can examine any networking protocol or specification and make some determination of whether it most closely matches OSI Layer L1, L2, and so on

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Layering Concepts and Benefits

The layers break a large, complex set of concepts and protocols into smaller pieces, making it easier to talk about, easier to implement with hardware and software, and easier to troubleshoot The following list summarizes the benefits of layered protocol specifications
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Less complex compared to not using a model Easier to learn Easier to develop Multivendor interoperability Modular engineering
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Layers Interaction Concept

Same-Layer Interaction on Different Computers
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The two computers use a protocol to communicate with the same layer on another computer The protocol defined by each layer uses a header that is transmitted between the computers, to communicate what each computer wants to do On a single computer, one layer provides a service to a higher layer The software or hardware that implements the higher layer requests that the next lower layer perform the needed function
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Adjacent-Layer Interaction on Same Computer
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Data Encapsulation Terminology

The term encapsulation refers to the process of putting headers and trailers around some data

TCP/IP Encapsulation

OSI Encapsulation
OSI uses a more generic term: protocol data unit, or PDU

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