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Support needs • In soft ground tunnelling immediate support must be provided by a stiff lining. • In medium-hard rock or in more cohesive soils. the ground usually participates actively by providing resistance to outward deformation of the lining. In such a case. Here. the ground may be strong enough to allow a certain open section at the tunnel face. . if any. certain amount of stress release may permanently be valid before the supporting elements and the lining begin acting effectively. will be necessary for surface protection. • Hard rock tunneling: In hard rock the ground alone may preserve the stability of the opening so that only a thin lining. In this situation only a fraction of the primary ground pressure is acting on the lining.
25-50 % Poor ground requiring extensive support. 50-75 % Fairly good ground but the discontinuity pattern may allow blocks and slabs to slide into the excavation. 75-90% Good ground requiring occasional support. therefore good support is required. 90-100% Very good ground. only occasional support .Rock Quality Designation RQD Support need 0-25 % Very poor ground in which squeezing and ravelling may occur.
Plastic. 10>Fc>2 The stability of the ground around the tunnel is a function of time and of brittleness of the ground. if intact and unaffected by tunnelling construction.Competence Factor The term competence factor (Fc) is defined as the ratio of the compressive strength of the ground under uniaxial load to the net pressure of the overburden (Muir-Wood. He recognized the three following conditions: Fc Support need Fc<2 The ground is overstressed immediately on exposure around the periphery of an excavation and as a consequence the tunnel system must provide for continuous support of the ground. elastic or brittle behaviour may occur. will stand unsupported. 1972). Fc>10 Such ground. .
Geomechanics Classification (RMR System) The Geomechanics Classification or the rock mass rating (RMR) system was developed by Bieniawski (1979). a) Uniaxial compressive strength of intact rock material b) Rock quality designation (RQD) c) Spacing of discontinuities d) Condition of discontinuities e) Groundwater conditions f) Orientation of discontinuities . It utilizes the following six parameters all of which are measurable in the field and can also be obtained from borehole data.
in addition to specific excavation steps. Rock Class Description A1 Stable Austrian Standard ÖNORM B 2203 1 Stable A2 Slightly overbreaking 2 Afterbreaking B1 Friable 3 Slightly friable B2 Heavily friable 4 Friable or slightly pressure exerting C1 Pressure exerting 5 Heavily friable or pressure exerting C2 Heavily pressure exerting 6 Heavily pressure exerting L1 Loose ground. The ground is grouped into several classes each class being given a specific type and amount of temporary support. highly cohesive L2 Loose ground. low cohesive .ÖNORM B 2203 Due to the overwhelming success of the New Austrian Tunnelling Method (NATM) there has been a trend towards evaluation of the rock mass quality according to the criterions of Austrian Standard ÖNORM B 2203.
systematic bolting. ribs.00m). L2 .0m).5m). drill and blast Shotcrete and random rockbolts. forepoling. forepoling or lagging. drill and blast. drill and blast A2 B1 Shotcrete and systematic bolting. top heading (1.5-3.5-2.ribs.00m). C2 Shotcrete. smooth blasting or rockheader. bench (3. steel ribs. tunnel excavator. steel ribs. invert arch (100150m). top heading (1. top heading (2.5m). top heading (2. Shotcrete. top heading (1. fullface or top heading and bench in large excavation profiles. bench (2. smooth blasting.00-3. top heading (1. B2 Shotcrete. C1 Shotcrete.0m) invert arch (25-50m).5m). forepoling. systematic bolting. roadheaders if rock masses are sensitive to vibrations.0-1. systematic bolting. invert arch (24-50m).5m).Example: Class A1 Suitable method of driving and support No support required (may be local supports.0m). bench (3. bench (2. or tunnel excavator L1 Shotcrete.00m) and bench (4. top heading (1. bench (2.random). forepoling or lagging. side galleries may be required. forepoling. smooth blasting or rockheader or tunnel excavator.2m).5m) and bench (4.0m) invert arch (100-150m). tunnel excavator.5m).
the method of driving and transport of muck. the rock mass quality evaluation depends on experience of a geologist and his subjective observation of rock mass behaviour. Categorization of rock mass part into certain class of ÖNORM B 2203 pledges the contractor to the relevant technological procedures agreed in the contract (e. on the rock material than upon the discontinuities. Principally the above rock classification systems relate to defects – or potential defects – of the rock mass and not to the inherent properties of the rock material. or more. rock bolts and I-beams.e. requiring very substantial supports in the form of a combination of shotcrete. The Austrian Tunnelling Standard ÖNORM B 2203 is compiled on the qualitative base. Each deviation from the agreed procedures complicates relations between investment and realizing (design/construct) organisations. it does not evaluate any parameters of rock environment by system of points. the contribution from a rock classification system is more limited since behaviour of the rock will depend as much. Though this evaluation is relatively simple and prompt. For weak rocks. the evaluation of support needs for weak rock is more difficult that for strong rock.• • • The L2 ground condition was encountered in some phases of the Bolu tunnel construction.g. . Generally. Attempts to base support requirements for weak ground on rock classification figures have been notably unsuccessful. As a result. ÖNORM B 2203 has been seen used as a business standard used to arrange working relations between investment organization and supplier of underground structures. The basis of rock mass quality evaluation according to ÖNORM B 2203 is also the assessment of the financial demand of the technical works. as well as method of temporary and permanent lining). i.
. to limit bending stresses. which may be weakened by the disturbance caused by the tunnel excavation. The arch is buttressed against the rock around the remainder of the periphery of the tunnel. The weakness of steel arch support concerns the load at which failure may occur by lateral buckling and torsion. to be supported by the arch. in relation to bearing capacity of the ground. providing continuous bedding against the rock may considerably increase the load-bearing capacity of the arches. However. and give rigid to semi-rigid support. The ribs are made from I-beam or Hbeam structural steel bent to conform to the requirements of a particular tunnel cross-section. or possible asymmetrically.Types of support Steel arches • Steel ribs are used for reinforcement of weaker tunnel sections. • Timber may be used for packing between the beams and the rock. • The design of steel arches based on the notion of the unstable rock wedge in the crown. The design of the foot-blocks is vital to the success of the system of support. A means for achieving this objective is the inserting between the rock and arch a bolster made of porous fabric filled with a weak sand/cement grout.
weakening the suspended strata. the use of bolts is both safe and economical. As the cracks work up into the roof. Rock bolts maintain the stability of an opening by suspending the dead weight of a slab from the rock above by • providing a normal stress on the rock surface to clamp discontinuities together and develop beam action • by preventing key blocks becoming loosened so that the strength and integrity of the rock mass is maintained. It is this rock that bolts can support. Most of the rock above the excavation is supported by natural arch action that bears on the walls.Rock bolts • Steel bolts are frequently set in holes drilled into the rock to assist in supporting the entire roof or individual rock slabs that tend to fall into a tunnel. • The effective use of bolts requires some understanding of the natural forces that exist underground. • If the characteristics of the rock are such that the bolts will suffice in supporting the roof or parts thereof. The arch suspends the remaining rock below the arch. the rock that is subject to falling usually should not exceed one-third of the width of the roof. it sags and tension cracks develop. If the rock is strong enough and free of large slips and cracks. If this suspended rock lacks sufficient strength. In an underground excavation all downward-acting forces are transmitted to the walls of the excavation. rock begins to fall all at once or over an extended period of time. .
Rock Bolting .
Due to its porous nature. The effectiveness of a shotcrete is determined by its compressive strength. because hardened leachate rapidly blocks the tunnel's drainage systems. • Shotcrete has advantages and disadvantages. and represents a health hazard to construction workers. large quantities of groundwater seep through causing caustic alkalines to be leached out of the concrete. • The German water authorities were concerned about the environmental problems associated with conventional shotcrete. bond strength. A combination of rock bolts and shotcrete has proved an excellent temporary support for all qualities of rock. These are washed into aquifers and rivers. where they constitute a serious polluant. • Shotcrete is best known in tunnelling as an integral component of the NATM method. The resulting concrete is highly porous. flexural strength and modulus of elasticity. However. this method has always had its drawbacks. and lacks strength. Quick-setting concrete is sprayed onto the bare rock surface immediately after excavation. A layer of shotcrete 150mm thick around a tunnel 10m in diameter can carry a load of 500 kN/m² corresponding to a burden exeeding 20m of rock. . shotcrete's quick-setting properties have been achieved by the injection of high-alkaline additives at the spraying nozzle.Shotcrete • Pneumatically applied mortar and concrete are increasingly being used for the support of underground excavations. and rapidly hardens to form a preliminary support until the final lining of conventional poured concrete can be installed. Leaching causes problems for tunnel owners as well. Caustic dust from the additives can cause skin and lung problems. Traditionally.
Two types of wire mesh are commonly used in underground excavations: chainlink mesh and weldmesh. The chainlink mesh is commonly used for fencing and it consists of a woven fabric of wire. Weldmesh is commonly used for reinforcing shotcrete and it consists of a square grid of steel wires. welded at their intersection points.Wire mesh • Wire mesh is used to support small pieces of loose rock or as reinforcement for shotcrete. . The wire can be galvanized for corrosion protection and it tends to be flexible and strong.
Tunnel Lining • Permanent lining is required in most tunnels. 2) sprayed concrete (shotcrete). The principal materials and construction methods for permanent lining of bored tunnels are: 1) in-situ concrete. with few exceptions. the first uses of concrete were for tunnels in good rock and it was only with the introduction of steel supports that concrete became the norm for a tunnel lining material. as well as to provide an internal finishing suitable for the equipment of the tunnel. 3) segments in prefab concrete or cast-iron. The travelling type form is constructed of steel members which are lines with steel plate or wood to give a surface which conforms with the shape of the inside surface. . of the travelling type. In-situ forms used for lining tunnels are. • The process of placing concrete in situ was incompatible with timber supports. In consequence. constructed of steel. The purpose of a lining is partly structural. always in soft ground and frequently in rock. to contain and support the ground and control inflow of water.
g. To comply with a 120-year design lifespan.Precast Concrete Segments • In recent years a number of tunnels driven through earth by using shields or TBMs have been lined with prefabricated concrete segments. or in the case of TBMs a special segment erector. the concrete of the precast segmental linings has a permeability of no more than 10mm and B40 quality minimum strength requirement of 40 Mpa after 28 days. were placed immediately behind the excavating operation. The number of segments used to produce a ring has varied from two to eight or more. and the width of the rings has been in the range of 60 – 150 cm. . the tailpiece of an excavating machine. which are all aggressive to elements to steel reinforced concrete. This method of driving a tunnel has in general proved very satisfactory and economical. nitrates and sulphates. Corrosion attacks to the concrete were a major design consideration. either with e. The ground water beneath the historic centre and below the old dockyards along the Tagus River is contaminated with chlorides. which was not easily achieved with the SRMR (sulphate resistant cement) available in Portugal. The segments also require an early strength of 10-12 Mpa to allow a strike of the formwork within seven days. in general. • Precast concrete segments used to line large diameter running tunnels on the Lisbon Metro in Portugal were designed to withstand highly aggressive ground conditions. Meeting these specifications began with a low W/C ratio. which.
urban or rural fresh air requirement under normal and special traffic situations admissible air pollution around tunnel portals fire safety considerations. this is driven by the need to comply with new safety and environmental legislation. The choice and design of a ventilation system depends on these main factors: tunnel length. humidity and air velocity conditions necessary to give tunnel users a reasonable degree of comfort during normal operation. the system must also provide a safe evacuation route for tunnel users and access for fire fighting services. The increase in the number of long tunnels has created demand for better understanding of ventilation techniques and aerodynamics behaviour of vehicles. When a fire occurs in a tunnel. nitrogen oxides. hydrocarbons PM10 and lead. number of tubes. Key pollutants include carbon dioxide.Ventilation of tunnels • • • • • • Mechanical ventilation systems provide the temperature. In addition to demand for design and operational efficiency. . nitrogen dioxide.
mucking. it is necessary to use a rigid duct that will not collapse. blasting. diesel engines.Ventilation during construction • During construction it is necessary to ventilate a tunnel for various reasons: • To furnish fresh air for the workers • To remove the dust caused by drilling. • The exhaust method has the advantage of more quickly removing objectionable air from spaces occupied by the workers. If air is blown into a tunnel. . as for example axial flow pressure fans. and other operations • To remove obnoxious gases and fumes produced by explosives • Mechanical ventilation is usually supplied by electric fans. If air is exhausted. it may be forced through a lightweight pipe or fabric duct.
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