ERT 313 BIOSEPARATION ENGINEERING

EXTRACTION

Prepared by: Miss Hairul Nazirah Abdul Halim

Definition of Extraction
•Liquid-Liquid extraction is a mass transfer operation in which a liquid solution (the feed) is contacted with an immiscible or nearly immiscible liquid (solvent) that exhibits preferential affinity or selectivity towards one or more of the components in the feed.

Purpose of Extraction
• To separate closed-boiling point mixture • Mixture that cannot withstand high temperature of distillation • Example: - recovery of penicillin from fermentation broth solvent: butyl acetate - recovery of acetic acid from dilute aqueous solutions solvent: ethyl-acetate

Extraction Equipment
• Batchwise or continuous operation • Feed liquid + solvent (put in agitated vessel) = layers (to be settled and separated) • Extract – the layer of solvent + extracted solute • Raffinate – the layer from which solute has been removed • Extract may be lighter or heavier than raffinate. • Continuous flow – more economical for more than one contact process

Mixer settlers .Agitated tower extractors • Auxiliary equipment: . evaporators.Packed extraction towers . heaters and condenser .• Extraction Equipments: .stills.Baffle towers .Perforated plate towers .

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Extraction of Dilute Solution • Extraction factor is defined as: • Where: E = extraction factor KD = distribution coefficient V = volume of solvent L = volume of aqueous .

•For a single-stage extraction with pure solvent.the fraction recovered is 1 E .the fraction of solute remaining is 1  E E . 1 .

8 .7 and 23.Extraction of Concentrated Solution • Equilibrium relationship are more complicated – 3 or more components present in each phase • Equilibrium data are often presented on a triangular diagram such as Fig 23.

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• Tie line in Fig 23.7 Line ACE shows extract phase Line BDE shows raffinate phase Point E is the plait point – the composition of extract & raffinate phases approach each other • Tie line – a straight line joining the composition of extract & raffinate phases.• • • • Consider Fig 23. .7 slope up to the left – extract phase is richer in acetone than the raffinate phase. • This suggest that most of the acetone could be extract from water phase using moderate amount of solvent.

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8 Line AD shows extract phase Line BC shows raffinate phase Tie line in Fig 23.• • • • Consider Fig 23. • The final extract would not be as rich in desired component (MCH) .8 slope up to the right – extraction would still be possible • But more solvent would have to use.

8.Ratio of acetone to water in the product = 0.043 water. 0. 0.5 MIK .132/0.Ratio of acetone to water in the raffinate = 0.• How to obtain the phase composition using the triangular diagram? .132 acetone. 0.156 • Let’s compare with Fig 23.023 MIK .845 water. 0.4 . Which system is more effective? .725 MIK .043 = 5.Draw a new tie line .Raffinate phase: 0.845 =0.Point M: 0. 0.3 water. 0.2 Acetone.Extract phase: 0.232/0.232 acetone.

Mass Transfer Operation.9 • Y axis = wt fraction of component C (acetic acid) • X axis = wt fraction of solvent B (ethyl acetate) .Coordinates Scale • Refer to Treybal.. 3rd ed. McGraw Hill • The book use different triangular system • The location of solvent (B) is on the right of the triangular diagram (McCabe use on the left) • Coordinate scales of equilateral triangles can be plotted as y versus x as shown in Fig 10.

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Single-Stage Extraction .

12 shows that we want to extract component C from A by using solvent B. 23.on the right • Fig 10.12 (Treybal) is a bit different as compared to Fig.• The triangular diagram in Fig 10.7 (McCabe) • Extract phase – on the left • Raffinate phase . • Total material balance: • Material balance on C: .

• Amount of solvent to provide a given location for M1 on the line FS: • The quantities of extract and raffinate: • Minimum amount of solvent is found by locating M1 at D • Maximum amount of solvent is found by locating M1 at K .

Multistage Crosscurrent Extraction .

14 • Raffinate from the previous stage will be the feed for the next stage • The raffinate is contacted with fresh solvent • The extract can be combined to provide the composited extract • The total balance for any stage n: • Material balance on C: .Multistage Crosscurrent Extraction • Continuous or batch processes • Refer to Fig 10.

At pH 3.2. using 6 volumes of solvent per 100 volumes of the aqueous phase. (a) What fraction of the penicillin would be recovered in a single ideal stage? (b) What would be the recovery with two-stage extraction using fresh solvent in both stages? . Penicillin F is recovered from a dilute aqueous fermentation broth by extraction with amyl acetate.Tutorial 4 Batch Extraction EXAMPLE 23.2 the distribution coefficient KD is 80.

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010 wt fraction nicotine in water is stripped with a kerosene stream of 200 kg/h containing 0. Calculate the flow rate of the nicotine in both of the exit streams.0010 wt fraction nicotine. . It is desired to reduce the concentration of the exit water to 0.0005 wt fraction nicotine in a single stage extraction unit.Continuous Single Stage Extraction An inlet water solution of 100 kg/h containing 0.

9 + 1. .099 – 99 = 0.0010) L1 L1 = 99.1 + (1 – 0.9 kg/h 3.001 kg/h in exit stream Solvent + Nicotine = 199.9 kg/h kerosene Exit stream of aqueous phase.099 kg/h (nicotine + water) Nicotine = 99. L1 Water = 99 kg/h = (1 – 0. 4.099 kg/h nicotine in exit stream Exit stream of solvent phase.0.1 kg/h nicotine Kerosene = 200 (1 – 0.0005) = 199.099) = 1.0005) = 0.001 = 200.9 kg/h Nicotine in solvent = 0.01) = 1 kg/h nicotine Water in feed = 100 (1 .01) = 99 kg/h water 2.SOLUTION • Nicotine in the feed solution = 100 (0. V1 Solvent = 199. Nicotine in solvent = 200 (0.

How much solvent would be required if the same final raffinate concentration were to be obtained with one stage? The equilibrium data at 20°C are listed below [Trans. determine the quantities and compositions of the various streams. . 628 (1940). with permission]. AIChE.Multistage Crosscurrent Extraction If 100 kg of a solution of acetic acid (C) and water (A) containing 30% acid is to be extracted three times with isopropyl ether (B) at 20°C. 36. using 40 kg of solvent in each stage.

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but only for acid concentrations up to x = 0.9. The system is of the type shown in Fig. These are plotted in Fig. .9a will be used. except that the tie lines slope downward toward the B apex.30.15. 10. l0. The rectangular coordinates of Fig. 10.SOLUTION The horizontal rows give the concentrations in equilibrium solutions.

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the tie line passing through M1 is located as shown. Eq.258.8): . With the help of a distribution curve. y1 = 0. and x1 = 0. (10.117 wt fraction acetic acid.Point M1 is located on line FB.

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078.12 kg. B3 = 40. The acid acetic content of the final raffinate is = x3 R3 = 0. y3 = 0. .4.6 + 46. x3 = 0.7 = 135. xM3 = 0.1572.6 kg.Stage 3 • In a similar manner. • The composited extract is E1 + E2 + E3 = 43. M3 = 130. and R3 = 84.88 kg.4) = 16.20.3 + 45.7. The acid content in the composited extract: E1y1 + E2y2 + E3y3 = 13. E3 = 45.1.20(84.

• The solvent required would then be. x = 0.0) = 150 kg.12)/(0.12. • XM = 0.• If an extraction to give the same final raffinate concentration.0. (10. the point M would be at the intersection of tie line R3E3 and line BF of Fig. 10. 150 kg of solvent is required for single stage extraction • 120 kg of solvent is required in the three-stage extraction. • Hence. • S1 = 100(0. • were to be done in one stage.20. by Eq.12 .15. .6).30 .

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